Journal 4

28 September 1846-10 March 1847

Richard E. Bennett, "Journal 4: 28 September 1846-10 March 1847," in The Journey West: The Mormon Pioneer Journals of Horace K. Whitney with Insights by Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, ed. Richard E. Bennett (Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University; Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2018), 121–180.

handwritten title page

Monday the 28th

Windy day – Squire Wells did not start back to-day, as he intended – We are yet busied in assisting others down here. John Davenport and Jacob Frazier went down the river about 3 miles, and cut 4 acres of hay to-day – It is Bro. K’s intention to get only 20 tons of hay besides what they have already got stacked at the other place about 6 miles back, which consists of about 120 tons belonging to this division. The wind was so high to-day that my tent was blown down – The brethren have very good success in fishing, quite a number of catfish have [been] caught out of the river since [we] have been here –

Tuesday the 29th

Cool weather – father’s boys are engaged in cutting houselogs on the opposite (main) shore. – Bro. King and Jacob Frazier went out to mow – Squire Wells and W. Cutler started for Nauvoo to-day –

Wednesday the 30th

Rather cloudy and misty weather – This morning, Bro. King and Jacob, and Spencer went out to mow – Spencer went in the place of John Davenport, who having seen a yoke of father’s cattle day before yesterday, that had been lost for some time – went in pursuit of them – About noon, Hosea Cushing, James Smithies, and myself took a wagon and went into the hay field for the purpose of stacking, but it being pretty late when, we arrived we did not stack any, but concluded to cache [sic] up what had been cut, and stack it to-morrow – John D. came where we were, but he had not found the cattle – It rained a little as we were starting for home, but it soon cleared off pleasant –

Thursday the 1st of October

Fine day – This morning Bro. King, John D., George Rhodes , James Smithies, Jacob Frazier and myself went out haying – 4 engaged in stacking, the other two in mowing – Played the violin at a party held at father’s tent this evening on the anniversary of little Maria’s birth-day –

Friday the 2d

Fine weather yet – This morning, the same persons as yesterday went into the hay field except George Rhodes, who went up to the other camp with two yoke of oxen, to assist some of the brethren to come down – Father’s boys have been engaged in building a canoe to-day, which they nearly finished – Mr. Beach and another man from the point, here to-day, selling onions, which they sold at $1.50 per bushel – they also had some soap with them –

Saturday the 3d

Beautiful day – To-day four of us, viz: – James Smithies, J. Davenport, H. Cushing, and myself went into the hayfield – no mowing done of any consequence – principally engaged in stacking – Bro. Pack arrived here on Thursday last – he had been down in the country to procure a carding machine, – he brought back with him, besides the machine two barrels of whiskey which he sells at 75 cts. a gallon[85] – We had a very severe frost, to-night, for the first time this season – The Band or part of them met this evening – I joined them, and played with them – I am to play the instrument, formerly used by A[ndrew] Cahoon , who expects to start shortly for England.

We had had considerable rainy, windy and disagreeable weather. A few days after our removal the wind was so severe that our tent and a number of others were blown to the ground.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 13, no. 15,
1 January 1885, p. 115

Sunday the 4th

Fine and pleasant. Forgot to mention that Bro. Lathrop and another brother arrived here yesterday from Miller’s camp; they had been stript of nearly all they possessed, and moved away from Bro. Miller’s, some distance, – when they concluded to come down here, supposing it to be only thirty miles – they travelled 6 days, and arrived here at last, having nothing to eat during the time, except a wild goose a rabbit and a turtle, that they killed on their route – Bro. K. called his family together this morning for the purpose of instruction, which was listened to with respect and deference by all the family – There was also a meeting held at the “stand” a short distance from here. Bro. O. Pratt preached a good sermon to the people was informed [?]–

Monday the 5th

Rather windy day – Jacob F. and Wm King went out to mow – J. Davenport assisted in building a bridge, the others in drawing houselogs –

Tuesday the 6th

Tolerable warm day – This morning 4 of us, viz: – King, Cushing, Jacob W. and myself went into the hayfield for the purpose of stacking, which we intend shall wind up the haying business for this season – John D. and James Smithies engaged in drawing houselogs, also father’s boys are rafting the same across the river – Bro. Lathrop started for home to-day – he is situated on the Missouri bottoms, on the river, like ourselves, about 100 miles above here where he intends to winter[86] – It is the intention of the brethren to turn out generally on Saturday next, and get in all the cattle, and send them up there for winter keeping – Almon Babbitt and wife arrived here this evening from Nauvoo, he brought considerable news – he said that the mob had complete possession of the place, Temple and all – they had several mock ceremonies with different individuals – they baptized Daniel Davis three times – he (Bro. B.) saw Father in Nauvoo, who was obliged to leave secretly and speedily for St. Louis – Bro. Babbitt, stated that the mob had plundered a number of buildings, among which was the house of Bro. Heywood, who was stript of nearly all he possessed. – They, (the mob,) defaced the Temple, considerably, both inside and out. Some Indians were here this day, and to night we judged it necessary to have a guard out, on account of the horses, as they have threatened to do us all the injury they could, in consequence of our cattle having got into their corn, while we stayed at the Springs –

He brought considerable news; said the mob had complete possession of the place, the temple and all. They had several mock ceremonies with different individuals—had baptized Daniel Davis three times. He saw Bishop Whitney, who barely escaped, and was obliged to leave Nauvoo secretly and speedily for St. Louis. He stated that the mob had plundered numbers of buildings, among which was the house of Bro. Joseph Heywood, who was stripped of nearly everything he possessed. They had defaced the temple considerably, both inside and out. The shore of the city and all the approaches to the city were strictly guarded to prevent the ingress of “Mormons,” and when any man was found they immediately baptized him and sent him over into Iowa. Mr. Babbet [Almon W. Babbift] was advised by the council, which had met to arrange some difficulty between some of the brethren, to remain with us, but he seemed not very anxious to do it.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 13, no. 17,
1 February 1885, p. 131

Wednesday the 7th

Cloudy misty weather – the boys mostly busied in drawing houselogs – Bro. K. Brigham and the Council went up to the “Big Herd” to day to arrange some difficulty between some of the brethren – Bro. Babbitt was advised by the council to move on here this winter – he seemed not very anxious to – do it – A gentleman by the name of Pickett came on with Bro. B. He joined the church since we left Nauvoo, and has taken quite a conspicuous part in the affairs of that place within a few months past, which have transpired between the “New Citizens” and the Old, or, what amounts to the same thing, between the Mormons and Anti-Mormons. Bro. B. says the shores of the river and all the approaches to the city are strictly guarded to prevent the ingress of Mormons, and when any one is found, they immediately baptize him and send him over the river into Iowa – father himself barely escaped re-baptism by speedy flight[87] – Towards night it rained a little, which, however, did not last long – Most persons in the camp that have been afflicted with the ague, bilious fever, &c. during the past season, are gaining their health rapidly, as cold weather approaches – Band met again this evening, meet regularly every Wednesday and Saturday evenings for practice –

Thursday the 8th

Fine day – We commenced to put up a house this morning, and raised it 4 or 5 logs high to-day – Not very well to-day –

Friday the 9th

Rather cloudy this morning, considerable appearance of rain – it, however, soon cleared off – King, John D., and myself went into the woods about 3 miles back, by the old camp ground, to get “necessary” timber, which we partly built – Bro. Babbitt and wife started back this morning – John Smith went with them to meet his mother, who is about 150 miles back near Mt. Pisgah. Mr. Pickett did not go back with Bro. B. – he intends remaining with us and going over the mountains with us in the Spring –

Saturday the 10th

Tolerable fair day, tho’ rather cloudy this morning – Three of our boys, viz: – J. Davenport, J. Frazier, and H. Cushing, and two of father’s boys, viz: – Jacob Wetherbee and S. Wiltbank went up to the Big Herd in search of cattle – the majority of the men in the camp also went out on the same business – most of them remained there over night, and slept on the ground, not being able to find their cattle, which were scattered all over the country – James Smithies and myself went after a load of wood. King remained at home to repair the fence, &c.– Jackson Redding, returned from the Pawnee Village this evening, whither he had been by appointment to assist some families to remove back here, whom Bishop Miller had left sick and destitute –

Bishop Miller had now become a confirmed apostate. He had drawn away a few weak and disaffected persons and some, who, like himself, were corrupt at heart. They were afterwards distinguished as Millerites. Many of those who had traveled in his camp returned to headquarters.[88]

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 13, no. 17,
1 February 1885, p. 131

Sunday the 11th

Commenced raining this morning, and continued at intervals thro’ the day – no meeting held in consequence of the foulness of the weather – Forgot to mention that Miss Eliza Ann Peirson , a niece of Dr. Richards, died last evening at his tent – She had left father and mother far behind, to join the saints of God in the wilderness, to suffer and die among them for the gospel’s sake – She was a worthy exemplary young person, and the remembrance of the many happy hours I have passed in her society, together with her sisters and friends, will never be obliterated, while time shall last – She was from Richmond, Massachusetts, where I became acquainted with her during my sojourn in the E. States[89] – This afternoon the brethren drove into the camp all the cattle they found during their search yesterday which covered a large space of ground, altho’ several hundred are yet missing – Immediately every man commenced selecting out his cattle from among them, some found one, some two, while others were so fortunate as to find nearly all they owned – Bro. K. recovered 32 of his oxen, and 6 cows and heifers – father, a good share of his cattle –

Monday the 12th

Cool weather but the rain has ceased – Discovered that the cattle had all got out of the yards during the night. We all went out in pursuit. J. Redding and myself went 3 or 4 miles up the river on horse back – By night, we had found all that escaped except 3 or 4.

Tuesday the 13th

Cold windy weather – To-day J. Smithies and myself went into the hayfield, and got a load of hay from the stack we learn that there has been a stack of 70 tons lately burnt down – caused by the owner attempting to burn ‘round it – King and Jacob W. went into the woods for shingle timber – This evening Cushing returned from the village below on this side the river, whither he had gone in search of cattle – he brought home a peck of potatoes, which he bought down there at the rate of fifty cents a bushel he saw quite a large camp of the Omahaws, whose tents were made of buffalo skins, and were nearly as white as our canvas tents – There is considerable noise and tumult in the village below, in consequence of the Indians receiving their payment from the U. S. – the amount of money paid to them is $50,000, which was brought up by land, accompanied by a guard of 12 men[90] – The wind was so high, that my tent, together with a number of others, was blown down, and we were not able to put them up again till evening, when the wind ceased – Quite a number of the brethren are engaged in making brick, that we may have good chimneys for our housing – they have the materials here for making first rate brick – clay, &c. it is said that the Indians are killing our cattle in great numbers, down below here, and they have been here with beef to sell, – no doubt the relics of some of our cattle

Wednesday the 14th

Quite rainy this morning – it, however, soon cleared off pleasant – John D. J. Frazier and myself went into the woods for shingle stuff, which we get in length 2 ½ feet – King, Cushing, Smithies and others engaged in building the house, of which they laid the last log to-day, and finished, all except the roof thereof – one of father’s buildings is also finished except the roof, which is intended for a store-house – Bros. Wm Murray, Harvey Green, and Dr. [Joseph] Hovey arrived this evening from Nauvoo – they have been three weeks on the road – it appears by their statements that the mob have been pretty busy, plundering houses, ripping open feather beds and scattering the contents in the streets, &c.– They have also defaced the Temple considerably, inside and out, such as knocking the horns from the oxen in the font running about the streets and imitating the blowing of horns with them, and doing other acts of sacrilege too numerous to mention.[91] Bro. Murray’s family are about a mile from here down on the bottoms, and are waiting for a bridge to be built across the creek, before they can get here to us since hearing the above, Bro. Hovey informs me that the mob have torn down the altars and pulpits in the Temple, and converted that edifice into a meat market –

Thursday the 15th

Very windy – Bro. Murray’s family arrived here to day, after the bridge having been built, about a mile back – Bro. K. King, myself and others engaged in working at the building, – Hosea and George went with the herd – Bro. W. Woodruff was brought into the camp this afternoon from the woods, severely injured by the fall of a tree – Brigham, Bro. K. O. Pratt, Dr. Richards and Joseph Young laid hands on him, after which he appeared much relieved –

Friday the 16th

Cold and windy – this morning John Davenport and myself went on horseback down on the bottoms 3 or 4 miles in search of cattle – returned without any success – J. Smithies and George Rhodes went out with the herd – Bro. K. King, Hosea, and Jacob F. to work at the house, the roof of which was nearly completed, we cleared out the inside of it and the family moved into it this evening – Bro. K. took two of his tents down and spread them over the roof – mine was left standing – Bro. K. moved his wagon over to the building. Bro. [Stilman] Pond and family arrived this afternoon, all quite sick with the ague The Indians are located in great numbers about 10 miles below here, where they intend to remain this winter – they have had for some time in contemplation a grand buffalo hunt, which they have abandoned in expectation of living and sustaining themselves by the killing of our cattle instead, which they are frequently detected in driving off – severe heavy frost to night –

Saturday the 17th

Beautiful day, the sky cloudless and serene, tho’ somewhat cold – To-day the most of us here engaged in working on the building making a chimney &c. from sod – James S. went after a load of hay – commenced to build another house by the side of the other, which is to [be] petitioned into two rooms, the fire place being between the two houses – fathers boys have moved some of their things into their house, altho’ it is not yet finished.

Sunday the 18th

Fine day, and tolerable warm – Meeting held to-day at the “Stand” – not feeling well, did not attend – The subject of our molestation by the Indians was taken into consideration – it was thought to be necessary to build our houses in a more compact body and form our wagons in a circle, that we might be better able to defend ourselves against their encroachments – this was the advice given by the Interpreters who attended meeting with some Indians at the Stand – it was further deemed proper to send out different companies in different directions after cattle – the brethren were directed to take any horse they might find running loose in furtherance of that object – J. Redding is to be the Captain of one company which is to consist of 21 men – Bro. W[inslow] Farr and Z[era] Pulsipher are also appointed to go on the same business, as captains of companies –

Monday the 19th

Clear and cold weather – Our cattle with a great many others bearing the mark “H. C. K.” on the left horn, and that of “H.” on the left rump were sent up the river this morning to Bro. Lathrop’s encampment, 70 miles from here – The following is a list of cattle bearing the above mentioned mark, “H. C. K.” viz: –

H. C. Kimball_____________________28 oxen.
" " "12 cows
Jackson Redding __________________6 oxen.
Asa Davis________________________2 "
Howard Egan_____________________1 "
Richard Slater ____________________2 "
Daniel Davis _____________________5 "
Ellis Sanders _____________________4 "
William Murray___________________6 "
" " ____________________1 cow.
Harvey Green_____________________4 oxen.
" " _____________________2 cows.
Orlando D. Hovey _________________2 oxen.
Joseph Hovey_____________________3 "
Sister Canfield ____________________2 "
James Brinkerhoff _________________4 "
Alva Tippetts _____________________2 "
J. M. Grant _______________________5 "
Alfred Randall ____________________2 "
 93 head.

The following cattle marked “H. W.” on the left rump were also sent to Bro. Lathrop for winter keeping –

N. K. Whitney ____________________16 oxen.
Bro. More________________________4 "
J. C. Kingsbury____________________4 "
Bro. Pond________________________4 "
 28 head
Total amount of cattle sent up the river in Bro. K’s. name.121 head

comprising 104 oxen, and 17 cows.

The cattle were sent off under the charge of Jackson Redding, Jacob Wetherbee, Jacob Frazier and George Rhodes, J. Redding, being the foreman. Wrote a letter for Bro. K. to Lathrop instructing him the particulars about the cattle, &c., and requesting him to do the best he could by them. – He also sent him 103 lbs. flour bag and all – After we got the cattle off, Bro. K. observed that it was a good job taken off from our hands, – we did some little on the house to-day – towards evening James Smithies and myself went after a load of hay – Hosea Cushing assisting Bro. Corbett in getting shingle stuff.

Tuesday the 20th

Quite warm to-day for the time of year – King & myself engaged in building a fence to form a new yard for our cows. The boys who started yesterday morning with the cattle, sent back word that they needed more help consequently, Hosea Cushing started this morning to overtake and go with them – A general turnout was made this morning to go out and drive in cattle in conformity with the arrangements made at the meeting on Sunday – In the afternoon, the men in the camp that were left were summoned to go down on the bottoms and put out the fire, which was raging greatly and had already burnt a number of haystacks, but notwithstanding all our efforts we could not entirely subdue it – King and myself worked at it till sunset. Bro. K. went down and burnt round our stack in order to save it. The brethren at last succeeded in turning the fire in such a direction that it should not do much injury – The brethren who went out in search of cattle this morning, returned with a large number of them this evening and put them into Father Cutler’s yard, which was appointed as the place of rendezvous, where the brethren might come and each select his own cattle – I believe there were some of father’s or Bro. K’s. drove in –

On Tuesday morning a general turnout was made to go and drive in the cattle, in conformity with the arrangements made at the meeting. They spent a number of days hunting them, and all that were found were put into Father Cutler’s yard, which was appointed as the place of rendezvous, where the brethren might come and each select his own cattle. In the afternoon of the same day, the men who were left in camp were summoned to go down on the bottom and put out a fire, which was raging greatly, and had already burnt a number of haystacks.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 13, no. 17,
1 February 1885, p. 131

Wednesday the 21st

Fine day – This morning, by request of Bro. K. went down to the Ferry, 6 miles from here, to assist Sister Hyrum Smith to move up here – found them just crossing the river – Little John Smith and myself drove up the loose cattle, and arrived at the camp a little after dusk – the family all got here soon after –

Thursday the 22d

Warm and pleasant – the brethren still out in pursuit of lost cattle – Abram Lowsey [Abraham Losee (1814–87)] and myself went out bee hunting – took along a gun also in hopes of finding some game – returned tired and hungry at evening, without any success – Bro. K. found 3 of his cattle this evening, which had been drove into Father Cutler’s yard – Bro. K. learned this evening from a brother who came down from the herding place, that one yoke of his best steers had been killed by falling down a steep place into a creek, one being drowned, the other choked to death, not being able to disengage himself from the yoke

Friday the 23d

Fine and pleasant – This morning early a meeting was called at the stand, for the purpose of making arrangements to send out for cattle – King, started soon after with a number of others for the rush bottoms 20 or 30 miles above here to assist in finding lost cattle – Bro. K. has found one or two more of his to day which were driven into Father Cutler’s yard this evening – The Indians are quite plenty with us here, loitering round the meat market, to get the refuse meat, entrails, &c. A meeting was again called this evening at the Stand, and arrangements made for a guard nights &c. on account of the vicinity of the Indians – assisted the girls in washing to-day at the river – John D. and his father returned to-day – they have been up the river 6 miles getting logs, and have got a number nearly ready for rafting down here – they brought home a fine turkey which they had killed, and of which they say there is an abundance where they have been –

Saturday the 24th

Beautiful day – in fact the weather two or three days past has quite resembled that of an Indian summer James Smithies and myself went down after a load of hay – our stack of hay is diminishing quite rapidly since we have quit herding and kept our cows and oxen in yards at home, of which there are 10 of the former, & that were not sent up the river & two yoke of oxen that were retained for our use about home – Father’s Cutler’s men are drawing logs to-day for another of Bro. K’s. houses – done some little at the house to-day, putting up logs, &c. get along rather slow in building as most of the boys are absent, there being but three of us at home at present, viz: – John D. James S. and myself – This day Bro. K. bought a cow of Mrs. Simeon Carter, also a yoke of steers of S. Markham. This evening 40 wagons from Bishop Miller’s company arrived here, on their way down to Missouri to get provisions &c., for an outfit in the spring[92] – With them came George Billings and Hans Hansen – both bringing back the teams belonging to Bro. K., that they took away – it was Hans’ intention to proceed to Missouri with the rest of the brethren, but Bro. K. would not permit it, the cattle that he (Hans) took away being so poor – Bishop Miller himself came down with the company, also Bro. Shirtliff and others –

Sunday the 25th

To-day meeting held at the Stand – it was announced by President Young that father was close by and the idea of sending after the goods with teams was taken into consideration – it was also suggested that the brethren who had not built houses should henceforth build on the line of the city and in as compact a body as possible, that it may answer instead of a fence to prevent the Indians from stealing, &c.–

Monday the 26th

Fine day – Another lot of cattle was sent off this morning to the rush bottoms 20 or 30 miles above here – The following is a list of cattle sent up marked “H. C. K.” on the left horn, and “H.” on the left rump

H. C. Kimball_____________________15 oxen.
" " " ________________________2 cows.
" " "________________________5 calves.
Samuel Moore ____________________3 oxen.
Widow Miller_____________________6 " (4
of which are marked “13. D.” on the left horn 
" "1 cow.
" "1 calf
having the above mark_______
Joseph Hovey_____________________1 ox
Bro. Babcock _____________________2 "
Solon Foster ______________________" "
Widow Gheen_____________________4 "
" " _____________________3 cows.
Mrs. Hyrum Smith ________________15 oxen.
" " " _________________7 cows
" " " _________________3 heifers,
" " "2 calves.
" " "2 steers
Total amount sent up in Bro. K’s name72 head

Bro K. and Brigham went with the cattle besides a number of others, John Davenport went with them also. To-day, father and Orson arrived from St. Louis also Bro. Wooley and Wright – Bro. Brigham and Heber being absent, nothing as yet done about sending after the goods which amount to about 55 or 60 tons the most of which are probably by this time at St. Joseph’s –

Tuesday & Wednesday the 27th & 28th

Nothing worthy of notice transpired these two days except that Bro. K. and Brigham do not yet return.

Thursday the 29th

Brigham and Heber arrived this evening – but none of our boys came back with them This evening a council was held at Father’s house, at which Brigham, Heber, Father, and some others were present, – the principal subject of the council on this occasion was the sending after the goods.

Friday the 30th

Pleasant day – Hans with a team started after a load of ox yokes which the boys had not sent home – Bro. Wooley started to go down the river to see about the goods. –

Saturday the 31st

Fine day – This morning another lot of cattle were sent off to the rush bottoms one of father’s boys, Henry Forsythe and one of Bro. K’s. G. Billings went with them, the latter taking a wagon intending to remain there to herd. The following is a list of cattle sent off.

H. C. Kimball _____________________2 bulls
Hans. Hansen _____________________1 heifer
D. Davis _________________________1 cow
Bro. Babcock _____________________1 "
Wm Morris _______________________2 “
Wm Murray ______________________2 "
Ellis Sanders ______________________1 steer
J. M. Grant _______________________1 ox
Wm Clayton ______________________18 “
" _______________________5 cows

Total –

34 head
(the last named marked “W. C.” on both horns – 

The above mentioned are marked “H. C. K.” on the left horn, with the exception of Bro. Clayton’s, and are all marked “H.”, on the left rump The following having the Mark, “H. W.” on the left rump were also sent up to the bottoms, viz:

N. K. Whitney ____________________10 oxen
" " _____________________4 cows
" " _____________________3 heifers
" " _____________________1 calf
J. C. Kingsbury____________________2 oxen
" " _____________________2 cows
Thomas Moore ____________________2 oxen
" " ____________________2 cows
Stillman Pond_____________________2 oxen
" " _____________________2 cows
 30 head
 34 “
Total amount of cattle sent off in Bro. K’s name.64 head

Sunday the 1st of November

Fine warm day – a meeting was held at the “Stand,” at which was taken into consideration the propriety of sending off teams to to [sic] St. Josephs for the goods – the intention is to start some of the teams to-morrow morning – Bro. Miller’s teams started down into the country to-day for provisions – forgot to mention that the Ferry-boat has recently been removed to this place – It was said to-day at meeting that the Pottawatomie agent had forbid us to cut any more timber on the other side the river – Bro. Joshua Holman expired to-day after a short illness of about a week –

Monday the 2d

Cloudy cold day. Wrote a letter for father this morning, to Bro. Wooley at St. Josephs, giving him directions about the disposal of goods, &c.– Eight teams started to-day to bring them up – last evening a load of corn (17 bbls:) arrived for Bro. K., which he transferred to father Cutler’s hands, all except 3 bushels, – this day a load of the same, (15 bbls.) brought by Bro. Wm Cobert [William Covert (1808–99)]. – Father Cutler’s men laid the foundation of another double log-house, this afternoon, for Bro. K. – father has also got another log-house completed, except the roof James Smithies and myself went after a load of wood about a mile and half from here across the creek – Wm King and John Davenport arrived this evening about 10 o’clock from the rush bottoms about 20 miles above, where they have been herding cattle – they brought down the wagon taken up by Geo. Billings – we have got the last of the hay stack down on the bottom, and shall hereafter be obliged to go 7 miles for hay at the “Division” haying spot beyond the old camp ground.

Tuesday the 3d

Fine day, and almost as warm as a summer day – engaged in topping off the roof of Bro. K’s. second building, which consists of two rooms – Father Cutler and men engaged in putting up logs for the third building – and done something at the chimney of the 2d, also, to day Hans engaged in sodding the roof of Bro. Ks. first log building – Eighteen teams started to-day also, for the goods – Bros. Wm. Murray and Samuel Myers brought 2 wagon loads of corn, the former having 23 barrels, the latter 15 –

Wednesday the 4th.

Fine day – tho’ rather windy – engaged in drawing sod to build chimney, and to cover the roof of the house –

To-day father Cutler’s men were engaged in building the new house which is now raised 5 logs high –

Thursday the 5th

Cloudy – about 3 P. M. it commenced raining and continued at intervals through the day and night – engaged yet in drawing sod for the roof and chimney – James S. building the latter – Hans to work at the former – John D. and King engaged in making doorways and chinking the house – Bro Murray bro’t another load of corn consisting of 25 small bbls.

Friday the 6th

Fine day, tho, rather muddy from the rain of yesterday – Bro. Winchester making shingles for Bro. K’s second house King and John D. to work shingling the roof thereof one side of which they finished – another new house was started yesterday for Bro. Smithies and Egan. Bro. S. Myres [sic] brought a load of corn consisting of 11 small bbls. [bushels] which was given to father – Bro. Clayton and Geo. Grant returned from the village on the other side the river to day, whither they went on business for the church on Wednesday – Bro. C. informs me he never saw such a swindling operation as that practised on the Indians down there, they receiving their payments in money and then followed by a gang of sharpers who watch their opportunity, get them drunk, and then gamble with them and cheat them out of all their money – Bro. John Kay came down here from the Punkaw nation – he has been out with them hunting, since he left here and will rejoin them in 6 weeks from this time –

Saturday the 7th

Fine day – Engaged in roofing and sodding the second house – into one room of which we moved this evening, the other room being occupied by Sister Kimball and Mary Kimball – we congratulated ourselves considerably upon being able to live in a house once again, as we have got thoroughly tired of living in tents Sarah Ann’s wagon and mine was moved over to this side the road where our house is – there has been a small house built for Bro. Hovey, near where our tent stood. – this is the fifth building of Bro. K’s. besides the storehouse – Father has got the brick chimney to his double log-house finished – Bishop Miller’s teams have not yet come up from the country –

Editor’s Note: Winter Quarters, 1846–47. An educated guess would place the Council House in block 22 not far from Brigham Young’s home, which probably was on a corner lot in block 25. Other public buildings included a store, a carding-machine house, a hostel for visitors, and possibly a few small schoolhouses. Source: Thomas L. Kane Collection, Brigham Young University Library.

We continued to use our wagon as a bedroom till the 30th, when it was wanted to bring produce from the country. By this time quite a number of houses had been put up. This one contained a number of rooms, built in a row, between my father’s and Bishop Whitney’s main buildings. One room was used by father for storing provisions, etc. My sister-in-law, Sarah, with whom we had tented so long, occupied a room adjoining ours, though it was not yet ready for her to move into. We lived in ours one month before it was entirely finished.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 13, no. 18,
15 February 1885, p. 139

Sunday the 8th

Warm and pleasant – The Omahaws are going through our settlement this morning, their horses loaded down with tent-poles, and baggage of different kinds on their way north to the “Grand Hunt,” that was spoken of before – Bro. Clayton was at their village yesterday and found out that they had a horse of his in their possession they promised to return it if he would give the one that had it an old gun [sic], to which he acceded, and they promised to bring the horse to-day and receive the pay for it, which, however, they did not do – Bro. Hosea Cushing arrived here from the Big Herd, at Lathrop’s camp which was further from here, than Bro. Lathrop told us, it being 160 miles, instead of 70 miles – The rest of the boys are expected back to-morrow, having been gone about 3 weeks Monday next

Monday the 9th

Quite rainy at intervals thro' the day. James Smithies and myself went after a load of wood. The remainder of the boys got back here to-day, viz: J. Redding, J. We[a]therbee, Geo. Rhodes and J. Frazier, looking as if they had seen rather 'hard times' Bro. K. put up the logs of another house on the end of the double one that Father Cutler is building for him - this is intended for Wm. Kimball, making the 6th building Bro. K. has raised besides a number of others for different persons not in his family -

Tuesday the 10th

Fine day, tho’ rather muddy from the rains of yesterday – James Smithies and Jacob Frazier went after a load of wood – the rest of us engaged in building a 7th building on the end of the one that we now live in, which I suppose is intended for S. Ann. Bro. Murray brought a load of 20 bbls. of corn to-day –

Wednesday the 11th

Cloudy misty day. – but no rain – engaged in building a chimney for the other room of the house in which we live – James S. and Geo. Rhodes went out to our old haying place, for a load of hay – Charles Decker arrived about noon bringing the news that Wm. and Daniel were about 7 miles from here – the latter arrived about 5 P. M. – a brother by the name of [Walter Gerritt] Sterrit came with them, driving one of Bro. K’s teams – Daniel brought Sister Powers with him – father had a lot of corn (30 bbls – ) brought to him to-day by Brother [John] Freeman

Thursday the 12th

Tolerable fair this morning – John D. Hovey and myself went after crotches and other stuff to make a stable – before we got back it commenced raining, and continued with little cessation through the day and night. Bro. K., Wm John D. Bishop Miller and myself went over to Brigham’s house, which is just finished, in honor of which we spent the evening in dancing, Bro Kay sung a few songs, and the company dispersed, having had a real good “house warming” – Bishop M. Peter Hawes and L[ucien] Woodworth slept at my house to-night on the floor – the latter is quite sick with the fever. To-day the store-house for the goods was commenced – they are building it beside father’s second house on this row –

Friday the 13th

Tolerable clear day, tho’ rather cold – Wm and myself unloaded a load of corn, and then took a walk round the city, as he had never seen this place before – In the afternoon, Bro. K. Wm. King D. Davis and myself were engaged in working on Wm. Kimball’s building – which we got ready to put the roof on – The brethren, for the last two or three days, have been in council with Bishop Miller, trying to take an action on his case before he goes back into the Punkaw Nation – L. Woodworth stayed at our house also to-night again –

Saturday the 14th

Beautiful day – John D. and myself engaged this forenoon in tearing down and rebuilding the house built for Bro. Hovey on opposite side the street This afternoon Daniel Davis and myself went after a load of wood with the horses, one of which Wm. got in part payment for Heber’s house and lot in Nauvoo The rest of the boys engaged in chinking some of the other buildings, except Jacob Frazier, who has been at work yesterday and to-day for Dr. Richards – Forgot to mention that Bro. K. sent up 2 yoke of oxen to the rush bottoms by Bro. [Benjamin Franklin] Stewart , a day or two ago –

Sunday the 15th

Cloudy, but no rain this morning George R. and one of Sister H. Smiths men started up to the rush bottoms with the following cattle, viz: –

N. K. Whitney – 2 cows marked with the mark “H. W.”

Mrs. Hyrum Smith – 3 cows marked “H. C. K.”

This evening Porter and I bringing along Emeline’s sisters, their mother having died on the way – Rained when Porter came to night – Bishop Miller, and some of his company, also left this morning, with whom was Hans –

The bishop had just returned from the country, where he had been, with others of his company, for produce. He left for home with part of his company on the 15th. Many of the brethren had gone down into Missouri to work or to trade for provisions, which consisted, mostly, of corn and bacon; the latter, with cornmeal cakes, was our main subsistence during the winter. Vegetables, and many of the necessaries of life were not obtainable. Indian meal cake and puddings we considered very nice when used as rarities, as we were accustomed to doing in the east, but when we had little or no change, they became somewhat nauseous, particularly to the sick and delicate.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 13, no. 18,
15 February 1885, p. 139

Emmeline was then the wife of Bishop Whitney, and her little sisters and brother were received and cared for, as were other members of his family—being under the charge of Sister Emmeline and Mother Whitney.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 13, no. 19,
1 March 1885, p. 151

Monday the 16th

Rainy, wet weather, which continued through the day – This morning early, George Grant and myself went with Porter on the river in a canoe to hunt his cattle which he left last night with his wagon, on the other side the river – found W. W. Phelps over there camped waiting or an opportunity to come over – Returned, bringing over Porter’s wagon and cattle on the ferry boat –

Tuesday the 17th

Cool and cloudy, – rained a little this afternoon – Wm. Smithies, Jacob Frazier and myself went with three teams after a load of poles to make hayrick, &c., &c.– The store house is nearly ready, or will be shortly for the reception of the goods by the time they get here

Wednesday the 18th

Cold but clear weather – Wm. moved into his house to-day – James S. and myself went after a load of hay 7 miles from here, beyond the old camp ground 4 miles –

Thursday the 19th

Cold and heavy frost last night. Nothing worthy of notice to-day –

Friday the 20th

Fine day – assisted Wm in repairing fence The most of the boys over the river getting out puncheon for floors to the houses –

Saturday the 21st

Cool day – James S. and myself went after a load of hay – the boys engaged in laying the floor to the store-house – This evening H. Egan, Bro. [Roswell] Stephens and [Samuel Gully, or] Gulley came in from the army – Bro. E. told me they had been to Santa Fee [sic], and that most of the brethren in the army – had gone from thence to California. The three brethren came back I suppose, for counsel – a number of the teams came in with goods to-day, which cannot be opened, till the storehouse is completed –

Sunday the 22d

This day Bro. Wooley arrived from St. Joseph – Meeting held at the Stand – did not attend – understood that it was talked of at the meeting to send off a lot of men early next Spring also a few families, and the remainder remain here – Wm.[,] Porter, and myself took a walk around the city this afternoon – first time that we (three) have had a social walk and “chat”, since we left the city of Nauvoo – There seems to be a particular dispensation of Providence in our behalf; for, although, we have had several cold nights and frosty ones, the weather has been remarkably mild for winter, and we have not, as yet, experienced the first snow storm – as is usual in other countries

Monday the 23d

Daniel Davis and myself went after a load of hay with the horses. The rest of the boys, to-day also engaged at work on the storehouse making floor. Bro. John Kay came back this evening – he would not to go on alone, the rest of his company having left him and gone ahead –

Tuesday the 24th

Cool day – severe frost last night – Daniel Davis took a team and went after the ox yokes about 12 miles above here – This evening Bro. K. and Brigham met with 2 men from the Salt Lakes where they have been settled for 16 years – they narrated their adventures, gave an account of the climate &c., which was quite interesting indeed[93]

Wednesday the 25th

Very cold day – last night the heaviest frost we have yet experienced – The most of us, viz: – H. Egan, J. Davenport, D. Davis, J. Frazier, and myself engaged in cutting and drawing wood from the bottom close by – Bro. K. cautioned the folks this evening against using our wood lavishly, sitting up late at nights and keeping a fire burning, as (he said,) before the winter was out it would be a very scarce article, and even now it cost him the same as two dollars a cord –

Thursday the 26th

Fine day – rather unwell myself – the boys put up the logs of 2 more houses to-day thus making the 9th building – one of which is intended for Bro. Howard Egan –

Friday the 27th

Fine day. – Wm., D. Davis, H. Egan, Jacob Frazier and myself went after a load of poles. This evening Bro. Benson got back from the eastern country, where he has been on business – I learned that a brother who went with him and had some pecuniary expectations from some of his friends, was taken up for insanity because he belonged to the Mormons, and in order to cheat him out of his property

Saturday the 28th

Warm and pleasant – D. Davis went to the Old Fort of Council Bluffs for a load of brick, which he is to get from among the rubbish of the place – J. Frazier and myself went after a load of hay – King engaged in shingling the roof to Bro. K’s. building.

Sunday the 29th

Fine day – Meeting held at the Stand, at which it was determined that every man should immediately turn out and assist in making the race way in order that the mill may be finished speedily. Bro. K. called his family together for the purpose of giving them good instruction.

Monday the 30th

Cloudy, misty day. – Daniel Davis, J. Frazier & O. P. Rockwell, started to go into the country, for produce; the latter, being furnished with $50, is to receive one half of that which he brings up from thence – D. Davis took the wagon which my wife and myself have formerly held in possession, consequently, we moved our bed into the house to-day – Brigham and Bro. K. went to the “Point” to-day, to transact some business pertaining to the church with Mr. Sarpee – Wm., J. D., and myself commenced the building of another log-house, which is intended for Bro. Wallace – this is the 10th building, beside the storehouse, which was originally built at the old camp ground, the timber transferred here, and the house rebuilt. – H. Egan busied in drawing stone from the river

Tuesday the 1st of December.

Fair weather this morning, but in the afternoon, the wind changed to the north, and it became quite cold weather – Wm, H. Egan, J. Davenport and myself to work on Bro. Wallace’s house, the logs of which we put up to-day – This evening, Brigham and Heber returned from the “Point” – Father has not yet got the goods open, altho’ the storehouse is finished except the making of the doors.

Wednesday the 2d

Fair day – Wm, H. Egan, and myself engaged in building a fence to form a sheep-yard. – Three of the boys at work to-day on the mill-race –

Thursday the 3d

Fine day – Wm. Egan, and myself also at work at the sheep-yard to-day, which we completed. Very cold weather, for the last two days –

Friday the 4th

Tolerably fair day – did not do anything myself to-day, in consequence of a severe pain in my right side –Wm. and H. Egan drove a lot of sheep down here to our yard, which they took from Father Lott’s sheep-yard – Father, Bro. Wooley engaged in unpacking opening, and marking goods.

Saturday the 5th

Quite pleasant to-day – This morning Wm. H. Egan and myself were engaged in branding sheep on the forehead with the mark, “H. C. K.”, which we did to the amount of 50 in number – The remainder (6) Wm. and myself drove back to Father Lott’s yard – Bro. Davenport took 14 sheep from there also – These sheep are church property, and those that take them to keep, have the wool and half the increase while in their possession – Some little snow to-day – the first of any account this fall or winter –

Sunday the 6th

Fine day – no meeting held at the stand to-day – This evening, a meeting, previously appointed, was held at father’s house that he might instruct the bishops of the several wards in their duties – being unwell, did not attend –[94]

Monday the 7th

Rather cool to-day – To-day, Abigail Pond died, – her two sisters, Harriet and Jane died a day or two ago. Wm, H. Egan, George Rhodes and myself engaged in cutting and drawing 5 loads of wood – This evening, after returning from work, Bro. Egan moved into his house.[95]

Tuesday the 8th

Pleasant day – Orson and myself engaged in mudding up my room – Peter and Geo. Rhodes went after a load of hay – The rest of the boys put up another house for Sister Miller, and topt off the one next to our own, which is intended for Sarah Ann – To-day they commenced trading at the store-house –


This, like the majority of the houses, was covered with sod, and the chimneys were built of the same. Each room had one door and a window with four panes of glass, but no floor. I was rather unfortunate, first, in having a chimney that seldom drew the smoke, particularly when the weather was cold enough to need a roaring fire in front of a good sized back-log, and then being prostrated on my bed from the 23rd of January till along in March; it gave me the opportunity of cultivating the qualities of patience and calmness under new vicissitudes, from which there was no alternative, only to endure them with as good grace as possible, for many of the Saints were still without a roof to cover them; but I shed many unbidden tears during the smoking period, lasting one month, when finding that our fireplace built of sod was about to tumble down, they had some brick brought from the rubbish of the old fort of Council Bluffs, and built a new one. Thus ended our trouble from that quarter. We had been accustomed to trials from smoke, heat, wind and dust, and many other things of an unpleasant nature during camp life, and we took considerable pleasure in fixing up our little homes. Our floors we managed to cover with canvas or pieces of carpeting, which had outlived the storms and the wear and tear while journeying from the states. We made curtains serve as partitions to divide the bedrooms, repositories, etc., from the kitchen. Most of our furniture we had made to order—such as cupboards and bedsteads—they being attached to the house, also tables, chairs and stools, and an occasional rocking chair, relics of other days, graced our ingleside. I was fortunate in having one of the latter, which I had brought with me. And here I received my “setting out” in crockery ware, etc., which, though not very extensive, was deemed quite immense for those times. Our marriage taking place just as we were about starting from the states, the presenting of these needful articles was postponed till a future time, expecting, as we then did, to cross the Rocky Mountains before building houses to inhabit. Two or three pieces I have still, which I keep in memory of the various and peculiar scenes through which we have passed together; as well as the loved ones who have passed away.

The larger houses were generally shingled and had brick chimneys and puncheon floors, with a six lighted window to each room. Father’s largest house contained four good sized rooms on the ground and two upstairs. My bro. William and family lived in one room, my mother, her four little boys, three or four young men and two young women who had been adopted, and two of father’s wives occupied the rest; the women assisting in sewing and housekeeping. My mother had been for some time in very feeble health, and her youngest child, who was so sick with whooping cough, when starting from Nauvoo, was taken care of by Mary Ann Sheflin, one of father’s wives who lived in the row. She, having charge of him most of the way on the journey, she loved him as though he had been her own child.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 13, no. 18,
15 February 1885, p. 139

mapMap of Saints settling in Council Bluffs region. Courtesy of Plewe, Mapping Mormonism, 75.

Wednesday the 9th

Warm day for the season This morning early, learned, that during the last night a party of Indians, came from the other side the river which they crossed on the ice attacked a small party of the Omahaws; who are encamped near us, and severely, if not mortally wounded two of their number, viz: – “Big Head,” the chief of the nation, and his squaw – Mary, an Indian interpretess with the Omahaws, says that it was the Iowas who committed the outrage – The Omahaws, being very much frightened, to-day moved their encampment, and pitched their tents near Brigham’s house on Main Street – The two invalids were taken to his house to have their wounds dressed Big Head was shot through the head and arm; his wife through the arm only, which is considerably mutilated, and I understood, that it was the intention to have it amputated Wm and myself went after a load of wood, also for a load of puncheon – Bro. H. Egan went down to the “Point,” after a cow – Most of the hands at work on Sister Miller’s house[96]

Thursday the 10th

Cool day – This morning the following cattle marked “H. C. K.” on the left horn were sent up to the rush bottoms under charge of Milo Andrews and another man

H. C. Kimball3 cows.
Richard Slater ____________________1 "
H. Egan _________________________1 "
Mrs. Martin ______________________1 "
The following marked “13D.” and “W.G.” on the left horn were also sent up to the rushes. 
Sister Gheen _____________________4 oxen.
" "1 cow
Amount of cattle sent up in Bro. K’s. name.11 head

Wm and myself went up to Father Lott’s and got 10 more sheep which we also branded with the mark “H. C. K.” on the forehead – We also got a load of wood from the island opposite here.

Friday the 11th

Fine day – Wm, H. Egan, J. Davenport, George Rhodes and myself engaged in drawing wood from the island, which we selected from among the flood-wood – the last load of corn which Bro. K. received came from Bro Jsos[?] Ames, and consisted of 19 bushels.

Saturday the 12th

Tolerably cool – George R. and myself went after hay – the remainder engaged at work upon Bro. K’s. houses, and Sarah Ann’s home, the roof of which was put on to-day, and covered with dirt. The foundation of the stable was also laid to-day, and covered with dirt. The foundation of the stable was also laid to-day. This evening, the Indians encamped near Brigham’s, had a great pow-wow among them, screeching and yelling in a horrible manner – on account of their having just received intelligence that a large number of their warriors, who went on the hunting expedition a short time since, have been killed off by the Sioux. –

Sunday the 13th

Fine day – Geo. Billings arrived from the herd last evening – Meeting held at the “Stand” to-day – Luke Johnson present, – he had just come on – lost his wife at St. Josephs H. Egan and myself went to-meeting – Brigham was speaking, when we arrived – he spoke at some length about the people’s complaining of the store affairs not being conducted in a right manner, he told them that Bishop Whitney was pursuing a righteous course, and doing the best he could for the benefit of the people and Saints at large – Bro. A. Lathrop, who has the charge of the herd about 100 miles above here, arrived this evening –

Brother Luke Johnson was present. He had just come on—had buried his wife at St. Joseph. There was quite a rejoicing among the old Kirtland Saints, to see Bro. Luke Johnson among them again. He stayed one night at father’s house. His sister, Marinda Hyde, who was living on the river, came there with him.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 13, no. 19,
1 March 1885, p. 151

Monday the 14th

Warm day – during last night, quite a heavy fall of snow – the most at any time this season Forgot to mention that yesterday, two of father’s boys, viz: – Jacob Wetherbee and Henry Forsythe, and one of Bro. K’s. boys, viz: – John Davenport started to go to Missouri to work This morning Wm, H. Egan, G. Rhodes, and myself went down on the bottom for the purpose of obtaining logs, for a stable, but not finding them, we returned, bringing two loads of wood instead – afterwards we split a number of logs we already had – Peter at work on the mill-race – Bro. Smithies chinking and daubing Sarah Ann’s house. To-day Bro’s. Brigham, Heber, Benson, Cahoon, and Ira Eldridge went down the river about 8 miles to the place where Sarpee used to trade, to make arrangements for the building of houses for the Omahaws, that being deemed a proper place for them to settle, themselves – It is so well fortified by nature, that they can discern the approach of an enemy at some distance – This morning Geo. Billings went back to the herd taking two mules with him

Tuesday the 15th

Fine day – not very well to-day – busied in looking over and rectifying my journal –

Wednesday the 16th – Cool day – Bro. K. received 7 bushels corn by the way of Bro. Bird – busied to day in cleaning out the old storehouse, in order that we may use the logs of which it is built, for a stable – Luke Johnson stayed over night at Bro. K’s house – to-day Sarah Ann partially moved her things into her new house This morning Wm. and myself got our fur caps from the store –

Thursday the 17th

Cool day – H. Cushing and myself went after a load of wood. George R. after hay – Luke Johnson took supper with us at S. Ann’s house –

Friday the 18th

cool weather – George R. and myself went after wood

Saturday the 19th

Went after wood again to-day – Wm., Egan, and Smithies yet engaged in building a stable, the covering of which they have nearly completed –

Sunday the 20th

Remarkably warm day – meeting held at Bro. K’s. house, Joseph Nobles, the Bishop of this Ward presiding, at which arrangements were made to relieve the poor, establishing a school in this ward, &c.–

Monday the 21st

Cold severe weather – George Rhodes, H. Cushing, and myself cut and drew 4 loads of wood from the woods to-day – Wm. Egan, and Smithies finished the roof of the stable to-day – This evening, Porter, Daniel and Jacob F. arrived, their wagons being left on the other side the river for the night.

Tuesday the 22d

cool day – This morning a number of us went over the river, and pulled over the wagons by hand on the ice – The following are bills of articles purchased and brought from the country –

Mr. D. D. Kimball

Bo’t of Smith & Donnell.



2setts cups and saucers.50c






6common bowlsc


4lbs. coffee12½ c


4“ sugar12½ c




1roll black ribbon 


10lbs. saltc


1gallon whiskey 


St. Joseph Mo.

Dec. 8, 1846.

Rec’d Payment,

Smith and Donnell



Mr. D. D. Kimball

Bo’t of Nave & McCord.



3Sacks 215 120c 


10bushels white beans50c


1sack salt 


3buckets 33⅓ 




8lbs. butter10c



Rec’d. Payment,




Nave & McCord

Oregon, Dec. 11th, 1846. –   

Porter also brought a load of pork, which Bro. K. is to have – but do not know the amount as it is yet unweighed – Quite unwell to-day with the pleurisy –

Wednesday the 23d

Warm s. wind to-day. John Whitney and myself took a span of mules and went about 3 miles for a load of wood – Jacob F. and George R. went after 2 loads of hay – In addition to the above named articles Daniel also got the following goods –

Mr. D. D. Kimball

Bo’t of Midleton & Berry



30bushels beans 50c


Bought of Cosby 12 bushels beans 50c




Bo’t of Powell 9 ½ b. beans.


152 lbs. flour 


Bo’t of Meek’s 16 b. meal 25c


 Matten 1 tea-kettle – .85 








Sole amount of articles bo’t in the country by D. D. Kimball



Thursday the 24th

Very fine day – busily engaged in making preparations for Egan and Daniel to go into the country – Bishop Miller arrived again this evening from the Punkaw Nation

Friday the 25th

Beautiful weather – being Christmas we had a little party this evening at Heber C’s, which passed off finely under the direction as O. P. Rockwell – George Billings arrived this evening from the rush bottoms – Hosea Cushing started this morning with some sheep to go to the lower herd –

Saturday the 26th

another, beautiful, Spring-like day – Yesterday and to-day council held daily and nightly, almost without intermission; father, Bro. Miller and W. Clayton attending, nothing having been done in the store for these two days – This being mother’s birthday, father, this afternoon, produced his large glass, which has been in the family for years, and each one of the family was called upon to give some sentiment or wish in favor of our mother. The “union” or meeting did not last above an half hour, but it was the most satisfactory festival that I ever recollect to have spent in that brief span of time.

map of settlements in MissouriMap of settlements in the Middle Missouri Valley. Eight to nine-thousand Latter-day Saints settled on both sides of the Missouri River Valley in the region of Council Bluffs from 1846 to 1848. They resided not only in Winter Quarters and in Kanesville (Iowa Territory) but also in tiny groves, hollows, and out-of-the-way settlements, as shown. Courtesy of Plewe, Mapping Mormonism, 77.

Sunday, Monday, Tuesday & Wednesday

Nothing worthy of notice has transpired these four days, except that I have been too unwell with a pain in my side to do much in the way of labor – Daniel Davis and H. Egan started for the country on Saturday the 26th – To-day (Wednesday) George Billings starts taking with him another yoke of red cattle, marked “H. C. K.” on the left horn, and “H.” on the left hip –

Thursday the 31st

Cold day – they finished the well last evening which was dry by Bro. Smithies and George R., and is about 35 feet in depth – feel a little better than I did yesterday, H. Cushing when he returned from the herd brought me 200 brick from the rubbish of the “old Fort” of Council Bluff for the purpose of building me a fireplace, the one built of sod being about to tumble down Bishop Miller, who has gone down into the country, is expected back daily.

Friday the 1st of January, 1847.

Considerable snow on the ground. To-day made out a list of the company and family of H. C. Kimball – This evening Bro. K. again gave up his kitchen room for the purpose of dancing – Brigham and some of his family were present, besides a numerous assembly of the brethren and sisters. – This evening like the Christmas one, passed off finely under the direction of O. P. R. and every one departed to their homes about 1 a.m. apparently well pleased and gratified with our scene of festivity –

Saturday the 2d

Cool weather – added a few more names to the list of the company and family of H. C. Kimball – nothing else worthy of notice to-day. –

Sunday the 3d

Pleasant day – By invitation Bro. K. went and preached at Bro. J[ohn] Scott’s house across the creek in Bishop [Addison] Everett’s Ward – Wm, Hosea C., Jacob F., and myself attended – Bro. K. spoke on miscellaneous subjects, and gave a great deal of good instruction.

Monday the 4th

Tolerably fair day – This day spent in making arrangements for Merit R[ockwell] and King to start to Bro. Lathrop’s with provisions –

Tuesday the 5th

This morning tolerably fair weather Wm. Porter and myself started on horseback, for the rush bottoms, in company with 3 wagons, driven by Merit R. Father Lott, and Edmund Ellsworth , who were all going to Lathrop’s camp with provisions – they stopt at a cabin near the old Fort, while Porter Wm. and myself went on up to the rush bottoms where we arrived about dusk – There we found G. Billings and others who are herding cattle – The only house there we stayed in to night which was a miserable hovel indeed – our bones the next morning feeling the effects of the unevenness of the puncheon floor –

Horace, Wm. and Porter started on horseback for the rush bottoms, in company with three other brethren who were going with wagons to Bro. Lathrop’s camp (who was there to take charge of the cattle that were sent to the rush bottoms) with provisions. Our boys went for the purpose of driving back some beef cattle—cows and calves, etc., but the weather was so excessively cold that they concluded to return without them.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 13, no. 19,
1 March 1885, p. 151

Wednesday the 6th

Very cold day – we had come up for the purpose of driving back some beef cattle, cows and calves, &c. but the weather was so excessively cold we concluded to return without them – accordingly having breakfasted as we had supped, the night before, in the open air we started for home – on arriving at the Fort, we found that the brethren had not started with their wagons on account of the cold – after stopping a short time with them we started for home where we arrived towards evening –

Thursday the 7th

This day, was by far, the coldest and most severe of the season We could chop wood at the door scarcely 5 minutes without freezing – The first fair day, Geo. Billings is to come down bringing all the cows that have just come in – Bro. K. and father together sent 10 gallons whiskey to Bro. Lathrop by Merit Rockwell and Wm. King

Friday the 8th

More moderate weather than yesterday – To-day Porter went by Bro. K’s. request to tell Merit and King to return, having concluded not to send them to Lathrop’s, at least till warmer weather

Saturday the 9th

Tolerable cold day – Porter returned to-day, – he overtook the boys a little way beyond the first herd, going on. – they are to be back to-morrow.

Sunday the 10th

Cold day – Bro. K. preached to-day in Bishop Lutz’s ward, at Bro. Leonard’s house, did not attend, being busy helping father at home. To-day Merit and King returned, bringing back with them their wagon and things.

Monday the 11th

Very moderate weather, in comparison with the last two or three days – Geo. Billings and David Davis came down from the herd, bringing 2 cows and 2 calves for father.

Tuesday the 12th

Quite cold. This day, H. Egan and D. Davis arrived from the country. The following are lists of articles, brought by them from the country. –

St. Josephs, Mo. Jan 1847.

Mr. Egan,

Bo’t of Smith & Donnell.



45lbs. Salaratus8c


3sacks salt$2.50



Rec’d. Payment,




Smith & Donnell.


Savannah, Jan. 3, 1847.

Mr. Davis,

Bo’t of M. Tootle & Co.



11 piece Linsey55½ yds.25c


22 “ prints33¾67¾ "


34"14½ "
1pair blue blankets  


2bolts Domestic29½61½ "


32 yds.10 "
2“ Drilling31 “61"


30 “12 "
2bolts binding10c 


12doz. buttons10c 


1hank thread  


1bbl. sugar 249½ 15½ off 234. 


1barrel __ __  


1sack coffee 162½ & 11 


5lbs. pepper 20c  


8“ coffee 12½  


24½ bushels wheat 37½c 



Rec’d. Payment,


M. Tootle & Co.

Mr. Davis Jan.1, 1847

Bo’t of Cosby & Others.



75½lbs. soapc


bushels beans60c


½bushel onions25c


21½lbs. tobbacco5c


21¼gallons honey50c


1barrel __ 


19½lbs. butter.10c




Expenses for the second trip.




0 – 40

2 doz. sheaf oats 

0 – 40


0 – 25


0 – 20


0 – 30


0 – 25


0 – 25

35 lbs. flour 2c 

0 – 70


0 – 05

1 turkey 

0 – 12½

black lead 

0 – 12½

1 bottle & whiskey 

0 – 22½


0 – 37½

Lard ____ 


Corn ____ 


Help ____ 


13 bushels corn 










For Keeping at Jackson’s 










sole amount of things bo’t 


Wednesday the 13th

Almost like spring weather this morning – Hauling wood and hay was the most that was done – This evening had quite a convivial party at Bro. Smithies, consisting of all the male members of the family.

Thursday the 14th

To-day as fine weather as yesterday – To-day Geo. Billings and David Davis went back to the herd taking with them 2 cows one marked “H. C. K.” and other “H. W.” – The boys engaged in hauling wood & hay.

Friday the 15th

Cold day – Wm., with the carriage went to the “Point”, taking 5 or 6 passengers, – to attend a ball to be given at the house of Mr. Beaubin. Porter also went down.

Saturday the 16th

Cold as usual – Lyman has been to work drawing wood, hay, &c. with father’s team, in order that he may go down to Missouri with the same next week to get a load of such things as father shall need on the journey in the Spring – To-day Wm returned from the Point.

Sunday the 17th

Tolerably warm this morning, but in the afternoon it turned quite cold and stormy. Bro. K. called his family together and gave them good instruction –

painting of winterGreg Olsen, Winter Quarters. Used with permission. A setting of winter reflection and revelation, Mormonism’s Valley Forge was a place of sickness and death, peace and faith.

Monday the 18th

Decidedly the coldest day of the season – the thermometer showing it to be 4 degrees colder than we have yet experienced. Made out another list of the members intending to travel in the 2d company under H. C. Kimball in the ensuing spring – Bro. J. Pack and myself went round to warn them to meet at the council house tomorrow night for organization – The 1st company under Brigham Young, met there this evening, for the same purpose – This evening a fire was discovered under the hearth in Bro. K’s. room – we took down the better part of the chimney in order to get at the fire, which we put out, and rebuilt the chimney, this taking till half past 4 in the morning – Bro. K. felt very thankful that the fire did not occur in the night when we were all asleep, as there was 5 or 6 lbs of powder in a chest near the fire-place, in addition to the danger incurred by the fire otherwise –

Tuesday the 19th

Tolerably warm; but became rather cold towards evening. H. Egan and George Rhodes started for the country with 2 teams one with 4 mules the other with 2 horses, Truman [?] and Orson also with 1 team – This evening, pursuant to agreement, a large number of those who had attached themselves to the 2d company under H. C. Kimball met at the council House on Main Street –

painting of winter

Bro O. Pratt first rose and read the names of those who have already given in their names, which were 200 in number –

Bro. K. then arose and said, – That he had not called them together exactly for the purpose of organization but to give them some instruction, and to let them know by what rules they must abide, if they wished to go in his company. – He then proceeded to state that those who wished to go with him, must prepare themselves to obey the law of God, and forbear from stealing one from another, also swearing, and other things prohibited by the Celestial Law – and that those who could not make up their minds to abide by these precepts, had better never start from this place, but go down into Missouri, where they belong –[97]

A revelation, or the will of the Lord, was then read (by O. Pratt), as received through President Young, pertaining to the rules and regulations by which we are to be governed during our journey in the ensuing Spring[98]

There are to be companies of tens, fifties, and hundreds; each company with a captain at its head, and these to be controlled by a President and 2 counsellors. The revelation embodied or contained the remarks made by Bro. K., and other matters, A vote was then called whether the people would covenant to obey the principles therein laid down, which passed unanimously President Young also made some few remarks substantiating what Bro. K. had said – Another thing spoken of was, that every individual who was on the journey should to the utmost, use his influence in assisting the widows and wives of those in the army, also to remove, lest their cries should ascend up to Jehovah against us –some other business of minor importance being transacted, the meeting was dismissed with a benediction by Bro. Kimball.

Wednesday the 20th

Fair weather with “sunshine clear” – The “Twelve” held a council at Wm. Kimball’s room to-day. –

Thursday the 21st

Beautiful day for this time of year – Busied in taking the names, and list of the property, of those who have attached themselves to Pres. K.’s company. – To-day Jacob H. went up to the herd to get some cattle –

Friday the 22d

Tolerably fair day – still occupied in writing on the list of company 2d.

Saturday the 23d

Wife quite unwell; but better than she was yesterday. Tolerably, fair day – still at work writing –

Sunday the 24th

Beautiful day – Wife so unwell, as to be obliged to keep her bed – did not attend meeting in consequence – held at the council house –

Monday the 25th

Fine day – still occupied in writing on the list – Helen not much better to-day than usual – To-day Bishop Miller and son returned from the country with a load of produce to take home with them.

Tuesday the 26th

Warm day – A meeting of the 2d company, under H. C. Kimball was held at the Council House at 10 A M. – I arose and read the names of those who had joined the company; also those who had given in a list of their property –

President Young then moved that Bro. Kimball nominate his own officers, which he proceeded to do – The following are names of those who were elected unanimously, thro’ his nomination

Alpheus Cutler –President.
Winslow Farr –Counsellor.
Daniel Russell –"
Henry Herriman –Capt. Hundred
Isaac Higbee –" "
Shadrach Roundy –" "
John Pack –" Fifty
Milo Andrews –" "
Geo. B. Wallace –" "
Harrison Burges –" "
Alva Tippetts –" "
Levi Riter –" "

Each of the above named individuals spake, returning their thanks to the brethren, for the honor conferred upon them – stating their intentions to be [sic] to magnify their office – The captains of Fifties were enjoined to organize their companies, and appoint captains of Tens. Afterwards, Bro. K. spoke at some length – using the parable of a vessel being cracked, and remoulded in to its proper shape by the hands of the potter – Every one has got to take an equal share of the burthen of taking on the poor &c. – I want those who constitute the officers in any company, should act as fathers in Israel, and accommodate themselves to the minds and wishes of the people – I feel sometimes, as tho’ like a barrel I should burst with care and anxiety for the brethren, and would like an additional band fastened to me. There has got to be a pioneer company to start from here, and those who can go, will go; and those who can stay, will stay; and this to be subject to the decision of the Presidents.[99] Those who stay, will remain to cultivate the ground. It is necessary for every one to prepare himself with axle trees to their wagons, &c., inasmuch as there is no timber for a long way after you leave here – Moved by President Young, and stated by President Kimball, that inasmuch as Bishop Miller being here is about to return with his family to this place, we build him a house – carried unanimously. – Wm. Pitt moved that John Kay also return, seconded & carried – Meeting of the company adjourned sine die. A party, including a part of the Quorum of the Seventies, came off at the Council House to-day commencing at 3 o’clock P. M. and continuing till towards morning. – did not attend, in consequence of wife being sick.

He speaks of a party, including a part of the quorum of seventies, which came off at the council house the same day, commencing at three o’clock p.m., and continuing till nearly morning. Another one was held Wednesday evening by others of the seventies, and on Thursday evening, the latter, Horace speaks of attending and most of my father’s family. There were many parties held there during the winter, and a dancing school was started about the 8th of February. In all these I had no participation, being prostrated by sickness from the middle of January until spring.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 13, no. 22,
15 April 1885, p. 170

Wednesday the 27th

Fine day – George Billings and Jacob F. came from the herd with 8 head of cattle, including one bald faced ox for Bro. K., and a cow for J. C. K. – Party held at the Council House to-day also, commencing at 9 a.m. also pertaining to the Seventies –

Thursday the 28th

Warm day – attended a party given at the Council House this evening – most of Bro. K’s. family attended – wife considerably better, but not so much so, as to be around yet, or to set up – Meeting of the officers of the 2d Co. held at Bro. K’s, room, but the officers not all attending, it was concluded to defer it till to-morrow at 10 a.m.

Friday the 29th

Fine day – Bishop Miller started to-day for the Punkaw – Meeting of the officers held at Bro. K’s. room pursuant to agreement at 10 a.m. –

Present –

H. C. Kimball –
A. Cutler –
W. Farr –
M. Russell –
Henry Herriman –
Isaac Higbee –
S. Roundy –
John Pack – –
Geo. B. Wallace –
Harrison Burges –

Bro. K. stated it to be necessary for the company to be furnished with a clerk – and that it devolved upon the Presidency to appoint him – Bro. James Sloan was elected to that office – Another thing stated by Bro. K. was, that those, upon whom the duty principally devolved, i.e. the Presidency, and authorities, should travel as nearly together as possible in one company – in order that every thing might be more convenient, when they were obliged to assemble for Council –

The next thing taken into consideration was, who should stand as Captain of 1st H. Bro. K. observed, that as Bro. Herriman was a senior President of the “Seventies,” that the right would naturally fall on him – He further said, that he thought that the choice of officers was as good as could be made, and could not be altered for the better – The Brethren tho’t so too – Bro. Herriman observed that, he meant to do the best he could, wherever placed – Bro. Harrison Burgess came in soon after, and stated that he had a line for Bro. K., which was the resignation of Levi Riter of the office of Captain of Fifty – Bro. K. gave the article of resignation to Father Cutler for his disposal. – Father Cutler observed that it would be at the disposal of the Captains of the 1st Company where to place his men, and in what order – Bro. Henry Herriman was elected to the office of Captain 1st Company – It was concluded, through Bro. K’s. suggestion to entitle our body, “The Second Division of the Camp of Israel” –

Father Cutler observed that he would rather leave it to Bro. K. where the Bishops Whitney and Miller should be placed, which was between the two Divisions – Bro. K. observed, “it makes no difference where we are placed, whether in the 1st, 2d, or 3d companies, and that when he made the nominations of his officers, he looked for those who would act as fathers in Israel; and he wished them to treat this people as a child, and nurse them, and be careful of their feelings. – Father Cutler observed, that he thought it best that Bro. K., Bishop Whitney, himself and other furnish a list of those intending to journey in each family respectively. It was proposed by Brother Farr, to ascertain through Bro. Herriman, the number of those in a family, intending to go west. – Bro. K. observed, that he did not expect that all of his folks would go in the 1st company; excepting those immediately connected with him. Bro. K. told the brethren it was their duty to get all the names they could, and that just as soon as the Hundreds were filled up, that there should be at least 30 men drawn out of each for pioneers – Bro. K. observed that the reason of Levi Riter’s resignation, was, that he had a calf in the east, in Pennsylvania, and that was hitched to $1500, & he wants to go back and get it, and take his family, with him, because he is discouraged, &c,; and he, (Bro. K,) wants to have the brethren hang on to him by the prayer of faith. Father Cutler observed that it would be his mind, that the officers stand in their order, as they were elected. – Bro. Herriman chose his two captains of Fifties, – viz: – John Pack and G. B. Wallace – Bro. K. observed to Father Cutler, that we need not depend on any regular order, till we get organized in the Fifties; because there would be draughts upon them, for pioneers, artillery, hunters, &c.– It was said that Bro. John Scott will have the command of the artillery – Isaac Higbee chose his captains of Fifties, viz: – Harrison Burges & Alva Tippetts. – Shadrach Roundy chose his captains of Fifty, viz: – Milo Andrews

Bro. K. observed that the selection might be made to-morrow, of those selected to go in the different companies – He also said, that, in travelling, we should generally be governed by circumstances, & that he intended to imitate Brigham in his order of travelling, and that it would be a long time, before we would be governed by any definite rule – Bro. K. observed that he knew the people were more tired on this last journey, than they ever were before and quoted the Carlos Granger story as illustration of the idea [100] – Proposed by bro. K. that we meet to morrow evening at Daniel Russel’s house to give in our returns – Bro. K. observed that we all, with Father Cutler, bow down before the Lord, touching the case of Bro. Levi Riter, that he may be tied up in his designs to go east and take his family with him, which was accordingly done, and the meeting was dismissed

George Billings went back to the herd to-day –

Saturday the 30th

Beautiful weather – Helen yet quite sick, also, Mothers Kimball and Whitney – A few of the brethren, pursuant to agreement, met at the house of Daniel Russel on Main St. – I presented my list, and about fifty of the names of the 1st hundred was selected – but little other business was done, and the meeting adjourned – to meet at the same place on Tuesday evening. Bro. James Sloan being away in the country. I have yet to act as clerk for the company. –

Sunday the 31st

Fine day – Bro. K. preached in Bro. Cutler’s ward to-day – did not attend, wife being so unwell – forgot to mention that H. Egan and George Rhodes got back from the country last evening – The brethren have commenced building Bishop Miller a house, which they intend to have ready for him, against his return from the Punkaw.

Bill of the articles bought by H. Egan on the 3d trip.



2 bhls. flour__375c__


1 sack salt____


24 bushels meal__25c__


16 plugs tobacco 12½c__


4 “ “ 9c__


10 lbs. butter 10c__




Expenses of the 3d trip –



Supper and breakfast for 2.


Breakfast____ “




Supper and breakfast__


Shoeing 2 horses__


Corn and hay__


Breakfast and corn__


Ferryage Monattany [?]__


Bacon____ ____




Supper & breakfast__


Ferryage Nishna Botana__


Cooking & lodging


Supper & breakfast__




Monday the 1st of February.

Warm in the forenoon, but the night sat in extremely cold – To-day Wm. King started for Lathrop’s camp with a load of provisions. –

trees in winterJon McNaughton, Winter Quarters. Used with permission. Upwards of 1,200 Latter-day Saints perished at Winter Quarters between 1846 and 1848.

Tuesday the 2d

Fine day – This morning at 20 minutes past 6, Sister Kimball gave birth to a boy, who was called Solomon after his grandfather –

Porter started on Saturday last for Punkaw to assist Bro. Miller in removing here – wife’s health improving slowly – To-night a company meeting held at Bro. D. Russel’s, did not attend in consequence of Helen’s illness.

My mother gave birth to a son, whom they named Solomon, after his Grandfather Kimball, which event is mentioned in my husband’s journal.

My room was a few doors from my mother’s, where I was still bed-fast; but the weather being fine I was conveyed in an easy chair and placed by her side, where I passed two pleasant days, being carried back at eventide. She was in excellent spirits, and before my arrival, the first morning, had composed several verses on the birth of this, her seventh son. They breathed a prayer that his life might be long, and his wisdom great, like unto Solomon’s of old, before he had allowed the love of women to surpass the wisdom God had given him.

She was gifted in that line, had it only been cultivated in an early day. Her appearance, at that period of her life, bespoke anything but a sad and heartbroken woman, though there were several of father’s wives living under the same roof with her.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 14, no. 2,
15 June 1885, p. 11

Wednesday the 3d

Fine day – H. Egan and George Rhodes again started for the country – Bro. Isaac Higbee, Captain of hundred, called and got the roll of papers pertaining to the company business to give to Bro. James Sloan – captain of the company – Party, consisting of Brigham’s family held at the Council House[101] – Bro. K. with some of his family attended – Father called me into the store to-night, to make selections of such things as I may want for the journey. – wrote 3 letters to the Punkaw nation, for Bro. K. directed to – Bro. Billings, Shirtliff and Sister Glines – sent by Porter –


Thursday the 4th

Fine weather – Vilate Young & Charles Decker married this evening – no party at the Council House to-day – dancing school to commence on Monday next

Friday the 5th

The party, of what is called the “Silver Greys,” came off at the Council House to-day and night, consisting of all the old people that could be found in the camp[102] – In the forenoon, the band went round in a carriage playing, the bride & bridegroom accompanying –

Saturday the 6th

Beautiful weather – This evening at 11 o’clock, mother gave birth to a boy – she is pretty comfortable, also Sister K. Helen’s health slowly improving, Yesterday and to-day, so well as to be able to go and see her mother This evening, a meeting held at Daniel Russel’s, – sent up a list of names by Isaac Higbee, Captain of Hundred –

Sunday the 7th

Very warm day – Meeting held at the council house to-day – did not attend – wife not so well to-day, as yesterday – afflicted with the toothache severely to-day and canker in the mouth – Mother and Sister K. quite comfortable –

Monday the 8th

Fine weather – nothing worthy of importance – the parties still continue at the Council House –

Tuesday the 9th

Beautiful weather – The Bishop’s convivialities commenced at the council house to-day, under the direction of Bishop Whitney as head bishop of the Church. attended myself with the Band and played – the day and evening passed off finely, spent in praying, singing, dancing, &c. Bro. K. called his children (infants) together for the purpose of blessing them, which was done by Brigham Bro. K., and father, Dr. Richards acting as clerk, I not being present –

The same evening he makes mention of my father’s calling his wives together, who had infants, for the purpose of blessing them, which was done in my mother’s room, by B. Young, father and Bishop Whitney, Dr. Richards acting as clerk. There were seven in number—four had been born at Nauvoo, one at Richardson’s Point, Iowa, and two at Winter Quarters. The eldest was my mother’s son, Brigham Willard, born January 29th 1845. The names of those mothers were Sarah Peek, Clarissa Cutler, Emily Cutler, Sarah Ann Whitney, Lucy Walker. The two latter were the wives of the Prophet Joseph, whom father had taken for time only. Still Joseph Smith [III] of Lamoni, Iowa, declares that polygamy was neither taught nor practiced by his father, and that it was “foreign to the gospel his father died in the service of,” when there are a dozen or more of his wives still living in Utah, besides scores of men and women who can testify that this principle was taught and practiced by him, and that he commanded others to enter into it. “None are so blind as those who will not see.”[103]

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 14, no. 2,
15 June 1885, p. 11

a manHeber C. Kimball (1801–68), apostle, member of Brigham Young’s First Presidency, and father of Helen Mar Kimball Whitney. Photograph by George Edward Anderson, circa 1850. L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

Wednesday the 10th

Fine weather still – the Bishops party continued on to-day and ended this evening at 10 P. M. – father did not attend much on the account of mother’s illness, who is not so well to-day as usual – Helen’s and Sister K’s improving –

Thursday the 11th

Spring weather – To-day the party of “Silver Greys”, who had not previously been at the Council House, met there to enjoy themselves – attended also to-day with others of the Band –

Friday the 12th

Beautiful weather – This morning, went round and notified all those who had sent up cattle to Lathrop’s herd – intelligence having been received thro’ Bro. E. C. [?] Richardson that the Sioux had come among the people up there, stolen several horses, killed several cattle, &c., &c. The meeting was for the purpose of sending men up to Lathrop’s camp to assist in guarding the cattle horses, &c.

Saturday the 13th

Fine day – This day a party held at the Council House, consisting of some of the “seventies,” or bench makers, This morning, a number of those appointed, started for the camp of Lathrop, to guard the horses and cattle.

Sunday the 14th

Fine and pleasant – This morning at 11 a.m. – a meeting of the family was called at H. C. Kimball’s room. – Present – H. C. Kimball, father, and a number of both families. –

The meeting was opened by singing; and prayer by Bro. James Smithies – I arose and read, by Bro. Heber’s request, a revelation, given March 7, 1831, which was addressed to the church, and intended for their guidance at that, and also at this time [104] – Another hymn was then sung, and Bro. Heber arose and said: –

I have almost always something in my mind to say, according to the circumstances in which I am placed – My health is quite poor at this time, having taken cold, and I have a severe pain in my side – My body feels as if it was shattered to pieces with fatigue – but I care nothing about it – I have no fear of death – I have no fears about seeing my heavenly Father – but I want to live for the good of this people – life is sweet – why is it sweet? – for the sake of good saints – the cordial endearments of my friends and children – I can meet any body half way, for I have so ordered my life – that I am not afraid of death. I am now forming a character for another world, when I shall come forth with a new body in the resurrection, – and I want to cultivate the principles of charity – that I may conform to the will of God – that I may be able to have victory over Death, Hell, and the Grave that I may be able to say: – “O Death, where is they sting, O Grave, where is thy victory! and when I gain the victory, aint every thing mine – I want the brethren to exercise all the faith and calmness in their power – and I feel as tho’ I could hardly set up – as I dreamt the other night, to have my net prepared, to catch all I can; and every man should have and women have nets among you, each one according to his or her capacity – You have all got an idea that Christ has gained the victory for you but I tell you, that you have got to gain the victory yourselves, or you will have it to grapple with hereafter. I presume there is not a person in this room, great or small, but what think that they have as much to grapple with, every day, as I have – There has been a great many parties lately, and I thought that I would have one to-day, You are all my family here to-day – Bishop Whitney belongs to my family, and I belong to his family – and I want all selfishness banished from among you – I know there is faith enough in this place, among you, to make me feel happy from the crown of my head to the soles of my feet. – I should not be surprised if I should not live two months; – still, I do not know but that I shall – but there is no one knows how I feel, by myself. I have no testimony that I shall die for fifty years to come – I want to go to a land of liberty, where we can be free from mobs and strife, in which we have been all our lives – Some profess to have knowledge of all things behind the vail – but I profess no such thing – what is in futurity, I neither know nor care; but I do care for the present; and all who look up to me for counsel as children, as husbands, &c., should be faithful – I do not say that any of you are disobedient; but your minds want stirring up by way of remembrance – not to tell you what you don’t know, but you are run down like watches and I want you to wind them up two or three times a day – It does not hurt a watch half as bad to run, as it does to lay dormant; therefore, do not let your minds, like watches, lay dormant – I want you to lift up your hearts to God for me, – and if I have not done as well by my children as any other person; then I will leave it to Brother Whitney, as he is a Judge in Israel – and he is such as appointed by the revelations of God. – There have been parties at the Council House lately, & perhaps I shall have a party, one of these days, myself – I want my family to learn to govern themselves, so that, when they are in the midst of an extreme, even in dancing, they could quit, right straight – You should never let your appetites control your judgments, but your judgments your appetites – Now, if there is any one in my family, that wish to put any one in my place, to govern it, let them try it – and I will go somewhere else – Daniel, and my boys are all faithful – Now, Bro. Whitney, I have got it on to you.[105]

Father [Bishop Newel K. Whitney] arose and said: – I suppose, as I am the oldest person in the room, you may look upon me in some degree, as a father – I don’t know that I can say any more in essence, than what your Father Kimball has said – He has spoken of several things, especially of faith, which if acted upon, will redound to your glory. – Bro. Heber has spoken of the parable of the watch – it is a good one – and if we keep the watch wound up, we cannot sin; for if a man has the spirit of truth and righteousness, he cannot sin – and when he is possessed by the opposite spirit he cannot do anything correct. In the case of drinking whiskey – I have watched myself, and found out that I could not do business as well, as when I was in full possession of my faculties. – When we have a bad spirit, and call upon the Lord, we will find that he is a great deal further off than we would imagine. – Bro. Heber touched upon doing right – I believe that there is no man in the whole circle of my acquaintance, that intends to do better, and work righteousness, more than Bro. Kimball; nor one that comes nearer to the point in so doing. Therefore, it behooves you to hold up his hands, and as he advances in knowledge, so will you the same – as his vessel is filled, he will pour it on to your head. – God is no respecter of persons – but he sets men on earth to teach his people as masters are set to instruct little children – God will instruct his people from time to time, as they can bear knowledge, and when we have fulfilled the things one messenger has given us, another will come with fresh intelligence. – I have no doubt, but what many of you here, will live to see the “Ancient of Days” come – even Old Father Adam[106]

We are now in the Dispensation of the fullness of times; and every ordinance, or office that has been practised in the church of former days, will be revived in this Dispensation, even to the offering of sacrifices.

Malachi says, “before the great and terrible day of the Lord, I will send Elijah, the Prophet, lest there be not faith enough on the earth, and I smite it with a curse; and for that reason was Joseph Smith sent, – to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children &c., to prepare them for the coming of the Lord – and so he will continue to send us intelligence by messengers, till at last, Old Father Adam, himself, shall at last appear to see his children. – We are too apt to judge our brethren unjustly – and we should be very careful how we do so, when we know that they are governed by the spirit of God. – We should mind & keep the helm of the ship in our hands; lest the helm slip a little, a storm come on, and we lose our latitude and longitude. – but if we have the Spirit of God, we never shall get out of our latitude or longitude. – We should be careful and keep the spirit of God on our sides – for the path will grow brighter and brighter until the perfect day. – Now brethren, do you not think that it would be a heaven on earth, if there was perfect confidence among you, – and this is heaven, and all the heaven that we have, will be, that which we make ourselves. – I have sometimes thought of the words of the Psalmist – “How pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity.” &c.– A two-fold cord is stronger than one: and take it in a family and see the necessity, as well as the beauty of union. – What shall I say more, brethren? – I could sit down and chat with you, I suppose, and answer almost any question or principle. – I always rejoice when I am able to throw light upon any mind, that is seeking intelligence. – Bro. Kimball was observing that he had done the best he could, and I verily believe it, – under the circumstances. It is our duty to mind the admonitions of the Spirit, lest we be shoaled on the quick-sands of evil. – Now I say hearken to the admonitions of your father; for his teachings are good – and as to this dancing, – when we dance, we should do it as much by the spirit as we would pray.

The Almighty does not intend that a man will stay on his knees 24 hours praying, but he is willing that we should have our recreations, but we must not get giddy, nor transcend the bounds of reason and right; or we will get out of the way and have to fall back and hunt up a position of right again. Peter sums up the case in a few words – “Add to your faith virtue, and to your virtue knowledge, and to your knowledge temperance, and withal be patient, and last of all Godliness and brotherly kindness; and if ye observe these things, ye will not be barren nor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.” –

I know I have my faults, as well as yourselves; and my principal fault is impatience – and when I preach, I always hew to the line, if the chips fly in my face – and now I feel to bless you all in the name of Jesus Christ. –

Bro. Heber arose and said – I have been much edified by the conversation of Brother Whitney – and we always had the same feelings in common – and our views always met, and our thoughts flow in the same channel, but I don’t know why it is so, – Don’t you see that there should be temperance in every thing – dancing, eating, and drinking – Now I love to dance myself – but let us learn to be subject to government in all things – I am your head, your lawgiver, and king, and will be, to all eternity, and I am responsible to my head and President – and you are responsible to me, your file leader. – I believe that some of my old progenitors, of whom I have no knowledge, will appear and tell me when the time shall come for me to rise up and administer in the ordinances for them, and I shall receive a great deal of knowledge from them, which I could not receive directly by revelation – Now, this idea you never thought of did you boys – and I want you to keep it secret within the walls of your own breasts – I want to have power, when I see my brother or sister, to tell Death to depart, and it shall depart – Every one has the greatest obstacle to govern himself – and I have greater trouble to govern Bro. Heber, and put self down, than any thing else. I always want a clerk to attend my meetings, so that like to-day, we can have a record to look back upon for our edification – I never felt better in my mind, but my body is ailing – I do delight in intelligence, and delight to see an intelligent mind. I do not know what I know, unless by the utterance of the spirit; and if you wish to know anything of me, put a paper in your pocket, and minute down things, that you may ask me questions, and I will answer them, – and it will not impoverish me; for, like a barrel of cider, I shall increase in quantity as you draw from me – Now, I want you all to mind and not tell secrets out of my family; for I have things that I dare not tell; and so has Bishop Whitney. Now I feel to bless you in the name of the Lord, and I expect if you had gone to the Council House, you would not have heard any more than you have here – and I feel as if we had had a good time. – It would not do for me to stand and wait for my wife to come up and do my work for me – Bishop Whitney is as honest a man as there is this side of heaven – and I want you to receive his counsel as one of the Judges in Israel, and what he has said to-day, is the word of God – My feelings are good towards you all – I know that you are all exalted above a great many that are just as good as you are. –

Father arose and said – Bro. Kimball has mentioned the idea of minuting things down, in order that you may ask questions – it is a good idea; for I had rather set down among a parcel of house-blocks, than some folks – I love intelligence – and some folks don’t let their minds run higher than their ancles – and it is a perfect torment for me to sit down and talk with some folks – Many a time, I have sat down and talked with folks on trivial matters and have actually got some new ideas by asking a little question, before now – Some folks, from diffidence, are backward in asking intelligence – but no gentleman would laugh or sneer at another when a question was asked, even if it was an ignorant one. Bro. Kimball asked the brethren and sisters if they had enjoyed the party as well as the one at the Council House, – they all answered “Yes.” – A hymn being sung, the meeting was dismissed with a benediction by Bishop Whitney.

After dismissal, Bro. Kimball observed that he would like to have his children to learn to calm themselves – and he hoped that they would mind and keep the watch wound up – and when they lost time, refer to the Chronometer – Bro. K. dismissed them also with his blessing –

a village in winterC. C. A. Christensen, Winter Quarters, 1846–47 (ca. 1880). Gift to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from the five children of Jeanette Taggart Holmes.

Monday the 15th

Good weather – To-day – Bishop Miller and Porter returned from the Punkaw, the former bringing a part of his family – his house not quite finished when he arrived – Bros. Egan, M. Rockwell, and Geo. Rhodes arrived to-day also. –

Tuesday the 16th

Pleasant weather, as usual long back – attended a party at the Council House, given by President Young to his adopted children, we had a good time – I went by invitation, as a musician – with some others of the Band – We had a first rate dinner, and spent the time very agreeably – Towards evening a couple of brethren from the army arrived – viz: – Thippetts, & Wolsey. they had journeyed thirty days without eating any thing except their game on the road – they were invited in to supper by Bro. Brigham – they had been robbed on the road by the Indians, and divested of most of their apparel – They said that most of the brethren are located about 300 miles from Santa Fe, and this side of the mountains, where they intend to remain this winter – a number of them have died by various diseases, the ague and fever, &c. the names of those who had died, were read over by Brigham, and among them, was the name of Joseph Richards, the son of Phinehas Richards.[107]

List of articles bought by H. Egan on the 4th trip –



7 bhls. flour 3.75c__


3 “ “ 400c__


Paid for corn____


for grindingbush.


42½ lbs. tobacco_


1 gross matches_


2 kegs lard_


1 sett spinning wheel irons


4 papers tacks__


2½ bushels potatoes_


Paid Caulkins____


“ H. C. Kimball__





Expenses of the 4th trip____



cooking and lodging__


Ferriage 3 wagons Nishna Botana_


2 doz. Oats___ __


14 lbs. bacon 3c ___________________


Ferriage Monattany[?] 2 wagons___


Cooking and lodging _______________


Supper & breakfast___


Ferrying Monattany[?] 2 wagons___


Corn_______________________ ___




6 doz. oats________________________


17 lbs. bacon_3c___


Ferrying Nishna Botana 3 wagons_


Cooking & lodging_


" " "






Wednesday & Thursday – 17th and 18th.

Fine weather – Today – Thursday, H. Egan and Geo. Rhodes again started for the country – Luke Johnson and Sister Hyde here with us at this time

Friday the 19th

Snow storm with frost and north wind – Luke Johnson stayed with O. P. Rockwell at Bro. K’s. house, Sister Hyde with Sarah Ann.

Saturday, the 20th

On rising this morning, discovered that we had, during the night, by far the heaviest snowstorm of the season, with considerable frost –

Sunday the 21st

Quite cool, but pleasant overhead, and the sky clear, and serene – Family meeting held at Bro. K’s room. Bro. K. quite unwell – Bro. [Nathaniel Thomas ?] Brown preached, also, Bro. K. and father – did not attend.

Monday he 22d

Fair day – nothing worthy of notice,

Tuesday the 23d

The Bishops with the poor and soldier’s wives of the several wards met at the Council House, to enjoy themselves – commencing at 2 P. M., and continuing till morning attended with some others of the Band. –

Wednesday the 24th

Snowed considerably to-day as well as yesterday – My wife’s health improving slowly – she has lately been afflicted with the canker she has now been sick 5 weeks last Sunday – Luke Johnson and Sister Hyde are in the place yet, as they are not able to get back home, in consequence of there being no path or road yet made down on the other side the prairie the snow having completely blocked up all the roads.

Wrote two letters for Bro. K. directed to Hiram Kimball and Dr. [John. M.] Bernhisel – to be sent by Daniel Davis, who is soon to start for Nauvoo

Thursday the 25th

continues yet snowing – went with Bro. K. to Father Cutler’s house, and read the letter, lately written to H. Kimball at Nauvoo. – Hiram is to send on some mill irons, by Daniel Davis, and Wm. Cutler who is also going along –

The company of Pioneers will probably start for the mountains in about 4 weeks, in order to get to our place of location, in time to put in a Spring crop – Some of the Twelve will also go at the same time –

Friday the 26th

Snowing as usual – and first rate sleighing for two or three days past – Daniel Davis not going immediately Bro. K. concluded to send his letter by Peregrine Sessions who starts for Nauvoo to morrow

Saturday the 27th

Nothing worthy of notice, except that it is thawing gradually. –

Sunday the 28th

Fine day – Bro. K. preached at his room – did not attend – troubled considerably with the canker in my mouth – also my wife, who is now getting quite smart once more –

Monday the 1st of March

Beautiful weather – Ellis Eames , a player on the violin, came up from the Point – a number of the Band including him and myself went round in a sleigh this evening, (Porter driving,) and serenaded several places in the town – Bro. K. was along with us – we stopt a[t] Bishop Hunter’s and played a tune – and then by the invitation of Bro. K., went to his house, where we spent some time in dancing, &c. & retired –

Tuesday the 2d

Thawing some to-day – This evening Bro. Kay arrived from the Punkaw nation – having left his family and some others 50 miles from here, not being unable all [sic] to get home, in consequence of their feed for cattle having failed –

Wednesday the 3d

Thawing very fast – To-day, a number of the Band went round & raised a contribution for Bro. Kay, in corn, meal, &c. We got 9 bushels of the former, Played with some others of the Band, for the Quorum of High Priests, whose parties commenced yesterday –

Thursday the 4th

Clear weather, but muddy – This morning, Bro Kay and James Clayton , started with their provisions, to go back where the former had left his family – also this morning, Ellis Eames, J. Redding, Merit Rockwell, two ladies, and myself went down to the Point, in Bro. K’s. carriage (about 16 miles,) and attended a party, given at Beaubins, a half-breed – I took my flute to assist Bro. Eames in playing – had a very good time – good supper, &c.,– &c.–

Friday the 5th

Very bad going, warmer than yesterday Returned to-day – rather dangerous crossing on the ice however, got over safely, pretty well tired out, having been up all night, as well as several nights previous playing with the Band – On my arrival, had an invitation from Porter, to attend a party at Phineas Young’s house, but declined –

Saturday the 6th

Pleasant – John Kay, with some of his family arrived this evening – also, from Missouri, H. Egan, J. Frazier, and Geo. Rhodes –

Sunday the 7th

Warm and pleasant – Meeting at Bro. K’s room – he not present –

Monday the 8th

Cold severe weather – Meeting of the Pioneers of Bro. K’s. Co. held at the Council House this morning – nothing done except making selections of numbers – it is the intention for, some to start on Monday next – the majority, however will not go under 2 or 3 weeks.

There was a meeting of father’s company of pioneers, held at the council house, Monday morning, it being the intention for some to start soon, though the majority were not to start under a week or so. Here Horace and his brother Orson, concluded to go with the pioneers in place of their father, and assist in putting in crops, till the ground, etc., that the families, when they came on, might have something to move to. All were busy now preparing, and laying in their supplies for the journey.

Woman’s Exponent, vol. 14, no. 4,
15 July 1885, pp. 30–31

Tuesday the 9th

Tolerable fair weather – To-day H. Egan, Merit Rockwell, and Jacob Frazier, started for the country after a load of, corn –

Wednesday the 10th

Very fine weather – nothing of any importance to-day – except I have concluded to go with the pioneers.


[85] For more on the Word of Wisdom, see note 31.

[86] The Mormons at the Missouri were cattle rich and money poor. Brigham Young’s own herds numbered 1,264 oxen, 146 horses, and 828 cows. Heber C. Kimball’s herds counted no less. Thomas L. Kane reported “no less than 30,000 head of Latter-day Saint cattle.” The more accurate number, however, is probably closer to 10,000, the largest herd of which the “Big Herd” was located several miles north of Winter Quarters. For a more complete study of Mormon livestock, see Gary S. Ford, “Cornelius P. Lott and His Contribution to the Temporal Salvation of the Latter-day Saint Pioneers through the Care of the Livestock” (master’s thesis, Brigham Young University, 2005).

[87] For more on the indignities performed on the poor camps and other Latter-day Saints who were late in leaving Nauvoo, see Richard E. Bennett, “Eastward to Eden: the Nauvoo Rescue Missions,” Dialogue: Journal of Mormon Thought 19 (Winter 1986): 100–108. See also Bennett, “Barbarously Expelled, 77–89.

[88] Associate presiding bishop and remarkable trailblazer George Miller became highly critical of Brigham Young’s leadership the further west the pioneers traveled. As a fellow and very vocal member of the Council of Fifty, Miller’s plans for the westward exodus increasingly clashed with those of his leaders. Miller’s temporary settlement at Grand Island, and then later among the Ponca near the confluence of the Missouri and Niobrara Rivers, did not sit well with his several hundred followers, who became ever more critical of his authoritarian style of leadership. Miller and James Emmett eventually broke with Young and the Saints in January 1846. Section 136 of the Doctrine and Covenants—the “Word and Will of the Lord”—was given, in part, in response to Miller’s criticisms. Leaving the Saints, Miller first became a follower of Lyman Wight in Texas and later of James Strang in Wisconsin. He is buried in Marengo, Illinois.

[89] Miss Pierson was one of the first to die at the Missouri. Upwards of a thousand more would perish over the next two years.

[90] In return for ceding their lands to the United States, the various Indian tribes were paid treaty money by the federal government, in this case $50,000 to the Omahas. Unfortunately the Native Americans were often swindled out of these payments by liquor traffickers, fur traders, and various other unscrupulous individuals.

[91] This has reference to the Nauvoo Temple baptismal font which was situated on the top of twelve stone oxen, representative of the twelve tribes of Israel. Modern Mormon temples still feature such a font construction.

[92] For more on the so-called Missouri lifeline, see footnote 47 above

[93] These two men were likely Justin Grosclaude and a Mr. Cardinal. The former was a trader for the American Fur Company, while Cardinal, an expert trader and trapper, claimed a knowledge of most of the Indian languages and all the best trails to and over the Rockies. Both men advised against Brigham Young’s plan to go up the Platte River to the west in favor of traveling up the Niobrara River, several miles to the north. Brigham Young to George Miller, 25 November 1846, Brigham Young Papers, Church History Library. See also, Mormons at the Missouri, 151.

[94] The calling of twenty-two so-called battalion bishops at Winter Quarters derived in large measure from Brigham Young’s promise to the Mormon Battalion recruits that in exchange for their sacrifices of army-issued payments, the church would provide for and protect their wives and families. This marked the beginning of “pastoral” bishops to preside over and provide for relatively small groups or wards of members, so characteristic of modern-day bishops within the church. Several other bishops were called on the Iowa side to preside over much smaller groups of Saints scattered throughout the region.

[95] Between June 1846 and May 1847, at least 723 Latter-day Saints perished at Winter Quarters, Garden Grove, Mount Pisgah, the Punkaw village, and other Iowa settlements. The comparable figure for 1847–48 was a minimum of 280. See Bennet, Mormons at the Missouri, 147.

[96] Well known in Native American history were the atrocities performed between tribes. In 1846–47 the depredations performed by the Sioux against the Omaha defy description. Most of their victims were shot through the head or heart while still asleep. The Sioux then cut off the noses of the dead as a sign of spite and contempt. See the Diary of Appleton Milo Harmon, Winter 1846–1847, 10, Church History Library.

[97] This mention of the “Celestial Law” was in reference to the law of consecration. First practiced in the early 1830s by the Saints in Ohio in obedience to divine command (see section 42 of the Doctrine and Covenants), the law of consecration or celestial law called for a higher commitment to obedience. This law included, at one time, the consecration or dedication of private properties to the church, and the receiving back of property and means as part of one’s stewardship. Although the business management or United Order element of the law was later replaced in 1838 with the law of tithing, the law itself was still enjoined upon the Saints. There was no private ownership of lands and properties at Garden Grove, Mount Pisgah, or Winter Quarters—all belonged to the “Lord.” Brigham Young fervently believed that only in living this higher law which they had covenanted to follow in the Nauvoo Temple would their exodus succeed. Their present “errand into the wilderness” was all a Puritan-like covenant exercise in obedience. For what is still the finest study of the interchange of early Mormon theology and economics, see Leonard J. Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom: An Economic History of the Latter-day Saints, 1830–1900 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958).

[98] See “The Word and Will of the Lord,” section 136 of the Doctrine and Covenants. This is the only canonized revelation of Brigham Young. In addition to setting up the organization of the vanguard companies to the West, this revelation also discoursed on the reasons for the martyrdom of Joseph and Hyrum Smith and on the placement of the keys of governance in the church, specifically with the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. While it said nothing about their eventual destination, it did say much about their behavior as a people of God. Sustained by all the scattered Saints on both sides of the Missouri River, the Word and Will of the Lord brought great comfort and assurance to the Saints in their desperate, scattered situation and firmly established “Brother Brigham” as their chosen apostolic leader, even though it would be almost a year before he was sustained as president of the church. For more on the effects this revelation had upon the Saints in early 1846 at Winter Quarters, see Richard E. Bennett, “‘My Idea Is to Go Right Through Right Side Up with Care’: The Exodus as Reformation” (Leonard J. Arrington Mormon History Lecture Series No. 3, 6 November 1997, Utah State University Press, 1998).

[99] Similar to the Nauvoo exodus, their plan at Winter Quarters was for a vanguard company of the Twelve Apostles and other skilled pioneers to leave Winter Quarters early in April for the Rocky Mountains. This company was to be followed in June by a much larger “Emigration Camp” or “Big Camp” consisting of men, women, and children and as many of the wives and children of the Mormon Battalion families as possible. The vanguard company numbered approximately 147 souls; the Big Camp, ten times that number.

[100] The Carlos Granger story Heber C. Kimball mentioned may refer to Granger’s recently leaving the Saints in early 1847 and subsequently moving to Missouri. By 1850 he was living in Schuyler County, Missouri.

[101] The “Council House,” located in the center of Winter Quarters, functioned as the social, ecclesiastical, and political center of Winter Quarters. Most deliberations of the Twelve Apostles, of the Winter Quarters High Council, of the Bishoprics, and of the various committees were held here. It served as a model for the future Council House located in Salt Lake City, on the southwest corner of South Temple and Main Street.

[102] It would be a great mistake to conclude that life in Winter Quarters was all dark and gloomy and full of sickness and death. To help pass the time, there were dancing schools, choirs, day schools and concerts. The “Silver Greys,” much like Pitt’s brass band, were a musical consortium made up of older, gray-haired men who played various musical instruments and put on concerts and balls throughout the winter of 1846–47 on both sides of the Missouri River.

[103] Helen Mar is here addressing the fact that Joseph Smith III, eldest son of Joseph Smith Jr. and Emma Smith, and first president of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints since April 1860, had been taught by his mother that her husband never practiced polygamy. This long-held view was ever hotly contested woth the “Brighamite” or Latter-day Saint church. Joseph F. Smith, son of Hyrum Smith and nephew of Joseph Smith and later sixth president of said church, affirmed as early as 1869 that his uncle, Joseph Smith, had married at least sixteen wives. Robert Flanders, in his path-breaking study on Nauvoo, proved beyond doubt that Smith had indeed practiced plural marriage. More recently, Todd Compton has provided convincing evidence that Joseph Smith had at least thirty-four wives. See Robert Bruce Flanders, Nauvoo: Kingdom on the Mississippi (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1965) and Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1997).

Wrote Joseph F. Smith to his cousin in 1869: “In all kindness cousin Joseph . . . [I] testify that your testimony denying plurality of wives is not from God. . . . The obligation which rested upon your father to establish this order of Patriarchal marriage beyond the power of destruction seemed like a weight to crush him to the earth but knowing the redemption and exaltation of the human race depended upon it, notwithstanding the bigotry of his friends, the opposition of his own house, the universal tradition of the Christian world, and the laws of Illinois against it, he felt to rejoice that he was enabled to fulfil his mission and place beyond the power of men to destroy an institution which would redeem the female sex from degradation and exalt mankind to celestial glory and increase.” See letter of Joseph F. Smith to “Cousin Joseph Smith [III],” 9 October 1869. Church Historical Department Letterpress Copybooks, vol. 2, CR 100 38, Church History Library.

[104] Likely section 45 in the modern LDS edition of the Doctrine and Covenants, which is dated 7 March 1831. It deals primarily with the signs of the last days, the Second Coming of Christ, the establishment of the New Jerusalem, and Christ’s ensuing millennial reign.

[105] The law of adoption was a social and religious order and temple-related ordinance that sealed faithful Latter-day Saint men and their families to presiding General Authorities of the church, such as Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and other members of the Twelve Apostles. Not an adoption in the current sense of children being adopted to their parents, the law of adoption was a theological construct, a part of the chain or spiritual linkage of one generation to another in the eternal family of God. See Gordon Irving, “The Law of Adoption: One Phase of the Development of the Mormon Concept of Salvation, 1830–1900,” Brigham Young University Studies 14 (Spring 1974): 291–314. See also my Mormons at the Missouri, 191–94. For more recent studies on this topic, see Jonathan A. Stapley, “Adoptive Sealing Rituals in Mormonism,” Journal of Mormon History 37, no. 3 (Summer 2011): 53–117, and Jonathan A. Stapley, The Power of Godliness: Mormon Liturgy and Cosmology (New York: Oxford, 2018).

[106] Mormonism is a premillennial religion that believes in the Second Coming of Christ who will be accompanied by Adam, the Ancient of Days, at a special council to be held at Adam-ondi-Ahman, near Far West, Missouri.

[107] John H. Tippets and Thomas E. Wolsey had just endured a harrowing overland journey on horseback of several hundred miles through dangerous Indian territories from Pueblo, Colorado, to Winter Quarters. They brought with them money and letters from the Mormon Battalion to their families at the Missouri River. Of the 500-plus men who served in the Mormon Battalion, approximately 150 wintered at Pueblo because of sickness. David Boone, “The Mississippi Saints: A Unique Odyssey of Southern Pioneers,” in Far Away in the West: Reflections on the Mormon Pioneer Trail, ed. Scott C. Esplin, Richard E. Bennett, Susan Easton Black, and Craig K. Manscill (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center; Salt Lake City: Deseret Book), 160–86.