The JST and the Synoptic Gospels

Literary Style

Robert L. Millet

Robert L. Millet, “The JST and the Synoptic Gospels: Literary Style,” in The Joseph Smith Translation: The Restoration of Plain and Precious Truths, ed. Monte S. Nyman and Robert L. Millet (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1985), 147–62.

Robert L. Millet was an assistant professor of ancient scripture at Brigham Young University when this was published.

What scholars for years have called the “Synoptic Problem” entails the study of relationships between the synoptic Gospels—Matthew, Mark, and Luke. These three have a similar perspective and point of view with regard to the manner in which the ministry of Jesus is presented. In this article, we will consider two aspects of the Joseph Smith Translation of the synoptic Gospels which I feel suggest a restoration of content, and which therefore have interesting implications for the Latter-day Saint intent on further pursuing synoptic relationships. These are: (1) the accentuation of distinct literary styles of each of the Gospels; and (2) addition and insertion of new backgrounds and contexts in the Gospels.

Gospel Perspectives

Each of the Gospel writers sought to bear witness of the Savior in his own way. The Gospels were never intended to be biographical in scope or even to serve as classical “lives” of Christ. It may be, for example, that no more than thirty days or so of the life of Jesus is specifically presented in the canonical Gospels. What we have available to us are testimonies of the Lord’s Divine Sonship, abbreviated narratives of how it was that the Mortal Messiah “abolished death, and . . . brought life and immortality to light through the gospel” (2 Timothy 1:10).

Even though the synoptic Gospels all have a similar perspective, each has a peculiar style and particular points of emphasis, usually as a result of its intended audience. Matthew apparently wrote to a Jewish audience and sought to prove from the Old Testament that Jesus of Nazareth was the Anointed and Appointed One, the Promise of the ages. Mark and Luke seem to have written to a gentile audience; Mark’s work is a fast-moving narrative, Luke’s a sermon and parable-filled account. [1]


Matthew’s work is appropriately known as the “Gospel of the Church.” It is, indeed, the only New Testament Gospel to use the term church (Greek ekklesia) in making reference to the organized community of believers. Peter’s confession at Caesarea Philippi (“Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God”) is acknowledged and commended by the Master as of divine origin. The Lord continues: “And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 16:13–19; emphasis added). The significant contribution of Matthew’s Gospel in this regard (i.e., the matter of the Church) is grasped by simply comparing the synoptics in parallel. Mark’s account (8:29–30) contains 23 words, Luke’s account (9:20–21) contains 22 words, while Matthew’s description consists of 128 words.

Further instructions as to how to regulate the Church are given in what we have as Matthew 18. Subjects discussed include the need for conversion (vv. 1–5); the principle of removing harmful elements from the members’ lives and thus from the Church (vv. 7–9); member activation (vv. 12–14); resolving differences between individual Saints (vv. 15–17); and the need for genuine forgiveness (vv. 21–35). The instructions regarding the resolution of differences between members (cf. similar counsel in D&C 42:84–92) conclude with this matter of policy: “And if he [the accused] shall neglect to hear them [witnesses], tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican” (Matthew 18:17; emphasis added).

The JST of Matthew is a stronger witness than the King James Version (KJV) that one of Matthew’s areas of stress is the place of the Church in administering the gospel to the Saints. The JST places a much greater stress upon the fact that the Church (through the holy priesthood) administered the gospel and, through the establishment of standards and commandments, sought to structure the lives of the members in strait and narrow ways. The need for commandments within the Christian community became an important insight and contribution of Joseph Smith through his inspired translation of Matthew. Concluding his masterful Sermon on the Mount, the Savior therefore set the ultimate standard for the believer, and couched it in a new terminology: “Ye are therefore commanded to be perfect, even as your Father who is in heaven is perfect” (JST Matthew 5:50).

To his disciples during the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus added this bit of counsel:

KJV Matthew 6:26

Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?

JST Matthew 6:29–30

Behold the fowls of the air, for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they? How much more will he not feed you?

Wherefore take no thought for these things, but keep my commandments wherewith I have commanded you.

The occasion of the healing of the two blind men provides another opportunity for us to see the emergence of this theme in the JST:

KJV Matthew 9:29–30

Then touched he their eyes, saying, According to your faith be it unto you.

And their eyes were opened: and Jesus straitly charged and them, saying, See that no man know it.

JST Matthew 9:35–36

Then touched he their eyes, saying, According to your faith, be it unto you.

And their eyes were opened: straitly he charged them, saying, Keep my commandments, and see ye tell no man in this place, that no man know it.

It was not enough for the healed men to keep the miracle a secret; they must keep the commandments to be a part of the community of believers.

The cost of discipleship is enunciated in an important discourse to his disciples, just after Peter’s confession. The Lord here defines what it means for one to “take up his cross.” Note: “Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross and follow me. And now for a man to take up his cross, is to deny himself all ungodliness, and every worldly lust, and keep my commandments. Break not my commandments for to save your lives: for whosoever will save his life in this world, shall lose it in the world to come. And whosoever will lose his life in this world, for my sake, shall find it in the world to come. Therefore, forsake the world, and save your souls: for what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?” (JST Matthew 16:25–29.

Finally, it was not only the function of the Church to administer the gospel through the ordinances (see JST Matthew 5:1–4; 18:10–11), but also see to it that those within the Church lived lives consistent with the high standards set by its founder. As we mentioned earlier, chapter 18 of Matthew deals with the conduct of Church members, and provides direction on dealing with problems that might arise. In the JST, we get a clearer picture of what the Savior intended when he spoke of rooting out evil influences within and between persons in the Church. “And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee; it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire. And a man’s hand is his friend, and his foot, also; and a man’s eye, are they of his own household.” (JST Matthew 18:6–9; cf. JST Mark 9:40–47.)

A second major area of stress in the Gospel of Matthew is Jesus’ denunciation of Judaism. A more detailed treatment of the relationship between Jesus and the Jews of the first century will be given in a subsequent article in this volume, [2] but we will note a few examples here. Jesus chided the Jews of his day with becoming enamored with the externals, with means rather than ends-he attacked their empty formalism and hypocrisy. This theme is far more prominent in Matthew than in the other Gospels.

Because the leaders of the Jews misunderstood and misread the “signs of the times,” they failed to recognize him through whom the Law had been given anciently. Therefore, at best their preaching was empty, certainly when compared with the Master who “taught them as one having authority from God, and not as having authority from the Scribes” (JST Matthew 7:37; emphasis added). Again, many of the specific charges of the Savior against the Jewish leaders will be considered later in this book. For the time being, note the impact of the JST on what is already a scathing denunciation—chapter 23 of the Gospel of Matthew.

KJV Matthew 23:1–3, 15, 24, 31–32, 36–37

Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples,

Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat:

All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not.

JST Matthew 23:1–2, 12, 21, 28–29, 33–37

Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples, saying, The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat.

All, therefore, whatsoever they bid you observe, they will make you observe and do; for they are ministers of the law, and they make themselves your judges. But do not ye after their works; for they say, and do not.

Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves.

Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel.

Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he is made, ye make him two-fold more the child of hell than he was before, like unto yourselves.

Ye blind guides, who strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel; who make yourselves appear unto men that ye would not commit the least sin, and yet ye yourselves, transgress the whole law.

Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets.

Wherefore, ye are witnesses unto yourselves of your own wickedness, and ye are the children of them who killed the prophets;

Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers.

And will fill up the measure then of your fathers; for ye, yourselves, kill the prophets like unto your fathers.

Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.

Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.

Ye bear testimony against your fathers, when ye, yourselves, are partakers of the same wickedness.

Behold your fathers did it through ignorance, but ye do not; wherefore, their sins shall be upon your heads.

Then Jesus began to weep over Jerusalem, saying,

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!

O Jerusalem! Jerusalem! Ye who will kill the prophets, and will stone them who are sent unto you; how often would I have gathered your children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, and ye would not.

A third area of emphasis in Matthew is Jesus as the fulfillment of God’s promise to Israel. Matthew’s Gospel was written by a man intent on building a bridge between the old covenant and the new, or between what we have come to call the two Testaments. His was the witness, like Jacob, that “none of the prophets have written, nor prophesied, save they have spoken concerning this Christ” (Jacob 7:11).

As recorded in the JST, Jesus spoke clearly and directly to Simon and Andrew when he called them to their discipleship. “And he said unto them, I am he of whom it is written by the prophets; follow me, and I will make you fishers of men” (JST Matthew 4:18; emphasis added). The Christ of which the Prophets had written was now among the people, and the JST of Matthew is an even stronger witness that Jesus of Nazareth was that Living Fulfillment.

During the infancy narrative, we note a reference which attests to the place of Jesus as Messiah. The wise men come from the east seeking to behold and participate in a marvelous event at hand. They ask, “Where is the child that is born, the Messiah of the Jews?” (JST Matthew 3:2; emphasis added). It is not the King, but the Messiah of the Jews whom they seek. Further, with regard to the childhood of Christ, we are given a remarkable insight by Joseph Smith:

KJV Matthew 2:22–3:1

But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee:

And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.

JST Matthew 3:22–27

But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judea in the stead of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither; but, notwithstanding, being warned of God in a vision, he went into the eastern part of Galilee:

And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called Nazarene.

And it came to pass that Jesus grew up with his brethren, and waxed strong, and waited upon the Lord for the time of his ministry to come.

And he served under his father, and spake not as other men, neither could he be taught; for he needed not that any man should teach him.

And after many years, the hour of his ministry drew nigh.

Chapter 3

In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judea,

And in those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judea,

These verses not only supply an excellent transition between Christ’s infancy and the beginning of John’s ministry (note the lack of transition in the KJV from 2:23 to 3:1), but in addition point up the fact that our Lord received instructions from the heavens as well as from mortal teachers. His Divine Sonship is strongly affirmed in the JST.

We referred earlier to Matthew 23 as perhaps the greatest collection of denunciations by the Lord. At the close of that chapter, the JST adds a few words which further attest to Christ’s divine position. “Behold, your house is left unto you desolate! For I say unto you, that ye shall not see me henceforth, and know that I am he of whom it is written by the prophets, until ye shall say, Blessed is he who cometh in the name of the Lord, in the clouds of heaven, and all the holy angels with him. Then understood his disciples that he should come again on the earth, after that he was glorified and crowned on the right hand of God.” (JST Matthew 23:38–41.)


The Gospel of Mark is a fast-flowing, active account which moves rapidly from John the Baptist to the passion narrative. It is also an account of dramatic personal reactions. [3] In this Gospel, greater stress is placed upon persons being offended at Jesus; the sadness, fear, amazement, and ignorance of the disciples; and the righteous rebuke of the Twelve by the Lord for their present nearsightedness. It is interesting to note, therefore, the accentuation in the JST of such matters as the fear of the disciples (see JST Mark 9:31), their astonishment (see JST Mark 9:6), and additional mention of persons taking offense at the Savior (see JST Mark 11:34; 12:44; 14:31).

In chapter 10 of Mark the disciples are concerned as to who can be saved. Peter reminds the Lord that the Twelve have left all to follow him, and is assured by Christ that all losses will be recompensed a hundredfold in the world to come. The King James text then records the following statement by Jesus: “But many that are first shall be last; and the last first” (Mark 10:28–31). Note the same discussion in the JST: “But there are many who make themselves first, that shall be last, and the last first. This he said, rebuking Peter.” (JST Mark 10:30–31.)

The following from the Prophet’s translation of chapter 14 of Mark is worthy of a closer look. Given that Mark chose in his Gospel account to stress the weakness and ignorance of the Twelve, what do we conclude about the following from the JST?

And they came to a place which was named Gethsemane, which was a garden; and the disciples began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy, and to complain in their hearts, wondering if this be the Messiah.

And Jesus knowing their hearts, said to his disciples, Sit ye here, while I shall pray.

And he taketh with him, Peter, James, and John, and rebuked them, and said unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death; tarry ye here and watch. (JST Mark 14:36–38.)


The Gospel of Luke is the first of a two-part work (Luke-Acts) written by Luke, the missionary companion of Paul. Luke is writing specifically to a gentile friend, Theophilus (see Acts 1:1; JST Luke 3:19–20), but generally to a broad gentile audience. The work is put forward to emphasize the universal scope of the message of Christ, and provides a background for a discussion of the systematic spread of the gospel from Jerusalem to all Judea, to Samaria, and finally to the ends of the earth (see Acts 1:8).

Joseph Smith’s translation of Luke provides an even stronger gentile flavor to the account. In chapter 3 of Luke, for example, the Prophet adds five verses (175 words), which insertion not only provides a meaningful transition between verses 4 and 5 in the Authorized Version (and thus a doctrinal bridge between the first and second comings of the Christ), but also lays a foundation for the concept that the spread of the gospel will even encompass those outside of the house of Israel.

KJV Luke 3:2–6

the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.

JST Luke 3:2–11

Now in this same year, the word of God came unto John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness.

And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins;

As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.

And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.

As it is written in the book of the prophet Esaias; and these are the words, saying, The voice Prepare ye the way of the of Lord, one crying in the wilderness, and make his paths straight.

For behold, and lo, he shall come, as it is written in the book of the prophets, to take away the sins of the world, and to bring salvation unto the heathen nations, to gather together those who are lost, who are of the sheepfold of Israel;

Yea, even the dispersed and afflicted; and also to prepare the way, and make possible the preaching of the gospel unto the Gentiles;

And to be a light unto all who sit in darkness, unto the uttermost parts of the earth; to bring to pass the resurrection from the dead, and to ascend up on high, to dwell on the right hand of the Father,

Until the fulness of time, and the law and the testimony shall be sealed, and the keys of the kingdom shall be delivered up again unto the Father;

To administer justice unto all; to come down in judgment upon all, and to convince all the ungodly of their ungodly deeds, which they have committed; and all this in the day that he shall come;

Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth;

For it is a day of power; yea, every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways made smooth;

And all flesh shall see the salvation of God.

And all flesh shall see the salvation of God.

We find in the JST of Luke additional cultural explanations—insights which might be given to Gentiles perhaps less familiar with living patterns of the Jews. For example, in the same chapter 3 of Luke, we find John the Baptist counseling the multitude to share their surplus with those less fortunate. To the publicans he directs: “Exact no more [of those from whom you take taxes] than that which is appointed you.” (Luke 3:13.) The following is added in the JST: “For it is well known unto you, Theophilus, that after the manner of the Jews, and according to the custom of their law in receiving money into the treasury, that out of the abundance which was received, was appointed unto the poor, every man his portion; And after this manner did the publicans also, wherefore John said unto them, Exact no more than that which is appointed you.” (JST Luke 3:19–20.)

Another example of this type of addition (cultural clarifications) in the JST is found in chapter 17 of Luke. Here the Lord is enumerating some of the signs incident to his coming in glory. He speaks of the fact that on that great and dreadful day

Two shall be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.

And they answered and said unto him, Where, Lord, shall they be taken.

And he said unto them, Wheresoever the body is gathered; or, in other words, whithersoever the saints are gathered, thither will the eagles be gathered together; or, thither will the remainder be gathered together.

This he spake, signifying the gathering of his saints; and of angels descending and gathering the remainder unto them; the one from the bed, the other from the grinding, and the other from the field, whithersoever he listeth. (JST Luke 17:35–38.)

A final item to consider is the fact that expressions occur in the JST of Luke which are generally recognized as Pauline sayings. In chapter 3 of the JST, John the Baptist speaks of the “fulness of time” (JST Luke 3:8), an expression found in Paul’s letter to the Ephesians (see 1:10). In chapter 12 of Luke, Jesus explains to the Twelve that “the laborer is worthy of his hire; for the law saith, That a man shall not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn.” (JST Luke 12:33.) In this case, Jesus is citing an Old Testament passage (see Deuteronomy 25:4), and drawing contemporary application. Paul refers to the same matter in 1 Corinthians 9:9 and 1 Timothy 5:18. The same is true with the phrase “thief in the night,” referring to the suddenness of our Lord’s second coming in glory. It occurs in the JST of Luke (12:44) and also in 1 Thessalonians 5:2 (cf. 2 Peter 3:10), but not in Matthew, Mark, or John. We know that Luke and Paul were intimately associated, and certainly the two men would have influenced the thought and writings of each other. The Joseph Smith Translation strengthens the tie between Luke and Paul.

The JST and the Synoptic Gospels: Backgrounds and Settings

The second main area which I feel suggests a restoration of content in the JST has to do with the addition or reconstitution of settings and backgrounds in the Gospels. The form critic has long been concerned with “getting behind the sources” to discuss the earliest Sitz im Leben or “setting in life” for sayings or sermons or events in the life of Christ. Serious-minded Latter-day Saints cannot, therefore, ignore the fact that the Joseph Smith Translation of the Gospels frequently introduces new or unusual settings for many of what have become proverbial sayings of the Savior. This occurs occasionally in Matthew and Mark, and quite often in Luke. We will now consider three examples of this phenomenon.

In chapter 9 of Matthew, Jesus has just explained why his disciples do not fast after the pattern of the Pharisees, or even like the Baptist’s followers. “The days will come,” the Lord prophesies, “when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they fast” (Matthew 9:15). The next verse in the KJV begins the discussion of the new cloth and the new wine. Note the insertion in the JST:

But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they fast.

Then said the Pharisees unto him, Why will ye not receive us with our baptism, seeing we keep the whole law?

But Jesus said unto them, Ye keep not the law. If ye had kept the law, ye would have received me, for I am he who gave the law.

I receive not you with your baptism, because it profiteth you nothing.

For when that which is new is come, the old is ready to be put away.

For no man putteth a piece of new cloth on an old garment. (JST Matthew 9:17–22.)

The JST provides an additional doctrinal setting for the discussion of cloth and wine: Jesus has rejected the baptism of the Pharisees and stressed that all old covenants are superseded by the new and everlasting covenant. (Cf. D&C 22.)

In chapter 14 of Luke, Christ has been discoursing on the cost of Christian discipleship. From the KJV we read: “So likewise, whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple. Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be seasoned?” (Luke 14:33–34.) The Master’s intent is apparent: a disciple who is not willing to forsake all for the cause of righteousness is like salt that no longer spices, heals, or preserves. The JST, however, provides an expanded meaning:

So likewise, whosoever of you forsaketh not all that he hath he cannot be my disciple.

Then certain of them came to him, saying, Good Master, we have Moses and the prophets, and whosoever shall live by them, shall he not have life?

And Jesus answered, saying, Ye know not Moses, neither the prophets; for if ye had known them, ye would have believed on me; for to this intent they were written. For I am sent that ye might have life. Therefore I will liken it unto salt which is good;

But if the salt has lost its savor, wherewith shall it be seasoned? (JST Luke 14:34–37.)

In this expanded context, good salt is compared to the man that accepts modern revelation and living oracles, and who discerns the hidden meaning and fulfillment of scripture.

Finally, one of the most fascinating alterations in the King James text occurs in chapter 16 of Luke. In this chapter there is an abrupt movement in subject matter from verses 17 to 19: Jesus explains that he is the fulfillment of the Law and the Prophets; he establishes strict standards for marriage and divorce; he then delivers the parable of the rich man and Lazarus. Note the flow of conversation in the Prophet’s inspired revision:

And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than for one tittle of the law to fail.

And why teach ye the law, and deny that which is written; and condemn him whom the Father hath sent to fulfill the law, that ye might all be redeemed?

O fools! for you have said in your hearts, There is no God. And you pervert the right way; and the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence of you; and you persecute the meek; and in your violence you seek to destroy the kingdom; and ye take the children of the kingdom by force. Woe unto you, ye adulterers!

And they reviled him again, being angry for the saying, that they were adulterers.

But he continued, saying, Whosoever putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, committeth adultery; and whosoever marrieth her who is put away from her husband, committeth adultery. Verily I say unto you, I will liken you unto the rich man.

For there was a certain rich man, who was clothed in purple, and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day. (JST Luke 16:19–24.)

Such changes represent far more than grammatical improvement, harmonization, or even helpful commentary. If, as someone has suggested, text without context leads to pretext, then surely Joseph Smith is rendering a remarkable service—seeking to enhance our understanding of passages through supplying lost settings or backgrounds.


We live in a marvelous age, the times of restitution. We are a part of an era in which God has seen fit to restore plain and precious truths to his people through his appointed servants. As noted earlier, the Lord said to Sidney Rigdon that the work of Bible translation would eventuate in the unfolding of the scriptures, even as they are in the bosom of the Lord Himself (see D&C 35:20). It is my testimony that Joseph Smith the Prophet was doing far more than toying with the scriptures, even more than offering helpful commentary upon King James passages. His translation of the synoptic Gospels points toward the reality of a restoration of ancient happenings and ancient sayings. That Joseph Smith made changes in the text consistent with the peculiar styles and themes of the Gospel writers suggests that the Prophet was sensitive to the intent as well as the content of the original writers. That he added or altered contexts or settings suggests his awareness of words or doings not evident in our oldest manuscripts. Like his ancient prophetic counterpart, Joseph Smith was able to view things “not visible to the natural eye,” things not available even to those with an eye toward the most ancient extant texts. Knowing what we know of the eternal value of Joseph Smith’s work with the Bible, we, like those among whom Enoch ministered in an earlier day, ought to declare forthrightly: Truly “a seer hath the Lord raised up unto his people” (JST Genesis 6:38; Moses 6:36).


[1] A detailed treatment of each of the Gospels and their messages is contained in Robert L. Millet, “As Delivered from the Beginning: The Formation of the Canonical Gospels,” A Symposium on Apocryphal Literature, BYU Religious Studies Center, October 1983, Provo, Utah.

[2] See Robert L. Millet, “Looking beyond the Mark: Insights from the JST into First-Century Judaism,” found herein.

[3] See Merrill C. Tenney, New Testament Survey (Grand Rapids, MI.: Eerdman’s, 1961), 164.