Entries 101–200

Peter Crawley, A Descriptive Bibliography of the Mormon Church,1848–1852 (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, 1997), 1:152–244.

101 ​​KIMBALL, Heber Chase, and Wilford Woodruff. The word of the Lord to the citizens of London, of every sect and denomination: and to every individual into whose hands it may fallshowing forth the plan of salvation, as laid down in the New Testament:—​namely, faith in our Lord Jesus Ch​ristrepentancebaptism for the remission of sinsand the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands. Presented by two of the elders of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints. [Caption title] [Signed on p. 8:] Heber C. Kimball Wilford Woodruff’. [At foot of p. 8:] City Press, Long Lane: Doudney and Scrymgour. [London, 1841]

8 pp. 17.5 cm.

Wilford Woodruff labored in London for nineteen weeks after he returned to the city on October 17, 1840—three weeks with George A. Smith, twelve with Heber C. Kimball. Converts came slowly, but when the first Mormon conference convened in London on February 14, 1841, forty-six members made up the London branch. In January 1841 Brigham Young wrote to Kimball and Woodruff to arrange to return to the United States that spring, and during February they prepared to leave the London branch in the hands of Lorenzo Snow. On February 9 they worked on a parting statement to the indifferent Londoners, and two days later they finished the tract. Kimball’s and Woodruff’s journals suggest that they dictated the text to Ellen Balfour Redman, a well-educated Scottish woman who had joined the Church in New York and who occasionally wrote letters for Kimball. [1] Woodruff corrected the proofs on February 17; on the 20th, the day Kimball left London and six days before his own departure, he picked up 3,000 copies of The Word of the Lord to the Citizens of London at a cost of £3,3s. Most of these he left with Lorenzo Snow for distribution in the city. [2]

Like A Timely Warning (items 30, 36, 54, 81) and An Address to the People of England (items 67, 72–73), which clearly influenced it, The Word of the Lord was written as a warning to those who had not yet received the Mormon message (see e.g.,D&C 1:4–5; 38:41; 63:37, 57–58; 88:81; 109:41; 112:5). [3] Its focus is Mormonism’s first principles: faith in Jesus Christ, repentance from sin, baptism by immersion, and the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands by one having God’s authority. It is a significant pamphlet, for it was the prototype of Lorenzo Snow’s Only Way to be Saved (item 129), the most widely published of all the nineteenthcentury Mormon tracts. The Word of the Lord was reprinted in Bristol in 1841 (item 123) and in the Times and Seasons of September 15, 1841.

Flake 4618. CtY, MH, UPB, US1C, UU.

102 PA​GE, John Edward, and John Cairns. A collection of sacred hymns, for the use of the Latter Day Saints. Selected and published by John E. Page & John Cairns, elders. [Caption title 1] N.p., 1841?)

64 pp. 10.5 cm.

John E. Page was a recalcitrant apostle. Born in Oneida County, New York, in 1799, he joined the Church in Ohio in 1833 and moved to Kirtland two years later. In the spring of 1838 he and his family immigrated to Missouri, and in the course of the exodus that winter, his wife and two children took sick and died. He was ordained one of the Twelve in December 1838, and about the same time he married Mary Judd, a Canadian, twenty years his junior. Page was called to accompany Orson Hyde to Jerusalem in April 1840, but in spite of much urging from the other Church leaders, he tarried in Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania while Hyde made his way to the Holy Land (see items 79, 128, 144). By February 1846 he had shifted his allegiance to James J. Strang, and that month he was dropped from the Quorum of the Twelve; four months later he was excommunicated. For three years he was a pillar in James Strang’s church, the editor of the Gospel Herald, until Strang cut him off in July 1849 (see items 303, 310). After that he joined the Brewsterites, and in the early 1860s he followed Granville Hedrick. He died in Illinois in 1867. [4]

Less is known about John Cairns. Born in Glasgow, Scotland, October 21, 1808, he came to Canada as a young man, converted to Mormonism there in 1834, and moved to Nauvoo about 1840. In April 1843 the Twelve called him to a mission in England, and the following month he accompanied Reuben Hedlock to Great Britain, where he presided over the London Conference and then over the Church in Scotland. He also joined Thomas Ward in publishing Oliver Cowdery’s letters to W. W. Phelps in pamphlet form (item 197). By February 1845 he had returned to the United States, and a year later he participated in the Nauvoo Temple. Subsequently, he became disaffected and moved to St. Louis, where he engaged in business and civil service, including six years on the city council. In 1885 he joined the RLDS Church at Hannibal, Missouri, and that year died there forty days before his seventy-seventh birthday. [5]

In a letter in the Times and Seasons of August 2, 1841, Cairns speaks of joining Page on a missionary journey through Ohio and Indiana which extended from mid-January to July. Since the eight-line preface on the first page of the Page-Cairns hymnbook refers to “a large collection [of hymns] about to be published at Nauvoo, 111.” (see the next item), it would seem that Page and Cairns published their book in February or March 1841, probably in Ohio or Indiana. That Page would publish a hymnal about the same time the Church was printing one is a measure of his independence. Six of the hymns in his book are by his wife, Mary Judd Page, so perhaps the book arose out of his desire to see more of her songs in print. [6] The book itself contains the texts of forty-seven hymns (pp. [1]–62), followed by an index of first lines (pp. 63–64). Twenty-two of the songs are in the 1835 hymnal (item 23). Seven others are from Parley Pratt’s Millennium and Other Poems (item 63). Three are previously unpublished hymns by W. W. Phelps, and, as mentioned above, six others are by Mary Judd Page. Of the nine remaining hymns, four seem to be by Mormon authors. It is possible that Cairns himself wrote some of these, for his letter in the Times and Seasons includes a few lines of verse. The copy at the RLDS Church is in a plain brown paper wrapper, probably a later cover.

Ten of the songs in the Page-Cairns book, including two of Mary Page’s and Parley Pratt’s “An Angel of Glory from Heaven Descended,” apparently were not printed in any other LDS hymnal. Two others published here for the first time, W. W. Phelps’s “Wake O Wake the World From Sleeping” and Mary Page’s “Ye Who Are Called to Labor,” were included in the official LDS hymnal from 1847 to 1947 and 1851 to the present, respectively. [7] Twenty-seven were used in the Little-Gardner book (item 246), the first Mormon hymnal with music.

Flake 6066. MoInRC, US1C.

103 A collection of sacred hymns, for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Selected by Emma Smith. Nauvoo, III: Printed by E. Robinson. 1841

 iv[5]–351 pp. 10.5 cm.

By the summer of 1839 the Kirtland hymnbook (item 23) was out of print, and in July, just before the apostles left for their missions to England, Joseph Smith and the Twelve met to select hymns for a new book. Three months later the general conference in Nauvoo voted to publish a new edition of the hymns immediately. This decision was reaffirmed October 27 by the Nauvoo high council which directed Emma Smith to “select and publish a hymn-book for the use of the Church,” and the next day it delegated Oliver Granger to raise funds for the publication. On December 29, 1839, the high council again voted to print 10,000 copies of the hymnbook “under the inspection of the Presidency, as soon as monies can be raised to defray the expenses.” The following July, the Nauvoo high council appointed George W. Harris and Samuel Bent as traveling agents to solicit orders for a new hymnal, a new edition of the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Book of Mormon—which, at this time, Ebenezer Robinson was seeing through the press in Cincinnati (see item 83). [8] Robinson reported to the October 1840 conference that he was then making arrangements to print the hymns, and the following month he advertised for songs in the Times and Seasons:

Having just returned from Cincinnati Ohio, with paper and other materials for publishing a new selection of Hymns which have so long been desired by the saints, we contemplate commenceing the work immediately; and feeling desirous to have an extensive, and valuable book; it is requested that all those who have been endowed with a poetical genius, whose muse has not been altogether idle, will feel enough interest in a work of this kind, to immediately forward all choice, newly composed, or revised hymns. In designating those who are endowed with a Poetical genius, we do not intend to exclude others; we mean all who have good hymns that will cheer the heart of the righteous man, to send them as soon as practicable, directed to Mrs. Emma Smith, Nauvoo, 111. Post Paid.

By the middle of March 1841, the hymnal was out of press, and Robinson announced in the Times and Seasons of March 15 that copies would be bound in time for the April 6 conference. [9] A year later Lucian R. Foster advertised the book in New York at 50¢ a copy. [10] What the ultimate size of the edition was is unknown, but it was probably much smaller than the 10,000 ordered by the high council in December 1839. Robinson, it would seem, played the principal role in publishing the official hymnbook in 1841, just as W. W. Phelps had done in 1835. To what extent Emma Smith was involved is not known.

The 1841 hymnal retains the 1835 preface (pp. [iii]–iv). It includes the texts of 303 songs (pp. [5]–340), numbered 1–304, with “The Glorious Day is Rolling On” printed twice as nos. 11 and 135. Seventy-seven of the hymns are in the 1835 book, of which seventy-three are in the 1840 hymnal (item 78). Seventy-eight others are taken from the 1840 hymnal. Five more are from the 1839 Elsworth book (item 61). Of the remaining 143 hymns, only ten are of Mormon authorship: three each by Eliza R. Snow and Mary Judd Page, and one each by Hosea Stout, Robert B. Thompson, W. W. Phelps, and Austin Cowles. Twenty-four of the new hymns are by Isaac Watts, seven by Charles Wesley. [11] An index of first lines is at the end (pp. [341]–351).

The Nauvoo hymnal occurs in several bindings, including plain brown sheep with ruled or decorative gilt bands and the title in gilt or in blind on the backstrip, black striated sheep with gilt decorations and title on the backstrip, and plain gray muslin. The different bindings reflect the fact that copies were kept in sheets and bound at various times as they were needed, this continuing as late as December 1843. [12]

Flake 1761. CtY, DLC, ICN, MoInRC, MWA, NN, NNUT, PHi, UPB, US1C, UU.

104 JOHNSON, Joel Hills. A portrait of the Missouri mob. A poem. By Joel H. Johnson. [Nauvoo? 1841?]

Broadside 35 x 17.5 cm.Text in two columns, ornamental border.

Portrait of the Missouri Mob is clearly a Nauvoo imprint: the border, for example, has the same type elements as that on the Circular of the High Council of January 20, 1846 (item 296). The date 1841 is tentatively assigned to it because of the flurry of Johnson’s poetry which appeared in the Times and Seasons that year (e.g., April 1, July 15, and October 1). Indeed, variations of a few of its lines are incorporated in Johnson’s “Poem on the Suffering of the Saints in Missouri,” in the Times and Seasons of April 1, 1841. Moreover, it is reprinted in John E. Page’s Slander Refuted [Philadelphia? 1841?] (item 128), exactly as in the broadside, including the quotations at the beginning, but with a half-dozen corrections—suggesting that Page took his text from the broadside.

In 26 four-line stanzas, the poem is essentially a propaganda piece which dwells on the most outrageous aspects of the Mormon expulsion. Its fourteenth stanza: “Thus all the State became a mob, / With Bogs, their Gov’nor, at their head; / Which gave them power to kill and rob, / ‘Till many of the saints were dead.”

Flake 4440. CtY.

105 SNOW, Eliza Roxcy. Time and change: a poem in blank verse. Also two odes, one for the sons of liberty, the other for the fourth of July. By Miss Eliza R. Snow. Nauvoo, III. Printed by E. Robinson. J841.

18 pp. 14 cm.

Eliza R. Snow, “Zion’s Poetess,” was the most influential of all the nineteenth century Mormon women. Born in Massachusetts in 1804, she lived her early life in Ohio and in 1835 followed her mother and sister into the Mormon Church. From Kirtland in 1838 she traveled with her family to Missouri, and then into Illinois. In Nauvoo she was the secretary of the first Relief Society, and in June 1842 she became a plural wife of Joseph Smith. Eliza made the overland crossing to Utah in 1847. When the Relief Society was organized throughout all the wards of the Church in the late 1860s, she was called to be the president, a position she held for twenty years. She died in Salt Lake City, December 5, 1887. [13]

All during her life Eliza Snow wrote poems which she published in the Mormon newspapers and magazines in Ohio, Illinois, and Utah (see items 168, 249). Most aspects of the history and ideology of the Latter-day Saints are touched in these works, in words that have become permanently embedded in the Mormon culture. Time and Change is her first work published as a separate. It is mentioned in the Times and Seasons of April 15, 1841, with an injunction to the young to “commit it to memory, and thus transmit it as a useful and pleasing lesson to future time.” Its theme and the time it was published suggest that it was inspired by the maneuvers of the Nauvoo Legion on April 6, 1841, an event which also inspired another Nauvoo poet, Lyman O. Littlefield (item 113).

“Time and Change” is a long narrative poem in blank verse, with two odes inserted into the body of the poem. The first ode (pp. 14–15), celebrating liberty, is in 6 four-line stanzas; the second (pp. 16–17), questioning the celebration of the Fourth of July by the Latter-day Saints who had been denied their political rights, is in 4 eight-line stanzas. The poem itself traces the ebb and flow of civilizations including the destruction of liberty with the Roman persecution of the Christians, the reinstitution of freedom with the rise of America, the subsequent loss of freedom with the persecution of the Mormons, and its ultimate restoration with the millennial reign of the Messiah. It is reprinted, with some changes, in the first volume of Eliza R. Snow’s collected works, Poems, Religious, Historical, and Political (Liverpool, 1856), pp. 237–61.

Flake 7848. NNHi.

106 CLAYTON, William. A deluded Mormon. The following lines were composed by a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and sung by the Twelve, on leaving the wharf at England, for “Mount Zion” in the West. [Nauvoo? 1841 ?]

Broadside 24.5 x 8.5 cm. Ornamental border.

107 MATTHEWS, Mary. Hymns. The following lines were composed by Mrs. Mary Matthews, of Lancaster County, Pa. a member of the Church of “Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,” on the gathering of the saints to the city of Nauvoo. [Nauvoo? 1841?]

Broadside 32.5 x 18 cm. Text in two columns, ornamental border.

These two broadsides appear to be Nauvoo imprints. The peculiar & and the italic type used for the first words of the chorus in item 106, for example, match those of the Times and Seasons (see e.g., 2:320, 437, 533, 545). The type elements making up the border of item 107 are used in the borders of items 104, 262, 296, and in a border in the Times and Seasons (6:875); and the bold typeface of the word hymn at the head of each song appears throughout the Times and Seasons.

Item 106 prints William Clayton’s song “In Darkness Long We’ve Been O’erwhelmed,” first published on the back page of Journal of Heber C. Kimball (item 93). This song speaks about the introduction of Mormonism in Britain and the doctrine of the gathering. Its text in the broadside, in 9 four-line verses and a four-line chorus, seems to be a later version incorporating nine textual changes and a number of changes in spelling and punctuation, including the change of With to In in the first line. Its first verse: “In darkness long we’ve been o’erwhelmed / Upon proud Britain’s land, / But now the Lord has call’d us forth / By his Almighty hand.” It is reprinted in The Prophet of August 3, 1844, preserving the entire text and format of the broadside, except the ironic title A Deluded Mormon which is replaced with Hymn. [14] So one might infer that item 106 was printed no later than August 1844. The subtitle obviously refers to the departure of seven of the Twelve from England on April 20, 1841, suggesting that the broadside was printed no earlier than 1841. The original version of the song was also included in a broadside (item 245) and in the Wight hymnal (item 345).

William Clayton is best known for his hymn “Come, Come, Ye Saints.” Born in Lancashire, England, in 1814, he converted to Mormonism in 1837 and three years later immigrated to Nauvoo, where he served as Joseph Smith’s secretary and as the clerk of the Council of Fifty. He crossed the plains with the pioneer company in 1847, and from his record of this trip published his famous Latter-day Saints’ Emigrants’ Guide (St. Louis, 1848). In Utah he served for many years as territorial recorder of marks and brands and as territorial auditor. He died in Salt Lake City in 1879. [15]

Item 107 includes three hymns, in six, ten, and six verses, respectively. As far as it is known, only the third song appears in any other Mormon source. This song was added to the sixth number of the reprinted Evening and Morning Star (September 1835) (item 17). Its first verse: “How precious is the name, / Brethren sing, brethren sing, / How precious is the name / Of Christ the Paschal lamb, / Who bore our Sin and shame, / On the tree, on the tree; / Who bore our sin and shame, / On the tree.”

The subtitle of item 107 and the contents of the songs suggest that only the first hymn was written by Mrs. Mary Matthews, of Lancaster County, Pa., of whom nothing is known. The first verse of her hymn: “Oh! happy land, for thee we sigh, / When will the moments come? / When shall we on Mount Zion stand, / And dwell/ with saints at home?” And the first verse of the second song: “Come my brethren let us try / For a little season, / Every burthen to lay by: / Come and let us reason.”

Because of the similarities in the subtitles, items 106 and 107 appear to have been printed about the same time. They are entered at this point because several other pieces of Mormon poetry were published as separates during the spring of 1841 (items 104, 105, 113), perhaps as a result of Ebenezer Robinson’s advertising for songs for the Nauvoo hymnal (see item 103). The only located copy of item 107 was sold by the University of Michigan Clements Library in May 1995 and is now owned by a private collector.

Item 106: US1C.

108 PRATT, Parley Parker. A letter to the Queen, touching the signs of the times, and the political destiny of the world. [2 lines] Manchester: Printed and published by P. P. Pratt, No. 47, Oxford-Street. 1841.

12 pp. 19 cm.

The principal theme of A Letter to the Queen is one of Mormonism’s oldest, the imminence of the Millennium, but with a new component. Using the dream of Nebuchadnezzar in the second chapter of Daniel, it argues that all of the world’s governments are soon to be supplanted by a millennial government lead by Jesus Christ and administered by his followers—an audacious declaration to make to the sovereign of the British empire.

Such political overtones are not easily discernable in Mormon millenarianism before 1838. In the 1837 Voice of Warning (item 38), for example, the kingdom of God is identified with Christ’s church, and membership in this kingdom is declared to be available to all who repent of their sins and are properly baptized. But a year after Voice of Warning was published, when the Saints were besieged at Far West, they openly discussed Nebuchadnezzar’s dream in support of the idea that the kingdom of God would eventually overwhelm the governments of the earth. [16] This idea is implicit in Parley’s Farewell Song (item 68) and explicit in his article “The Millennium” in the first number of the Millennial Star.

One other idea is prominent in A Letter to the Queen, an idea aired earlier in An Epistle of Demetrius (item 92): “I mean my message for the lords and nobles, clergy and gentry, as well as Sovereign and people. Let them deal their bread to the hungry, their clothing to the naked,—let them be merciful to the poor, the needy, the sick and the afflicted, the widow and the fatherless.”

A Letter to the Queen is signed by Parley Pratt at the end and dated at Manchester, May 28, 1841. By June 6, Joseph Fielding had copies in his possession. [17] An advertisement for it appeared in the June 1841 issue of the Star, at 1d. each or 4s. per hundred—two-thirds the cost of other tracts of comparable size. This ad makes it clear that, although addressed to Queen Victoria, the tract was intended for a more common readership; it urged the Saints to buy a hundred copies “to give away, to lend, or to sell.” In four weeks the entire edition of 5,000 was distributed, and a second edition of 5,000 was rushed off the press (items 119–20 ). [18] It was reprinted in the Times and Seasons of November 15, 1841, in New York (item 166), Nauvoo (item 202), Milwaukee (item 203), and by George J. Adams under a different title (item 194).

Flake 6597. CtY, CU-B, UPB, US1C.

109 PRATT, Orson. An interesting account of several remarkable visions, and of the late discovery of ancient American records. By O. Pratt, minister of the gospel. [First American edition.] New-York: Joseph W. Harrison, Printer, No. 465 Pearl- Street. 1841.

36 pp. 17.5 cm. Ornamental border on title page. Yellow printed wrappers.

110 PRATT, Orson. An interesting account of several remarkable visions, and of the late discovery of ancient American records. By O. Pratt, minister of the gospel. [SecondAmerican edition.]New-York: Joseph W. Harrison, Printer, No. 465 Pearl- Street. 1841.

36 pp. 17.5 cm. Ornamental border on title page. Yellow printed wrappers.

Orson Pratt, along with six of the Twelve and 130 emigrating Saints, set sail for the United States on April 20, 1841, reaching New York one month later. While Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and John Taylor returned to Nauvoo, Pratt remained in New York City to reprint his Remarkable Visions (item 82). On June 12, he obtained the American copyright and two days later deposited a copy of the book with the court. By July 19, he was back in Nauvoo, and two weeks later he began advertising the new edition in the Times and Seasons, at 12½¢ each, despite the price on the wrapper. [19] Just when the second American edition was printed is not known. Kimball reported in a letter to the Millennial Star of September 1841 that Pratt intended to republish Remarkable Visions in 5,000 copies. Whether this refers to just the first American edition or to it and the second is also unknown. The first American edition reprints the 1840 edition with a dozen minor textual changes, a few changes in punctuation, and the addition of four paragraphs just preceding the concluding paragraph. This added text speaks of the imminence of the Second Advent and the necessity of responding to the Church’s message. Also, two hymns are added at the end, Parley Pratt’s “The Morning Star” (p. 35), and Thomas Kelly’s “Israel’s Redemption” (p. 36). [20] The second American edition is virtually a line-for-line reprint of the first American edition, with a dozen changes in punctuation. Both were issued in yellow printed wrappers with the following wrapper title within an ornamental border: An interesting account of several remarkable visions, and of the late discovery of ancient American records, which unfold the history of this continent from the earliest ages after the flood, to the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era. With a sketch of the rise, faith, and doctrine, of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. By O. Pratt, minister of the gospel. [2 lines ] Price, ten cents, or six dollars per hundred. In both instances, the outside back wrapper contains Philo Dibble’s hymn “The Happy Day Has Rolled On,” and the interior is plain.2

Item 109: Flake 6502. ICHi, MH, MWA, NjP, UPB, US1C, UU. Item 110: Flake 6503. CtY, NN, UPB, US1C.

111 PRATT, Parley Parker. An address by a minister of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to the people of the United States: [Caption title] [Last line on p. 4:] according to truth and righteousness. [New York? 1841?]

4 pp. 19 cm.

112 PRATT, Parley Parker. An address by a minister of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. To the people of the United States: [Caption title] [Last line on p. 4:] judge according to truth and righteousness. [New York? 1841 ?]

4 pp. 18 cm.

Items 111 and 112 are different editions of Parley Pratt’s Manchester tract An Address by a Minister of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, to the People of England (items 72–73)—although, for the most part, they are line-for-line the same. Item 111 is a faithful reprint of the May 28, 1840, Manchester edition except for the deletion of three sentences, the change of Assyrian to Syrian and Jesus to Jesus Christ, and the deletion of a comma, all in the second page, and the addition of a comma and the change of kingdom to country in the fourth. Item 112 is textually identical to item 111 except for the insertion of the word the in the seventeenth line of page 2, and a half-dozen changes in punctuation. This sequence of changes suggests that item 112 was reprinted from item 111. Unlike the Manchester editions, these do not identify Parley Pratt as the author.

Both editions list Latter-day Saint meeting times in New York City on the last page, suggesting that they are New York imprints. Both include the Gospel Reflector (item 95) in their lists of publications, so they were printed no earlier than 1841. John E. Page’s Slander Refuted (item 128) contains a faithful reprint of item 111. And Erastus Snow’s and Benjamin Winchester’s Address to the Citizens of Salem (items 125–26) reprints a part of An Address by a Minister, identical in both item 111 and item 112, which includes the next-to-last paragraph of main text. The eleventh line of this paragraph contains a comma that is not in either of the Manchester editions but which is perpetuated in the Snow-Winchester tract. It would appear, therefore, that item 111 was printed before the publication of the Snow-Winchester tract in September 1841. Items 111 and 112 are listed at this point because it seems plausible that they were printed in tandem with the first two New York editions of Orson Pratt’s Remarkable Visions (items 109, 110). During June and July 1844, The Prophet advertised An Address by a Minister at a hundred copies for 250 (see item 184).

Flake 6557. Item III: NN. Item 112: CSmH, UPB, WHi.

113 LITTLEFIELD, Lyman Omer. The Latter Day Saints: a poem in two cantos; by Omer, author of “Eliza or the Broken Vow.” [1 line] Nauvoo, III: Printed for the author. 1841.

 iv[5]–15 pp. 16 cm.

“Omer” is Lyman Omer Littlefield, who, at the time this piece was printed, was a twenty-one-year-old compositor in the Times and Seasons office. The title page identifies Omer as the author of “Eliza or the Broken Vow,” which Littlefield’s memoirs make clear he wrote. [21] Lyman O. Littlefield was born in Oneida County, New York, November 22, 1819. In the early 1830s he and his family moved to Michigan, where they joined the Mormon Church. At age fourteen he marched with Zion’s Camp to Missouri. When the Saints moved into Clay County, his father bought a farm there, and Littlefield went to work as an apprentice at the shop of the Upper Missouri Enquirer. In 1840 he moved to Nauvoo and hired on at the Times and Seasons office. From September 1847 to July 1848, he served as a missionary in England and assisted in editing the Millennial Star. Returning to America in 1848, he settled in Kanesville, Iowa, and during the next ten years worked for the Council Bluffs Bugle and the Crescent City Oracle. He immigrated to Utah in 1860 and for many years worked at the Deseret News and Salt Lake Daily Telegraph. He died in Smithfield, Utah, September 1, 1893. [22]

The Latter Day Saints: A Poem is noticed in the Times and Seasons of June 15, 1841, with the following comment inserted by a loyal co-worker: “The author, altho’ young in years, has given evidence of poetic genius, which, we hope, will be cultivated, until he arrives at the acme of perfection.” An ad, dated June 15, in the same issue offers the pamphlet for 6 1/4¢ Another poem of Littlefield’s is printed in the Times and Seasons for October 1, 1841; a third, signed “Omer,” is in the issue of May 1, 1843.

The central figure of The Latter Day Saints: A Poem is Joseph Smith, to whom the poem is dedicated on the verso of the title page. The first canto describes the expulsion of the Saints from Missouri and comments on the roles of the governor, the militia, and President Martin Van Buren, who refused to involve the federal government. The second focuses on the maneuvers of the Nauvoo Legion on April 6, 1841, with Joseph Smith at the head—a symbol, the poem suggests, of the new-found liberty of the Latter-day Saints.

Flake 5998. CtY, US1C.

114 WINCHESTER, Benjamin. Plain facts, shewing the origin of the Spaulding story, concerning the Manuscript Pound, and its being transformed into the Book of Mormon; with a short history of Dr. P. Hulbert, the author of the said story; thereby proving to every lover of truth, beyond the possibility of successful contradiction, that the said story was a base fabrication, without even a shadow of truth. By Benjamin Winchester, minister of the gospel, Philadelphia, United States. [1 line] Re-published by George J. Adams, minister of the gospel, Bedford, England. To which is added, a letter from Elder S. Rigdon, also, one from Elder O. Hyde, on the above subject. Printed by C. B. Merry, Bedford. 1841

 27 pp. 18 cm.

George J. Adams’s most conspicuous gift was flamboyance, a prerequisite for a career that combined preaching and acting. In New York in February 1840, at age twenty-nine, he heard Heber C. Kimball speak, and eight days later he was baptized into the Church. For the next five years, in the eastern United States and in Great Britain, he devoted his skills to the Mormon cause, until he was excommunicated in 1845 amidst charges of thievery and licentiousness. A year later he joined James J. Strang, became Strang’s counselor, and then was cut off by the Strangites in 1850 (see items 303, 310). Again Adams turned to the stage, but by the end of the decade he was back in the pulpit. In 1861 he organized his own Church of the Messiah in Massachusetts, transferring it to Maine the following year. During his new church’s fourth year, he conceived the idea of moving it to the Holy Land, and in August 1866, he and 155 followers set sail for Jaffa—a venture Mark Twain immortalized in Innocents Abroad. Adams returned to the United States about 1870, and ten years later he died in Philadelphia, May 11, 1880, still advertising himself as the Rev. Dr. G.W.J. Adams. [23]

Orson Hyde persuaded Adams to accompany him to England, and on March 3, 1841, they arrived in Liverpool. Adams labored in Preston, London, and for three months in Bedford, where he added fifty to the Church. He transferred back to London on July 19, and then he went on to work in Birmingham and Liverpool. On the last day of the year, he sailed for the United States. [24]

The Spaulding-Rigdon theory, of course, was in wide circulation in England by 1841. Benjamin Winchester had been in England in the summer of 1840, and his visit undoubtedly popularized his Origin of the Spaulding Story (item 77) among the Mormon missionaries there. In the spring of 1841 a conference in Bedford authorized Adams to reprint Origin of the Spaulding Story for local use. On June 9 he went to Northampton to lecture and immediately clashed with the Rev. Timothy Matthews, who used the Spaulding-Rigdon theory in his attacks on the Latter-day Saints (see item 121). This confrontation undoubtedly spurred Adams to republish Origin of the Spaulding Story, and that month he brought out the second edition. [25]

The Bedford edition faithfully reprints the main text of the Philadelphia edition with three trivial changes. It includes a preface by Adams, dated at Bedford, June 15, 1841, but not Winchester’s editorial “reflections” which conclude the Philadelphia edition. It also adds Sidney Rigdon’s letter of May 27, 1839, taken from Parley Pratt’s Plain Facts (item 80), and a quotation from John Taylor’s Answer to Some False Statements and an extract from the New York Sun, both from Parley’s Reply to Taylor and Livesey (item 89). In addition, it prints a letter from Orson Hyde of June 7, 1841, in which he describes his association with Rigdon before the appearance of the Book of Mormon and declares that Rigdon had nothing to do with its production.

Flake 9942. CU-B, MH, NN, PPiU, US1C.

115 BARNES, Lorenzo Don. References. To prove the gospel in its fulness, the ushering in of the dispensation of the fulness of times and the latter-day glory. (By L. D. Barnes.) [Caption title, followed by nineteen lines on the first page] [Philadelphia: Brown, Bicking and Guilbert, 1841]

8 pp. 11 cm.

116 BARNES, Lorenzo Don. References; to prove the gospel in its fulness, the ushering in of the dispensation of the fulness of times and the latter-day glory. (By L. D. Barnes.) [Caption title, followed by seventeen lines on the first page] [Nauvoo? 1841?]

8 pp. 12.5 cm.

Barnes’s References consists mostly of biblical “proof texts” which support the Mormon position. It lists some three hundred citations, arranged under fifteen topical headings (pp. 1–6): “The Gospel”; “Its first principles, promises and blessings”; “The Holy Spirit and powers of godliness”; “Antiquity of the Gospel”; “Necessity of the Gospel being revealed from Heaven at the first coming of Christ”; “Necessity of the Gospel being revealed from Heaven in the Last Days”; “Millennium”; “Christ’s Second Coming”; “The Kingdom taken from the Jews and given to the Gentiles”; “The Gathering of Israel”; “Miracles and Revelations in the Last Days”; “Kingdom of God in Power and Building up of Zion”; “Book of Mormon”; “The God of Israel”; “On Priesthood.” These are followed by a list of books referred to in the Bible but not included in it—an expanded version of the list in the Gospel Reflector, p. 104 (item 95), which, in turn, was taken from Parley Pratt’s Plain Facts (item 80). The pamphlet ends with a “Chronology of Time” (pp. 7–8), also from the Gospel Reflector, pp. 20–21.

The edition with nineteen lines following the caption title on the first page (item 115) was printed from a rearrangement of the same typesetting used to print all but the “Chronology of Time” on the last two pages of the Gospel Reflector. Consequently, this edition was printed in Philadelphia by Brown, Bicking and Guilbert about July 1841.

The edition with seventeen lines following the caption title on the first page (item 116) seems to be the second. It includes a few references not in the Philadelphia edition and expanded versions of some others. The “Chronology of Time” in the Philadelphia edition incorrectly adds the time periods to arrive at exactly 6,000 years since the creation, while the second edition corrects this number to 6,006. Both give “Since Christ, 1841” in the chronology, so the second edition was likely printed in 1841 also. Its type suggests it is a Nauvoo imprint. The most obvious piece of evidence is the two different typefaces of the numeral 2 used throughout the pamphlet. Similar mixtures occur, for example, in the Times and Seasons (e.g., 2:493, 582; 3:585, 599, 607, 654, 669) and in the 1844 Nauvoo Doctrine and Covenants (e.g., pp. 10, 31, 36, 37). That it is indeed a Nauvoo imprint is reinforced by the Times and Seasons of November 1, 1841, which advertises References as “just published, and for sale at the Nauvoo Stationery” at a price of 60 each or $3 per hundred. Benjamin Winchester arrived in Nauvoo in October 1841 and apparently worked in the Times and Seasons shop from November 1841 to January 1842 (see item 155), so one might guess that he republished References in Nauvoo. [26]

Curiously, the Nauvoo edition is printed in two four-page signatures. The copy in the LDS Church archives has the first signature on white paper, the second on blue, while the Harvard and Salt Lake Public Library copies have the first signature on pink paper, the second on white. The Yale and Brigham Young University copies are printed entirely on white paper.

Revised editions of Barnes’s References were published at least twice in England under his name (item 152) and at least twice under other people’s names (items 136, 137). Benjamin Winchester published a much larger book of references in 1842 (item 155).

Lorenzo D. Barnes was a much loved and respected young elder. Born in Massachusetts, March 22, 1812, he moved with his family to Ohio in 1815 and converted to Mormonism there in 1833. The following year he marched with Zion’s Camp and in 1835 was chosen a member of the First Quorum of Seventy. Thereafter, his life was one of continuous missionary work, interrupted only by a brief pause at Adam-ondi-Ahman, where he served on the high council. In the spring of 1839 he was called to accompany the Twelve to England, but a stopover on the east coast stretched into two years as he proselytized in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Finally, in January 1842 he sailed for Great Britain (see items 151, 152). Eleven months later Barnes died in Bradford—the first Mormon elder to die in a foreign land. In 1852 his remains were brought from England and reinterred in Salt Lake City, an indication of the high esteem in which he was held. [27]

Item 115: US1C. Item 116: Flake 310. CtY, MH, UPB, US1, US1C.

117 HYDE, Orson. [An address to the Hebrews (in Dutch). Rotterdam, 1841]

This item, published by Orson Hyde in connection with his mission to the Holy Land (see item 144), is the first Mormon work in a foreign language. Unfortunately no copy is located. One learns of it from Hyde’s letter of July 17, 1841, in the Times and Seasons for October 15, 1841. Arriving in Rotterdam on June 21, 1841, he immediately visited the local rabbi and conversed with him at length:

I told him that I had written an address to the Hebrews, and was about procuring its publication in his own language; (dutch) and when completed, I would leave him a copy. He thanked me for this token of respect, and I bade him adieu. I soon obtained the publication of five hundred copies of the address, and left one at the house of the Rabbi—he being absent from home, I did not see him.

About June 28 Hyde traveled to Amsterdam, and during his two days there, he called on the “President Rabbi” and “left at his house a large number of the addresses.” [28]

Hyde’s letter of June 15, 1841, in the Times and Seasons of October 1, 1841, includes a communication to the “President Rabbi” in London, which presumably approximates, in English, his printed address to the Hebrews in Dutch. The Millennial Star of October 1841 reports that Hyde had “also written a very lengthy communication to the Jews of Constantinople, and had procured its translation into French and German.” [29] Whether this is the same as his “address to the Hebrews” is not known.

118 PRATT, Parley Parker. Truth defended, or a reply to the “Preston Chronicle,” and to Mr. J. B. Rollo’s “Mormonism Exposed.” Extracted from the Millennial Star for July, 1841. [3 lines] Manchester: Printed and published hy P. P. Pratt, 47, Oxford Street. 1841.

8 pp. 23 cm.

Text in two columns. The text of this tract was printed from a rearrangement of the same typesetting used to print two articles in the Millennial Star of July 1841, the first replying to an anti-Mormon article mostly reprinted from the New York Baptist Register in the Preston Chronicle of April 24, 1841, and the second responding to John B. Rollo’s Mormonism Exposed, Erom the Word of God [Edinburgh: Glass, Printer, 1841]. [30]

It is clear from his tract that Rollo was an educated man, well-versed in the Bible. Baptized into the Church in Edinburgh March 5, 1841, and ordained an elder, he soon became disaffected and in June published his pamphlet against the Latter-day Saints. This caused a stir in the Scottish branches which prompted Parley Pratt to respond. At the end of July he journeyed to Scotland to visit these branches, and he undoubtedly took with him the offprint of his articles in the Star for distribution among the Scottish Saints who might have been influenced by Rollo’s campaign. [31]

The first half of Mormonism Exposed focuses on such issues as Mormon additions to the gospel, the inability of the Latter-day Saints to perform miracles, and the invalidity of certain Mormon scriptural interpretations. These draw a point-by-point reply from Parley Pratt. The second and more substantive half attacks the language of the Book of Mormon, enumerates what it sees as conflicts between it and the Bible, and uses the Doctrine and Covenants to argue that Joseph Smith was swindling the Saints. This part is all but ignored by Pratt. But then he had already replied to this line of attack with Mormonism Unveiled: Zion’s Watchman Unmasked (items 45–47). It is tempting to conjecture that at this point he was wearying of the anti-Mormon press and losing his zeal to respond to it. At any rate, not until 1852 would he publish another response, his last, to an attack upon the Church. [32]

The principal theme of the article in the Preston Chronicle, some of which Truth Defended or a Reply reprints, is that Mormonism is to be spread by the sword. Parley vigorously refutes this (pp. [2]–3), and in the process charges that the persecutors of Christ and his followers have always excused their own violence. Truth Defended or a Reply has a catalogue of publications at the bottom of p. 8.

Flake 6626. CtY, UHi, US1C.

119 PRATT, Parley Parker. A letter to the Queen, touching the signs of the times, and the political destiny of the world. [2 lines] Second edition.Sixth thousand. Manchester: Printed and published by P. P. Pratt, No. 47, Oxford-Street. 1841.

12 pp. 17 cm.

120 PRATT, Parley Parker. A letter to the Queen, touching the signs of the times, and the political destiny of the world. [2 lines] Preface to the second edition. Five thousand of the following letter having been sold in the short space of four weeks, and many hundreds more called for.A second edition is now offered to the public. The author sincerely hopes that it may have the desired effect, in awakening many to the things that belong to their peace. Manchester: Printed and published by P. P. Pratt, No. 47, Oxford-Street. 1841. Price 4s. per 100, or one penny single.

12 pp. 18.5 cm.

These are the first and second issues of the second edition of A Letter to the Queen (item 108). Both were printed from the same typesetting, except for the title pages and a note concerning Latter-day Saint publications added at the bottom of the last page in the second issue. Parley Pratt reported in 1843 that in England he had published 10,000 copies of A Letter to the Queen. [33] Therefore, it seems clear from the preface on the title page of item 120 that after the first edition of 5,000 had been exhausted, a thousand copies of item 119 were struck off, followed by an additional 4,000 of item 120. Since A Letter to the Queen was first printed early in June, the second edition must have been printed sometime in July. In October the Millennial Star advertised it at 4s. per hundred or 1d. each, the same price as the first edition.

Textually the second edition is identical with the first except for the deletion of the word that in the twenty-second line of p. 5 and the addition of the word they in the sixteenth line of p. 6. Like the first edition, it is signed by Parley Pratt at the end and dated at Manchester, May 28, 1841.

Item 119: Flake 6598. UPB. Item 120: UHi, US1C.

121 ADAMS, George J. A few plain facts, shewing the folly, wickedness, and imposition of the Rev. Timothy R. Matthews; also a short sketch of the rise, faith, and doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. By George J. Adams, minister of the gospel, Bedford, England. [2 lines] Bedford: Printed by C. B. Merry. 1841

 iv[5]–16 pp. 17.5 cm.

Timothy R. Matthews, Joseph Fielding’s brother-in-law, served as an ordained minister of the Church of England and then left the Anglican Church to establish an independent congregation in Bedford. Two weeks after the first elders arrived in England in 1837 (see items 30, 93), Willard Richards and John Goodson went to Bedford with a letter of introduction from Fielding. At first Matthews was friendly to them and opened his building for their preaching. Several of his congregation converted to Mormonism, and Matthews himself agreed to be baptized. Soon after, however, he turned against the Latter-day Saints, baptized himself, and began to teach the necessity of baptism as part of his independent Protestantism. During the next three years he baptized several hundred in the Bedford area, but becoming disillusioned with this congregation, he moved to Northampton in the summer of 1840 and by November had attracted a following there of about one hundred. [34]

George J. Adams went to Northampton on June 9, 1841, and commenced a series of lectures. Immediately Matthews began to speak out against the Saints and distribute anti-Mormon tracts. This prompted Adams to reprint Benjamin Winchester’s Origin of the Spaulding Story (item 114) and to compile A Few Plain Facts, which he saw through the press between July 2, the date of its preface, and July 19, when he left Bedford for London. [35]

Like all of Adams’s pamphlets, A Few Plain Facts is made up mostly from the works of others. Its preface (pp. [iii]–iv), dated at Bedford, July 2, 1841, is by Adams, as are two pages of questions and answers directed at Matthews (pp. 10–11). The first section (pp. [5]–9), which discusses Matthews’s involvement with the Mormons, is extracted mainly from an article by Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, and Willard Richards in the Millennial Star of April 1841. The “short sketch of the rise, progress, and faith, of the Latter Day Saints” (pp. 12–15) reprints, without credit, the first two-thirds of Parley Pratt’s introduction to Late Persecution (item 64). A concluding paragraph, also supplied by Adams, summarizes the current status of the Church, including an inflated estimate of the total Mormon population of seventy-five thousand.

Flake 16. CtY, MH, MoInRC, NN, US1, US1C.

122 GALLAND, Isaac. Doctor Isaac Galland’s reply to various falsehoods, misstatements and misrepresentations, concerning the Latter-day Saints, reproachfully called Mormons. [Caption title] [Signed and dated at the end:] Isaac Galland. Philadelphia, July 13th, 1841. [Philadelphia? 1841?]

7 pp. 20.5 cm.

In Mormondom, Isaac Galland is usually remembered—probably unjustly—as the promoter who sold the Latter-day Saints land to which he did not hold title. Born in Pennsylvania in 1791, Galland grew up on the Ohio frontier, and at age thirteen studied theology at William and Mary College. About 1810 he and some companions traveled to the southwest in search of gold and ended up spending a year in a Santa Fe jail charged with plotting against the Mexican government. By 1816 he and a second wife had settled in Indiana, where he studied and practiced enough medicine to earn the title “Doctor,” which he carried the rest of his life. After 1820 he moved to Illinois, where he reputedly associated with a gang of horse thieves and counterfeiters. In 1829 he and his third wife crossed the Mississippi to what is now Lee County, Iowa, erected a trading post, and built the first school in Iowa. Five years later he began trafficking in land in Hancock County, Illinois, and in the Half-Breed Tract, a 100,000-acre parcel in the southeast corner of Iowa which Congress reserved for half-breed Sac and Fox Indians. As part of this promotion, he published Galland’s Iowa Emigrant: Containing a Map, and General Descriptions of Iowa Territory (Chillicothe, 1840). [36]

Galland first encountered the Mormons in November 1838 as they were evacuating Missouri, and he commenced a series of negotiations which resulted in his selling to them a few acres in Nauvoo and about eighteen thousand acres in Iowa. The following July, Joseph Smith baptized him and ordained him an elder.1 In January 1841 Joseph Smith received a revelation (D&C 124:79) which directed Galland to accompany Hyrum Smith to the eastern states to sell stock in the Nauvoo House, collect funds for the temple, and exchange property belonging to eastern Mormons for credit against the interest owing on other purchases of Nauvoo land. Galland and Smith reached Pennsylvania at the end of March; just before he left there late in July, Galland published his Doctor Isaac Galland’s Reply. He did not, however, return directly to Nauvoo, nor did he make the anticipated interest payment with the funds he had collected in the east. This precipitated an exchange of correspondence between him and Joseph Smith, and marked the beginning of his separation from the Church.1 Galland lived in Lee County, Iowa, for most of the remainder of his life. His transactions in Lee County were tied up in litigation until 1856, when a settlement with the New York Land Company brought him $11,000.1 In 1849 or 1850 he published a tract dealing with this suit, Villainy Exposed! Being a Minority Report of the Board of Trustees of the DesMoines Land Association Alias “The New York Company” [N.p., n.d.], which drew a vitriolic response from an old enemy David W. Kilbourne, Strictures on Dr. I. Galland’s Pamphlet, Entitled “Villainy Exposed” (Fort Madison, 1850). Two years after his suit was settled, Galland died in Fort Madison, Iowa.

Doctor Isaac Galland’s Reply was prompted by an article in the New York Journal of Commerce of June 19, 1841, which quotes a letter from “a highly respectable gentleman residing near the Mormon city [Nauvoo],” whom Galland identifies as D.W.K.—David W. Kilbourne. [37] This letter asserts that about two thousand Mormons, directed by a revelation to Joseph Smith, moved onto properties in the Half Breed Tract without adequate titles. In response Galland prints a letter from Robert Lucas, governor of Iowa, welcoming the Mormons to the territory, and he declares that the Saints do indeed have clear title to their lands. He next reprints and replies to a letter in the Philadelphia North American of June 21, 1841, which talks about certain Mormon doctrines and the Saints’ preparations for war with the Missourians. Galland notes that E. G. Lee’s The Mormons, or, Knavery Exposed (Philadelphia, 1841) has circulated for a few weeks, and he comments, “It shall be sufficient here to say that all the vulgar abuse and blackguard epithets which that pimp of polite literature, and Knight of the green bag, has vainly attempted to apply to others are much more applicable to himself.” After this utterance he moves smoothly to a discussion of some of the Church’s doctrines, particularly that of an anthropomorphic God.

Flake 3500. US1C.

123 KIMBALL, Heber Chase, and Wilford Woodruff. The word of the Lord to the citizens of Bristol, of every sect and denomination: and to every individual into whose hands it may fall showing forth the plan of salvation, as laid down in the New Testament:namely, faith in our Lord Jesus Christrepentancebaptism for the remission of sinsand the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands. Presented by two of the elders of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints. [Caption title] [Signed on p. 8:] Heber C. Kimbal [sic]. Wilford Woodruff. [At foot of p. 8:] Reprinted by James Jones, on the Weir, Bristol. [ 1841?]

8 pp. 17 cm.

124 PRATT, Parley Parker. An address by a minister of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, to the people of England. [Caption title] [Signed on p. 5:] P. P. Pratt. [At foot of p. 8:] Reprinted by James Jones, on the Weir, Bristol. [ 1841?]

8 pp. 17 cm.

The notice of Mormon meetings in Bristol on the last page of item 123 is printed from the same typesetting on page 7 of item 124, indicating that the two tracts were struck off about the same time. Item 124 has a list of publications which includes the second edition of Parley Pratt’s Letter to the Queen (item 120), the second edition of Voice of Warning, “Second Volume of the Star in Monthly Numbers,” and item 123. So it was published no earlier than July 1841 and probably before the British edition of Voice of Warning (item 127), which appeared that September.

Textually item 123 is identical to The Word of the Lord to the Citizens of London (item 101) except for a few changes in capitalization and punctuation.

Item 124 reprints the May 28, 1840 Manchester edition (item 73) with a few changes in punctuation, two spelling changes, and a misprint. It also includes the last six paragraphs of Orson Hyde’s A Timely Warning (pp. 5–6), taken from the 1840 edition (item 81), with a handful of punctuation changes and the change of sheet to book in the last paragraph. This is followed by the catalogue of LDS publications (pp. 6–7), and Parley Pratt’s poem “When Earth in Bondage Long Had Lain” on the last page.

One might guess that these were issued about August 1841, when Thomas Harris wrote from Bristol that “the work of the Lord is moving onward in that city . . . and many of our publications called for.” [38] At the beginning of the year, Thomas Kington had begun proselytizing in Bristol and had baptized eight by the third week in February (see item 100). Wilford Woodruff traveled from London to Bristol on February 26, 1841, and stayed with Kington for six days. During his visit he baptized one, increasing the Mormon congregation there to fourteen. [39]

Item J23: Flake 4617. CSmH. Item 124: Flake 6556. CSmH.

125 SNOW, Erastus, and Benjamin Winchester. An address to the citizens of Salem and vicinity, by E. Snow & B. Winchester, elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints. [Caption title] [At end:] Salem, Mass. Sept. 9, 1841, [Salem Observer Press. [Salem, 1841]

8 pp. 24 cm. Text in two columns.

126 SNOW, Erastus, and Benjamin Winchester. An address to the citizens of Salem and vicinity, by E. Snow & B. Winchester, elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints. [Second edition.Published for F. Nickerson.] [Caption title] [At end:] Boston, Mass. Sept. 13, 1841. [Salem, 1841]

8 pp. 22.5 cm. Text in two columns.

When the Mormon conference convened in Philadelphia on July 6, 1841, Erastus Snow had concluded to wind up his missionary effort in Pennsylvania and New Jersey and return to Nauvoo. At this conference, however, Hyrum Smith and William Law urged him and Benjamin Winchester to move to Salem, Massachusetts, to try to establish the Church there. With some hesitation they agreed to go. For each this mission would be a turning point: Snow would greatly enhance his growing reputation, while Winchester would begin his fall from grace. [40]

Snow and Winchester arrived in Salem on Friday, September 3, 1841, and the next day they rented the Masonic hall and bought a newspaper ad for their first public meeting on Sunday the 5th. Then, with no church members, family, or friends in this unfamiliar city, they turned to the printed word to spread their message. During the week of the 6th they composed An Address to the Citizens of Salem, which they had printed at the shop of The Salem Observer. The tract was out of press by September 18 when Winchester wrote to Joseph Smith. [41] The Times and Seasons reprinted it in its issues of October 15 and November 1, 1841.

Freeman Nickerson, sixty-two years old, a convert of eight years, and a veteran of Zion’s Camp, began proselytizing in Boston on May 30, 1841. In July he participated in a series of public debates with a local cleric Tyler Parsons, which Parsons reported in his tract Mormon Fanaticism Exposed (Boston, 1841). These debates advertised Nickerson’s presence in Boston but did not produce converts. Two days before they reached Salem, Snow and Winchester had met Nickerson in Boston, and on Sunday, September 5, Snow returned to Boston to preach. At some point he certainly discussed An Address to the Citizens of Salem with Nickerson and agreed to strike off some copies for his use. [42]

Both “editions” of An Address to the Citizens of Salem were printed from the same typesetting and are identical except for the added line [Second Edition.Published for F. Nickerson.] in the caption title of the second issue, different final paragraphs advertising local preaching in Salem or Boston, different dates at the end, and the colophon [Salem Observer Press in the first issue. Snow’s “Sketch Book” indicates that he had 2,500 copies printed, probably the total of the two issues. [43]

An Address to the Citizens of Salem opens with the declaration that Snow and Winchester intend to preach only the doctrines of the Old and New Testament, that they will not stoop to the use of slander or epithets. The bulk of the pamphlet (pp. 3–8) is a summary of Mormon beliefs taken primarily from Orson Pratt’s Remarkable Visions (item 82), and Parley Pratt’s An Address to the People of the United States (item 111), which is quoted directly at one point and which undoubtedly suggested the title. In its argument that not all of God’s revelations are in the Bible, it uses Parley’s list of prophetic books referred to but not included in the Bible (see item 80), which Winchester reprinted twice in the Gospel Reflector (item 95). The concluding seven paragraphs review the Mormon difficulties in Missouri.

Winchester actually remained in Salem less than two weeks. On September 18 he wrote to Joseph Smith from Philadelphia and asked to be released from the Salem mission because of ill health and financial stress. With the burden of the mission now entirely on his shoulders, Snow persisted with his lectures in the Masonic hall, and on November 8 he baptized his first converts. Four months later he organized the Salem branch, which numbered sixty-two by mid-April. [44] Nickerson’s labors began to bear fruit after the first of the year. On March 9, 1842, he and Snow organized the Boston branch with thirty members, and by the middle of May he had succeeded in building the Boston congregation to nearly fifty. [45]

Both Snow and Nickerson headed west in 1846. Nickerson died at the Chariton River, Iowa, in January 1847. Snow and Orson Pratt were the first of the Mormon pioneers to enter the Salt Lake Valley that July.

Item 125: Flake 8157. MSaE. Item 126: Flake 8158. DLC, MB, MH.

127 PRATT, Parley Parker. A voice of warning, and instruction to all people, or an introduction to the faith and doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints. By Parley P. Pratt. [5 lines] First European from the second American edition. Manchester: W. Shackle ton & Son, Printers, Ducie-Place, Exchange. 1841.

Xi [12]-228 pp. 15 cm.

Parley Pratt reprinted the third edition of his Voice of Warning from the 1839 New York edition (item 62), in 2,500 copies. [46] He included a new preface, dated at Manchester, September 1, 1841, which is close to the date of publication since the new edition was advertised in the Millennial Star of September 1841. This advertisement offered the book, bound in leather, for Is. 9d. each or 18s. per dozen. [47] It is invariably found today in brown blind stamped sheep, the title in gilt on the backstrip. In addition to the new preface (pp. [iii]–v), which precedes the 1839 preface (pp. [vi]–xi), Parley made two significant modifications in this edition. He added some of the history of the Book of Mormon to the fourth chapter, including extracts from Orson Pratt’s Remarkable Visions (item 82) and Oliver Cowdery’s eighth letter to W. W. Phelps in the Messenger and Advocate of October 1835 (see item 197). And in the fifth chapter he eliminated a three-page extract from his poem “The Millennium” (item 21). Five subsequent editions of Voice of Warning in English were published before Parley’s death in 1857, and at least three dozen thereafter. So the concluding line in the new preface proved especially prophetic: “He, being dead, yet speaketh” (Hebrews 11:4).

Flake 6629. ICHi, NjP, NN, OClWHi, UHi, UPB, US1C, UU, WHi.

128 PAGE, John Edward. Slander refuted. By John E. Page, elder of the Church of Latter-day Saints. [Caption title] [Philadelphia? 1841?]

16 pp. 22.5 cm. Plain green wrappers.

It seems clear that by the spring of 1841, John E. Page had given up any idea of following Orson Hyde to the Holy Land that year (see item 144). In September, from Philadelphia, he wrote an incredulous Joseph Smith of his poverty, while insisting that he intended to meet Hyde in Jerusalem if only he could tarry in the United States and raise funds for the trip. [48]

Exactly when or where Page published Slander Refuted is not clear. He mentions his success in selling it in a letter of January 30, 1842. [49] The tract refers to the Anti-Mormon Almanac, for 1842 (New York, 1841?), which was noticed in the Times and Seasons of August 16, 1841, and on the last page it has a list of books including the Gospel Reflector and the times and locations of the LDS meetings in New York and Philadelphia. Page came to New York from Philadelphia on July 6, 1841, returned to Philadelphia about three weeks later, arrived back in New York by November 29, and went to Pittsburgh late in December. [50] It seems probable, therefore, that he published Slander Refuted in Philadelphia in September or October 1841. Page composed the tract in response to the Anti-Mormon Almanac. What aroused him most were extracts from the U. S. Senate report of the testimony at Joseph Smith’s 1838 hearing on a charge of treason before Austin A. King (26th Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Doc. 189). With Slander Refuted he hoped to demonstrate that the Latter-day Saints were “a suffering, and as a body, an innocent people.” [51] It is a scissors-and-paste production. Following Page’s introduction (p. [1]), it includes pp. 47–50 of An Appeal to the American People (item 79); section 102 of the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants—”Of Governments and Laws in General”; Joel H. Johnson’s poem “A Portrait of the Missouri Mobs” [sic] (item 104); another poem in two parts, the second by Levi Hancock; Parley Pratt’s An Address to the People of the United States (item 111); and section 101 of the Doctrine and Covenants—”On Marriage.” [52]

Flake 6069. CtY, MH, UPB, US1C.

129 SNOW, Lorenzo. [2 lines] The only way to he saved. [1 line] An explanation of the first principles of the doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ, [sic] of Latter-day Saints. By Lorenzo Snow, an American missionary. London: Printed by D. Chalmers, 26, John’s Row, St. Luke’s. 1841.

12 pp. 18.5 cm.

On February 11, 1841, Lorenzo Snow took the train from Birmingham to London, and three days later he assumed the leadership of the London Conference which included the forty-six-member London branch (see item 97). For the next twenty months he would labor in London. During his first year there he would add more than a hundred new members and write the most widely published of all the nineteenth-century Mormon tracts, The Only Way to Be Saved. [53]

Snow’s journal includes a copy of a letter to his parents, dated at London, November 11, 1841, in which he remarks:

I have sent you a tract which I have written and got published I have published four thousand copies. It is expected that annother Edition will be wanted. Tho’ they have been out of the press only a week or two yet they have been mostly spoken for. [54]

His journal also contains the entry: “The year 1842 wrote and published five thousand copies of a tract which I entitled ‘The Only Way to Be Saved’ and circulated this [in] the City and Conference.” [55] No copy of what could be a second edition printed in 1841 or 1842 is extant, and it is not known if there was such an edition. It is possible that initially Snow published 4,000 of The Only Way to Be Saved, and then soon after had another 1,000 struck off from the same setting.

Snow’s tract follows Heber C. Kimball’s and Wilford Woodruff’s Word of the Lord to the Citizens of London (item 101) in discussing Mormonism’s first principles: faith in Jesus Christ, repentance from sin, and baptism by immersion and the laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost by someone with authority from God. At the head of the title page it repeats the quotation “He that judgeth a matter before he heareth it, is not wise,” which is included on p. 8 of Word of the Lord to the Citizens of London and at the top of Woodruff’s London handbill (item 88). But The Only Way to Be Saved is the more carefully reasoned and persuasive tract, its arguments buttressed with many biblical proof-texts and examples. Like the Gospel Reflector (item 95), it marks a small shift away from polemic to a more apologetic form of writing. During the nineteenth century, it was reprinted in English at least twenty times (see items 250–51) and published in Armenian, Bengali, Danish, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Italian, and Swedish.

Flake 8210. CtY, MB, UPB, US1C.

130 A collection of sacred hymns, for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Europe. Selected by Brig ham Young, Parley P. Pratt, and John Taylor. Second edition. Manchester: Printed and sold by P. P. Pratt, 47, Oxford Street, and by the agents throughout England. 1841.

336 pp. 10 cm.

On April 3, 1841, in Manchester, seventeen days before Brigham Young and six others of the Twelve sailed for America, the apostles resolved that Parley Pratt could reprint the 1840 hymnal “if he deem it expedient,” but not alter it, “except the typographical errors.” [56] One might infer that they did not want him to enlarge the book with more of his own compositions. Seven months later the Millennial Star announced that the second edition would “be ready in about 10 or 12 days,” at the same price as the first edition, 2s. [57]

As the Twelve directed, this second edition, published in 1,500 copies, is essentially a faithful reprint of the 1840 hymnbook (item 78)—including the two hymns numbered 52. [58] Apart from some corrected misprints, the only significant alteration occurs with the hymn “Let All the Saints Their Hearts Prepare,” which is printed twice in the 1840 hymnbook as no. 176 and no. 191. The second edition retains “Let All the Saints Their Hearts Prepare” as no. 176, and adds “Farewell All Earthly Honours”—taken from either the Elsworth or Nauvoo book (items 61, 103)—as no. 191. Consequently it contains the texts of 272 songs, numbered 1–271 with two numbered 52 (pp. [51–324). It keeps the 1840 preface (p. [3]) and the index of first lines at the end (pp. [3251–336). It is located in a single copy, once owned by Amos Fielding, bound in dark brown sheep with wide gilt ornamental borders on the front and back covers, four gilt panels and the title in gilt on the backstrip. [59]

Flake 1762a. NcD.

131 [Mormon almanac and Latter Day Saints calendar for the year 1842. Nauvoo? 1841?]

No copy of this is located, nor is it certain that it actually appeared. All that is known about it comes from the following notice in the Times and Seasons of November 15, 1841: “Almanac. In press and nearly ready for delivery the Mormon Almanac and Latter Day Saints calendar for the year 1842 published at this office.”

132 MER​KLEY, Christopher. A small selection of choice hymns for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. By C. Merkley. Printed for the publisher. 1841. 32 pp. 10.5 cm. Plain tan paper wrappers.

Christopher Merkley was born in Ontario, Canada, December 18, 1808. He first came in contact with Mormonism in 1837 and was baptized by John E. Page that July. A year later he immigrated to Missouri, reaching DeWitt just as the anti-Mormon violence was breaking out. That winter he moved on to Lima, Illinois, and then to Nauvoo in the summer of 1840. In June 1841 he began a series of missionary journeys to Canada which, with some breaks, stretched to September 1844. Five years later he made the overland crossing to Utah. Merkley worked in Green River in 1853–54, helped build Fort Supply, labored for the Church in Carson Valley in 1855 and again in 1856–57, and fought in the Indian campaigns during the 1860s. Six years before he died, he published his memoirs, Biography of Christopher Merkley. Written by Himself (Salt Lake City, 1887). [60]

Merkley’s Small Selection of Choice Hymns consists of the texts of nineteen hymns, nine by Parley Pratt. All of its songs are found in the 1840 hymnbook (item 78), and include fifteen in the Nauvoo hymnal (item 103) and ten in the Kirtland book (item 23). Where or exactly when it was printed is not known. But because its various typefaces match those of the Times and Seasons (e.g., the numeral 2), and its paper resembles that of the Nauvoo hymnal, one might guess that, at some point, Merkley had it printed at the Times and Seasons shop for use—perhaps as a fund-raiser—during his Canadian mission.

Flake 5342. US1C.

133 MOSES, Julian. A few remarks in reply to an anonymous scribbler, styling himself “one who hates imposture,” but found to be an imposter himself, and ashamed to tell his name. [2 lines] By Julian Moses. Philadelphia: 1841.

15[1] pp. 25 cm.

Julian Moses joined the Church in Connecticut in 1834 and for the next twelve years traveled the eastern and southern states as a missionary. In the summer of 1847 he made the overland trek to Utah, and three years later went on a mission to the Society Islands. When he returned to Utah, he settled at Mill Creek, where he farmed and served as the justice of the peace. He died on April 12, 1892, one day after his eighty-second birthday. His obituary in the Deseret Evening News claims that he was the first male schoolteacher in Utah Territory. [61]

Moses wrote A Few Remarks in response to Mormonism Dissected, or, Knavery “On Two Sticks,” Exposed (Bethania, Lancaster County, Pa.: Printed by Reuben Chambers, 1841)—a seemingly anonymous tract which, according to the title page, was “Composed principally from Notes which were taken from the arguments of Dr. [Adrian Van Bracklin] Orr, in the recent Debate on the Authenticity of the ‘Book of Mormon,’ Between him and E[lisha] H. Davis, Mormon Preacher.” [62] Moses joined Davis’s missionary effort in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in May 1841, and attended the debate between Davis and Orr on August 12 and 15 in Georgetown, near New Holland, assisting in reporting it. Two months later he obtained a copy of Mormonism Dissected, and on October 20 and 21 composed his reply, which he sent to Philadelphia for printing. At the end of November he traveled to Delaware, and when he returned to Lancaster County in January, he learned that Davis and Orr had had another debate, at which A Few Remarks was distributed. [63]

The bulk of Mormonism Dissected breaks into three parts: an argument that the ruins of North and South America are not evidence for the Book of Mormon; an extract of a letter by Rev. John A. Clark on Mormon origins, originally published in the Philadelphia Episcopal Recorder of September 5, 1840, and reprinted in Clark’s Gleanings By the Way (Philadelphia and New York, 1842), pp. 216–31; and a tortuous discussion that Gen. 48:15–19, Gen. 49:22–26, Hosea 11:10, Hosea 8:12, and Ezek. 37:16–19 have no bearing on the Book of Mormon. The first and third parts reply specifically, and vitriolically, to articles by Benjamin Winchester in the Gospel Reflector (item 95), so it is not surprising that a response from him or an associate was forthcoming. [64]

Moses took his title from Samuel Bennett’s earlier Philadelphia pamphlet A Few Remarks By Way of Reply to an Anonymous Scribbler, Calling Himself a Philanthropist (item 74). Much of his tract is occupied with a lengthy argument that the biblical texts listed above do indeed predict the appearance of the Book of Mormon. At the beginning it quotes Josiah Priest’s American Antiquities to show a Hebraic influence among the American Indians, and in an appendix (p. [16]) gives other extracts from American Antiquities alongside quotations from the Book of Mormon to demonstrate similarities between ancient American structures and those described in the Book of Mormon. Throughout, Moses does not hesitate to trade epithet for epithet, as expected of a nineteenth-century religious polemicist.

Flake 5649. CtY, MH, UPB, US1C.

134 THOMPSON, Charles Blancher. Evidences in proof of the Book of Mormon, being a divinely inspired record, written by the forefathers of the natives whom we call Indians, (who are a remnant of the tribe of Joseph,) and hid up in the earth, but come forth in fulfilment of prophesy for the gathering of Israel and the re-establishing of the kingdom of God upon the earth. Together with all the objections commonly urged against it, answered and refutedTo which is added a proclamation and warning to the gentiles who inhabit America. By Charles Thompson, minister of the gospel. [4 lines] Batavia, N.Y. Published by D. D. Waite. 1841

 256 pp. 13.5 cm.

Charles B. Thompson was born in Schenectady County, New York, January 27, 1814, and joined the Latter-day Saints in 1835. A year later he was called into the Second Quorum of Seventy, and in the summer of 1838 he traveled to Far West with the Kirtland Camp. On the heels of the Mormon expulsion from Missouri, he returned to his native state to begin a four-year mission. After a dispute with the Twelve in 1846, he separated from the Church and for a year aligned himself with James J. Strang (see items 303, 310). In January 1848 he began his own church, Jehovah’s Presbytery of Zion, which he located at Preparation, Monona County, Iowa, in 1853. The church at Preparation survived five years, until internal dissention brought about its collapse and a decade of litigation. By 1879 Thompson had moved to Philadelphia, where during the 1880s he gathered a small following around him. He died in Philadelphia, February 27, 1895. [65]

Thompson enjoyed considerable success during 1840 in the vicinity of Batavia, New York, baptizing nearly a hundred converts. With such a following, it is not surprising that when he read some of the manuscript of Evidences in Proof of the Book of Mormon to a conference of the Saints in Batavia in January 1841, they enthusiastically endorsed its publication. On May 10 he secured a copyright. [66] The Batavia conference again took up his book on December 26 and appointed a committee to promote its sale. The Times and Seasons for January 1, 1842, noted the receipt of a copy and, with considerable approval, printed four pages of extracts. [67] Three years later The Prophet advertised the book at 370 a copy. [68]

Thompson’s book shows the direct influence of Benjamin Winchester’s Gospel Reflector (item 95). It consists of two more or less independent parts, preceded by a preface (pp. [3]–5), and followed by three appendices. The first part (pp. [7]–147), titled Evidences in Proof of the Book of Mormon, &c. &c, sets out to demonstrate that God will literally gather Israel from all nations to their own land; that when he does he will establish an ensign or sign, which is a record of the descendents of Joseph who was sold into Egypt; that this record will come from America, which is also the land promised to Joseph’s seed; and that now is the time for this gathering and the ensign is the Book of Mormon. The arguments here are buttressed with many biblical proof texts including, expectedly, Ezek. 37, Gen. 48–49, Hosea 8–11, and Isaiah 28–29, and with quotations from Josiah Priest’s American Antiquities and Elias Boudinot’s A Star in the West.

The second part (pp. [149]–89), titled Objections Answered and Refuted, responds to some of the more common criticisms of the Book of Mormon. For example, in reply to the claim that the Bible contains all of God’s word, it lists fourteen prophetic books mentioned in the Bible but not included in it, taken from the Gospel Reflector, p. 316. Its refutation of the Spaulding-Rigdon theory is essentially that of Benjamin Winchester’s Origin of the Spaulding Story (item 77). The first appendix, A Proclamation and Warning to the Gentiles Who Inhabit America (pp. [191 ]–238), consists mostly of quotations from the Book of Mormon. The second (pp. 238–40) contains an acrostic whose initial letters spell “Charles Thompson an elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.” The third appendix (pp. [241]–256) quotes from articles by John Lloyd Stephens in the Albany Weekly Journal of July 3, 1841, and Frederick Catherwood in the New York Weekly Herald describing some of the structures they saw in Central America. [69]

Evidences in Proof of the Book of Mormon is usually found in what originally was blue or purple muslin with a printed paper label on the backstrip. Other original bindings include plain blue paper wrappers, plain green paper covered boards with a green cloth back, plain green or gray ribbed cloth, and half or three-quarter brown leather with marbled paper boards.

Flake 8934. CtY, CSmH, CU-B, DLC, ICHi, ICN, MH, MoInRC, NjP, NN, NNUT, OClWHi, TxDaDF, ULA, UPB, US1, US1C, UU, WHi.

135 PRATT, Parley Parker? An epistle of Demetrius, Junior, the silversmith, to the workmen of like occupation, and all others whom it may concern,greeting: showing the best way to preserve our pure religion, & to put down the Latter Day Saints. [At bottom of first column:] Printed by J. Taylor, Smallbrook Street, Birmingham. [ 1841?]

Broadside 37 x 25 cm. Text in three columns, ornamental border.

This edition of An Epistle of Demetrius is textually identical to the Manchester edition (item 92), except for the slight change in the title, the correction of one typographical error, one trivial word-change, and the change of Manchester to Birmingham in the first paragraph. It retains the phrase “for it is only about 10 years old,” referring to the age of the Church, suggesting that it was printed not too long after the Manchester edition. Printed at the bottom of the second column is Price One Penny.

The Birmingham Conference saw considerable activity during the year following its organization in March 1841. George J. Adams’s efforts there during October were particularly successful, bringing the expected anti-Mormon attacks. [70] It seems reasonable to conjecture, therefore, that the Birmingham edition of An Epistle of Demetrius was struck off about the time of his visit there.

Flake 2761a. UPB, US1C.

136 SHEARER, Daniel. A key to the Bible. [Caption title, followed by a 26-line preface, signed at end:] Daniel Shearer. [Caption on p. 3:] References to prove the gospel in its fulness, the ushering in of the dispensation of the fulness of times and the latter-day glory. By Daniel Shearer.

 [N.p., 1841 ?] 12 pp. 11 cm.

137 SHEARER, Daniel? A key to the Bible. [Caption title, followed by a 24-line preface, signed at end:] The Compiler. [Caption on p. 3:] References to prove the gospel, in its fulness, the ushering in of the dispensation of the fulness of times and the latter day glory. [N.p., 1842?]

12 pp. 15 cm.

Item 136 includes the Philadelphia edition of Lorenzo Barnes’s References (item 115), reprinting it exactly except for the addition of three citations, the deletion of three—probably a typographical error, and changes in three citations—again likely typographical errors. It adds a preface on the first page and some sixty prooftexts grouped under five new topical headings: “Showing a General Burning at the Second Advent of the Messiah”; “Prophecies that have been fulfilled literally”; “Prophecies yet to be fulfilled, and we believe literally, the same as the others”; “Free salvation to all”; and “Showing that there is a Devil.”

It was printed no later than 1842. Its “Chronology of Time” at the end includes the phrase “Since Christ, 1841”; and it is reprinted with some modifications in Moses Martin’s Treatise on the Fulness of the Everlasting Gospel (New York, 1842), pp. 60–64 (item 162). Shearer was laboring in Salem, Massachusetts, in January 1842, so he undoubtedly published it in the eastern United States. [71]

Item 137 is clearly a later edition of item 136. Except for half a dozen numerical changes—undoubtedly misprints, it exactly reprints eighteen of the nineteen topical headings of item 136, although in a different order. It also includes the heading “Book of Mormon,” but with additions and deletions, and it adds a twentieth heading “The true mode of Baptism” with nine biblical citations. Like Barnes’s Philadelphia edition, item 136 incorrectly adds the time periods in the “Chronology of Time” to arrive at exactly 6,000 years since the creation. Item 137 lists “Since Christ, 1842” in its “Chronology of Time,” and correctly adds the time periods to obtain 6,007 years. The preface on the first page of item 137, particularly the first paragraph, is rewritten. Why Shearer’s name does not appear on this edition is not known. Perhaps someone else revised his book, just as he had revised Barnes’s, and chose not to take credit for it.

Daniel Shearer was born in Stillwater, New York, August 30, 1791. He was arrested with Joseph Smith in November 1838 but released soon after, and that winter he served as treasurer of the committee which assisted the destitute Missouri Saints to move into Illinois. During the early 1840s he traveled the eastern states as a missionary, and in April 1844 he was called to campaign for Joseph Smith in New York. In 1848 he settled in Kanesville and four years later immigrated to Salt Lake City, where he lived until his death in 1874. [72]

Item 136: Flake 7641. US1C. Item 137: Flake 309. CU-B.

138 PRATT, Parley Parker. Dialogue between a Latter-day Saint and an enquirer after truth. (Reprinted from the Star of January 1.) To which is added, a solemn warning to the Methodists. By one who was formerly a preacher among them. Published by P. P. Pratt, 47, Oxford Street, Manchester, where all publications of the Latter-day Saints may be obtained. [Caption title] [Manchester, 1842]

4 pp. 21 cm. Text in two columns.

The first three and a half pages of this tract, containing the dialogue between Enquirer and Saint, were printed from a rearrangement of the same typesetting used to print the dialogue in the Millennial Star of January 1842. Thomas Smith’s Interesting Letter from Cheltenham, which is dated December 30, 1841, occupies the last half of the fourth page and appears only in the tract. Apparently this letter reached Parley Pratt after the January issue of the Star had been struck off, and since Smith had asked that his letter be printed and it made an appropriate companion piece for the dialogue, Parley issued the two together in pamphlet form.

Dialogue directly attacks the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of England, and especially the Methodist Church, without a specific anti-Mormon work in mind, and thus marks a departure from earlier Mormon publications. Undoubtedly it arose out of the clergy’s continuing anti-Mormon barrage, which the Star of December 1841 comments upon. The dialogue defends immersion as the proper mode of baptism and argues at length against baptizing infants; since the traditional churches erroneously administer this ordinance, it contends, they must be in a state of apostasy. Latter-day Saints avoid these errors, the dialogue concludes, because their doctrines were received by divine revelation. Thomas Smith’s letter describes his conversion from Methodism to Mormonism and warns the Methodists not to “oppose the work of the Lord.”

A dialogue format had been used a few months earlier in the Times and Seasons (July 1 and 15, 1841) and in the Star (September and October 1841). It would be employed again in the Star in May 1842 and in a number of Mormon tracts after that—one by Parley himself (see, e.g., items 229, 291–93).

Thomas Smith was born in Cheltenham, February 21, 1812. He served as a local Methodist preacher for a year and a half before converting to Mormonism in June 1841. After his conversion he labored as a missionary in Bath and Bristol, presided over the Warwickshire Conference for four years, and then served as a traveling elder in Bedford and Northampton. In 1851 he and his family sailed for America. At St. Joseph, Missouri, en route to Utah, he contracted cholera and died on May 28, 1852. [73] Flake 6567. CtY, MH, UPB, US1C, UU.

139 PRATT, Parley Parker. A voice of warning, and instruction to all people; or, an introduction to the faith and doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints. By P. P. Pratt, minister of the gospel. [4 lines] Third edition, revised. New-York: J. W. Harrison, Printer, 465 Pearl, corner of Chatham-St. 1842.

vi [71–180 pp. 14 cm.

This is a perplexing edition. It is an essentially faithful reprint of the 1839 Voice of Warning, but it appears to have been published a few months after Parley Pratt’s revised 1841 edition (see items 38, 62, 127). When he sailed for England in the spring of 1840, Parley left a number of copies of the 1839 Voice of Warning, some in sheets, with Lucian R. Foster to sell in the United States. One might guess that when he had sold all of these, Foster got out a new edition, not knowing that Parley had just published one himself.

The opening phrase of its preface (pp. [iii]–vi) is changed from During the last nine years to During the last eleven years, suggesting it was printed before April 1842. The preface to the 1847 Edinburgh Voice of Warning indicates that the five editions preceding it comprise 13,000 copies. Since the total of the 1837, 1839, and 1841 editions is 8,000, it seems likely that the 1842 and 1844 editions were each printed in 2,500 copies.

Foster advertised the book on the back wrapper of Orson Pratt’s 1842 Remarkable Visions (item 147) at 37½¢. It is usually found in blue or black embossed cloth, the title in gilt on the backstrip.

Flake 6630. DLC, MH, NN, PHi, UHi, UPB, US1C, UU.

140 Installation, Nauvoo Lodge. [At foot above border:] Printed at the office of the Times and Seasons, Nauvoo. [1842?]

Broadside 30 x 19.5 cm. Text in two columns, ornamental border.

For Hyrum Smith, Heber C. Kimball, Newel K. Whitney, and a number of others in and about Nauvoo, an involvement with Masonry antedated their involvement with Mormonism. On October 15, 1841, Abraham Jonas, grand master of the Grand Lodge of Illinois, granted these men a dispensation for the organization of a lodge of Ancient York Masons in Nauvoo. Two and a half months later they began to meet, with George Miller, worshipful master; Hyrum Smith, senior warden, pro tempore; Lucius N. Scovil, junior warden; John C. Bennett, secretary; Newel K. Whitney, treasurer; and Heber C. Kimball, junior deacon. Jonas was in Nauvoo on March 15 and 16, 1842, and formally installed the Nauvoo Lodge in a public ceremony in the grove near the temple. By this time fifty-seven men had applied for membership including thirty-three charter members. Subsequently Jonas was severely criticized for conducting the installation in public and for making Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon Masons “at Sight.” This early criticism—exacerbated by the rapid growth of Masonry among the Mormons which eventually produced three lodges in Nauvoo and two in Iowa—grew into bitter anti-Mormon feelings among certain Illinois Masons. In October 1843 the anti-Mormon faction prevailed, and the dispensations for the Mormon lodges were withdrawn. Despite the loss of official sanction, these lodges continued to function for more than a year, perhaps in anticipation of the organization of a competing Grand Lodge of Illinois Masonry by Abraham Jonas, and a few of the Nauvoo Masons met from time to time until the Saints began evacuating the city in February 1846 (see items 179, 206). [74]

The usual explanations for the Mormons’ attraction to Masonry involve two conjectures: they embraced Masonry in order to avail themselves of the protection offered by an organization which included some of the leading men of the state, and in the Masonic ritual they saw certain elements they considered compatible with their own priesthood. [75] Abraham Jonas seems to have promoted Mormon lodges in an effort to obtain their support for his bid for the state legislature. Joseph Smith’s role is harder to assess: the printed minutes of the Nauvoo Lodge show that he attended only four of the twenty-six meetings between March 17 and May 6, 1842. These minutes suggest that Hyrum Smith, L. N. Scovil, and John C. Bennett were the early prime movers. [76]

Installation, Nauvoo Lodge prints the words of two Masonic songs, “Installation Ode” and “The Grand Master’s Song.” It was undoubtedly struck off for use at the installation on March 15–16, 1842.

Flake 4255a. US1C.

141 A facsimile from the Book of Abraham, no. 2. [At foot:] [From the Times and Seasons, Vol. 3, No. 10 edited and published by Joseph Smith, in the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, March, 15, 1842.] [Nauvoo, 1842]

Broadside 31 x 19.5.

Woodcut followed by text in three columns. In July 1835 Joseph Smith, with some financial help from a number of Kirtland Mormons, purchased from Michael H. Chandler four Egyptian mummies and two papyrus rolls which had been part of a larger group of Egyptian relics collected by Antonio Lebolo, an Italian adventurer and Chandler’s uncle. For several years after, Joseph Smith, W. W. Phelps, Oliver Cowdery, and others worked at translating the papyri, producing a number of manuscripts now in the LDS Church archives including “Grammar and Alphabet of the Egyptian Language” and “Book of Abraham Mss.” Finally, in March and May 1842, Joseph Smith published the “Book of Abraham” in the Times and Seasons, and the Millennial Star republished it that July and August. [77]

The text of the “Book of Abraham” appears in the Times and Seasons for March 1 and March 15, 1842, prefaced by the statement, “A Translation Of some ancient Records that have fallen into our hands, from the Catecombs of Egypt, purporting to be the writings of Abraham, while he was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own hand, upon papyrus.” Each issue includes “A fac-simile from the Book of Abraham,” and a third facsimile is printed on the first page of the issue for May 16, 1842. Reuben Hedlock made the wood engravings for these, and his name appears at the right-hand edge of the second facsimile: “Eng. by R. Hedlock.” [78]

Facsimile No. 2 represents a hypocephalus, the original of which is no longer extant. The LDS Church’s Egyptian manuscripts include a drawing of the original which suggests that pieces of it were missing and were filled in by Joseph Smith and Hedlock with characters from the other papyri. [79] This facsimile, 19 cm. in diameter, is printed together with explanatory text in three columns on a folded sheet inserted in the March 15, 1842, issue of the Times and Seasons. Item 133 was printed from the same setting with the added line I From the Times and Seasons, Vol. 3, No. 10 edited and published by Joseph Smith, in the City of’Nauvoo, Illinois, March, 15, 1842.] at the bottom. The facsimile was reprinted, from a different cut, on a folded sheet inserted in vol. 19 of the Millennial Star.

Franklin D. Richards included the “Book of Abraham,” with the three facsimiles, in the Pearl of Great Price (Liverpool, 1851). In 1880 the LDS Church canonized the Pearl of Great Price as one of its four “standard works.”

Emma Smith sold the mummies and the papyri to a Mr. A. Combs in May 1856, and eventually fragments of the papyri went to Combs’s housekeeper’s daughter whose husband sold them to the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1947. [80] Twenty years later the Museum gave eleven fragments—including the originals of the first and third facsimiles—to the LDS Church. A twelfth fragment has existed among the LDS Church’s Egyptian manuscripts for many years. About every fifty years the controversy over Joseph Smith’s interpretation of the facsimiles erupts anew. In 1860 Jules Remy, who had visited Salt Lake City five years before, showed the Pearl of Great Price facsimiles to Theodule Deveria, a scholar in the Louvre, who pronounced them funereal pieces. Remy then published Deveria’s translations in his Journey to Great Salt Lake City (London, 1861). [81] This approach was used again in 1912 by Franklin S. Spalding, the Episcopal bishop of Utah. Spalding sent the Pearl of Great Price plates to the world’s leading Egyptologists, who, while disagreeing among themselves, were unanimous that Joseph Smith was wrong; and he printed their statements in his Joseph Smith, Jr., as a Translator (Salt Lake City, 1912). [82] Needless to say the gift of the eleven fragments by the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1967 precipitated another flurry of scholarly and non-scholarly effusions. [83]

Flake 3289a. US1C.

142 An epistle of the Twelve, to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, in its various branches and conferences in Europe, greeting: [Signed at end:] Brigham Young, Pres’t. Heber C. Kimball, William Smith, Orson Pratt, John E. Page, Lyman Wight, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, George A. Smith, W. Richards, Clerk. To Elder Parley P. Pratt, or the Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in England. City of Nauvoo, Hancock county Illinois, March 20, 1842. [Nauvoo, 1842]

Broadside 47.5 x 30.5 cm. Text in four columns.

This broadside marks the emerging role of the Quorum of the Twelve in the temporal affairs of the Church. It is a separate printing of their epistle in the Times and Seasons of April 1, 1842, struck off from a rearrangement of the same setting, with a few trivial corrections. The immediate impetus for it was a revelation to Joseph Smith of December 22, 1841, included in the epistle, which directs John Snyder—spelled Snider in the broadside—to “take a mission to the Eastern Continent” with “a package of Epistles that shall be written by my servants, the Twelve, making known unto them [the Saints] their duties concerning the building of my houses.” But the larger issue was the financial crises facing the Mormons in the spring of 1842.

In 1840 British converts began to gather to Nauvoo. Before the close of 1842 almost three thousand, most of whom were poor, immigrated to the city and to an economy that was unable to support them. [84] Joseph Smith was elected sole “Trustee- in Trust” for the Church in January 1841, and that month the Latter-day Saints took upon themselves the massive task of building the Nauvoo Temple and the Nauvoo House—the “houses” mentioned in the revelation. On August 10, in a meeting with Brigham Young and four others of the Twelve, Joseph Smith charged the Twelve “to take the burthen of the business of the Church in Nauvoo”; six days later in general conference he announced that “the time had come when the Twelve should be called upon to stand in their place next to the First Presidency, and attend to the settling of emigrants and the business of the Church at the stakes.” At the end of the month the Twelve resolved to place all church properties in Joseph Smith’s name as trustee-in trust, thereby distinguishing his personal holdings from those of the Church. In February 1842 the new federal bankruptcy act took effect. Four weeks after An Epistle of the Twelve was issued, Joseph Smith and a number of Mormons filed affidavits of insolvency. [85]

The heart of the epistle involves two proposals. The first, contained in the revelation, urges the British Saints to contribute to the temple and Nauvoo House. The second outlines a plan to ease the cost of the Mormon emigration from England. Under this scheme the British Saints would send cloth and manufactured goods to Nauvoo, with payment eventually to be made in Nauvoo property; and the proceeds from the sale of the goods would be used to bring the British immigrants to Nauvoo. Although this plan was never implemented, it undoubtedly remained in the minds of some and helped spawn the British and American Commercial Joint Stock Company three years later, an enterprise that all but brought the British Mission to its knees (see item 273).

John Snyder was one of the Canadian elders who accompanied Heber C. Kimball and Orson Hyde on the first English mission (see items 30, 35, 93). Born in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, February 11, 1800, he converted to Mormonism in Toronto in 1836. In 1850 he immigrated to Utah and settled in Salt Lake City, where he died, December 19, 1875. [86]

Snyder had been designated one of the committee charged with building the Nauvoo House in January 1841 (D&C 124:60–62). Directed by the revelation of December 22, 1841, but with some reluctance, he left Nauvoo for England on March 26, 1842. In June he reached Liverpool, and in company with Parley P. Pratt, he immediately began visiting the various branches. That month the Millennial Star carried the text of the epistle. Four months later Snyder returned to the United States with a company of Mormon immigrants. [87]

Flake 1503. US1C.

143 PRATT, Parley Parker? An epistle of Demetrius, Junior, the silversmith, to the workmen of like occupation, and all others whom it may concern,greeting: showing the best way to preserve our craft, and to put down the Latter Day Saints. [At bottom of third column:] (Printed for Elder E. P. Maginn.) [Peterborough, New Hampshire? 1842?]

Broadside 36.5 x 24 cm. Text in three columns, ornamental border.

Two features of this edition of An Epistle of Demetrius allow a guess at the place and date of printing: Manchester has been replaced by America in the first paragraph, and the reference to the age of the Church has been changed from about 10 to about 12 years—suggesting, of course, that it is an 1842 American imprint.

Eli P. Maginn gained some notoriety in the early 1840s because of his skill as a preacher. An Englishman, born about 1819, he seems to have joined the Church in Canada in 1837 and thereafter worked in Canada and the eastern United States as a missionary. He labored in the vicinity of Peterborough, New Hampshire, from 1841 to 1843, and succeeded in raising up seven branches of the Church. By May 18, 1842, he was a member of one of the quorums of seventy, and on July 29, 1843, was sustained as the presiding elder in Boston, Lowell, and Peterborough. Six weeks later he participated in a conference in Boston with Brigham Young and some of the Twelve, and then he dropped from sight. No mention of him occurs in the records of the LDS Church or RLDS Church after November 1843. [88]

On March 22, 1842, from Salem, Massachusetts, Maginn wrote of his activities to Joseph Smith and remarked:

I feel to rejoice in the prosperity of the work of the God of the Saints, which is truly prosperous in New England, the engine of eternal truth has been called into successful opposition against the crafts, and systems of “The like occupation,” and notwithstanding the contest has been exceeding fierce, the enemy being active in the usual way with falsehood, and misrepresentation, the victory is the Lord’s. [89]

The references to crafts and like occupation suggest Maginn had An Epistle of Demetrius in mind when he wrote this letter, so it seems likely he published the broadside about the same time.

This edition was reprinted from the Manchester edition (item 92). The two are textually the same—including an obvious typographical error—except for three trifling changes in addition to those mentioned above.

Flake 2761b. UPB, US1C.

144 HYDE, Orson. A voice from Jerusalem, or a sketch of the travels and ministry of Elder Orson Hyde, missionary of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, to Germany, Constantinople, and Jerusalem, containing a description of Mount Zion, the Pool of Si loam, and other ancient places, and some account of the manners and customs of the east, as illustrative of scripture texts, with a sketch of several interviews and conversations with Jews’ [sic] missionaries, etc., with a variety of information on the present state of that and other countries with regard to coming events and the restoration of Israel. Compiled from his late letters and documents, the last of which bears date at Bavaria, on the Danube, Jan. 18, 1842. Liverpool: Published by P. P. Pratt, Star Office, 36, Chapel Street. Printed by James and Woodburn, 14, Hanover Street. [1842]

v[6]–36 pp. 18 cm. Lavender or yellow printed wrappers.

The genesis of Orson Hyde’s mission dates to 1832, when Joseph Smith predicted that Hyde would visit the Holy Land and “be a watchman unto the house of Israel.” Eight years later Hyde reported having a vision in which he was directed to visit London, Amsterdam, Constantinople, and Jerusalem in anticipation of the return of the Jews to Palestine. This drew an official call at the April 6, 1840, conference for him to visit these four cities and communicate his findings to the Saints. Two days later John E. Page was called to be his companion, and on April 15 Hyde left Nauvoo for the east coast (see items 79, 128). In February 1841 he sailed for England without Page, and alone he traveled through Europe and the Middle East, returning to Nauvoo in December 1842. [90]

From Trieste, Hyde sent Parley Pratt a long letter addressed to the Twelve, dated January 1, 1842, together with a note asking him to publish the letter in pamphlet form. In this way he hoped to meet his obligation to inform the Saints as well as raise some money to support himself and his family during his mission. At the end of January Orson sent Parley a second letter, dated at Trieste, January 17, and addressed to the brethren and sisters in Nauvoo, with a second note, dated at Regensburg, January 30, urging him to publish the two letters. In response, Parley announced in the Millennial Star for March 1842 his intention to issue Hyde’s letters in pamphlet form, and the next month the Star noted that the book was out of press and for sale at fourpence each. Parley later reported that the edition was 3,000. [91]

A Voice from Jerusalem includes the two letters from Trieste; the two notes; a third letter dated at Alexandria, November 22, 1841; a fourth dated at Jaffa, October 20, 1841; an introduction (pp. [iii]–v) describing the origin and purpose of Hyde’s mission, taken from the second edition of An Appeal to the American People (item 79); and, at the end, what seems to be a non-Mormon poem, “The Gathering of Israel. By Mrs. Tinsley. (From the Monthly Chronicle for April.).” Letter I contains the bulk of Hyde’s description of the Holy Land as well as an amusing report of his encounter with the Christian missionaries there. Letter III includes his prayer for the return of the Jews to Jerusalem offered on the Mount of Olives, Sunday, October 24, 1841.

The phrase in the title, the last of which hears date at Bavaria, on the Danube, Jan. 18, 1842, is a bit baffling since Hyde’s second note to Parley Pratt is dated January 30, 1842, and none of the letters is dated January 18. However, in the Star of March 1842 Parley reports having “lately received two lengthy and highly interesting communications from Elder Orson Hyde, dated at Trieste, Jan. 1st. and 18th, containing a sketch of his voyages and travels in the East.” So it is possible that the date “January 17” on the second letter is a misprint.

An excerpt of Hyde’s letter of January 1, 1842, is included in the Star of March 1842 and reprinted in the Times and Seasons of June 1. The rest of this letter is printed in the Times and Seasons of July 15, 1842. His letter of November 22, 1841, and an extract from the letter of October 20, 1841, are in the Millennial Star of January 1842 and the Times and Seasons of April 1, 1842. In addition, ten other Hyde letters written during his mission, or summaries, appear in these two magazines: Times and Seasons 1:116–17, 156–57; 2:204–5, 482–83, 551–55, 570–73; 3:776–77; Millennial Star 1:306–9; 2:93; 3:96.

A Voice from Jerusalem was issued in lavender or yellow wrappers, with the title page reprinted within an ornamental border on the front and an advertisement for books for sale at the Millennial Star office on the back.

Flake 4175. CSmH, CtY, CU-B, DLC, MH, UHi, UPB, US1C, UU.

145 HYDE, Orson. A voice from Jerusalem, or a sketch of the travels and ministry of Elder Orson Hyde, missionary of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, to Germany, Constantinople and Jerusalem, containing a description of Mount Zion, the Pool ofSiloam, and other ancient places, and some account of the manners and customs of the east, as illustrative of scripture texts, with a sketch of several interviews and conversations with Jews, missionaries, etc., with a variety of information on the present state of that and other countries with regard to coming events and the restoration of Israel. Compiled from his late letters and documents the last of which bears date at Bavaria, January 18, 1842. Boston: Printed by Albert Morgan, No. 6 State-Street, (4th Story.) 1842.

v[6]–36 pp. 18 cm. Yellow printed wrappers.

Item 145 is a faithful reprint of the Liverpool edition (the preceding item), published by George J. Adams, who must have felt some identification with Hyde’s mission because of traveling with him to England in the winter of 1841 (see item 114). In March 1842 Parley Pratt wrote to Joseph Smith that he was printing Hyde’s letters and would send him a copy to be republished in Nauvoo. [92] Item 145 undoubtedly served as this American edition. Its title page is reprinted on the front wrapper, within an ornamental border, with the phrase Boston: Printed by Albert Morgan, No. 6 State-Street, (4th Story.) replaced by Published by P. P. Pratt, Liverpool, Eng. Re-published by G. J. Adams, Boston, Mass. The verso of the back wrapper contains Parley’s hymn “The Morning Breaks, the Shadows Flee” within a different ornamental border.

Flake 4176. CtY, CU-B, DLC, MH, NN, ULA, UPB, US1C.

146 PRATT, Parley Parker. Mormonism unveiled: Zion ‘s Watchman unmasked and its editor, Mr. La Roy Sunderland, exposed: truth vindicated. The Devil mad, and priestcraft in danger!!! By P. P. Pratt, minister of the gospel. [2 lines] Fourth edition. New-York: Joseph W. Harrison, Printer, 465 Pearl, corner of Chatham-Street. 1842.

47[1] pp. 15.5 cm. Tan printed wrappers.

Technically this is the third edition of Mormonism Unveiled: Zion’s Watchman Unmasked (see items 45–47, 48). A note on p. 45, dated at New York, April 1842, indicates that it was issued in response to further anti-Mormon attacks by La Roy Sunderland, undoubtedly a reference to Sunderland’s second tract Mormonism Exposed: In Which is Shown the Monstrous Imposture, the Blasphemy, and the Wicked Tendency, of That Enormous Delusion, Advocated by a Professedly Religious Sect, Calling Themselves “Latter Day Saints” (New York: Printed and Published at the Office of the N.Y. Watchman, 1842). Although the opening pages are similar, this tract is different from Sunderland’s 1838 eight-part article in Zion’s Watchman, or the pamphlet reprint Mormonism Exposed and Refuted (New York, 1838), to which Mormonism Unveiled: Zion’s Watchman Unmasked actually responds. Apparently the leaders of the Church in New York felt that with Parley Pratt out of the country, no better counterattack to Sunderland’s second tract could be marshalled than a reprint of Parley’s original response. In Boston, a new convert John Hardy would also reply to Sunderland’s second tract (see item 153).

The 1842 edition is a faithful reprint of the second or third issue of the 1838 New York edition, except for minor changes in capitalization and punctuation, and one significant omission. Following the assertion “there will not be an unbelieving Gentile upon this continent 50 years hence,” the 1838 edition (pp. 15–16) directs a prediction to Sunderland:

And furthermore, as Mr. LaRoy Sunderland has lied concerning the truth of Heaven, the fulness of the Gospel; and has blasphemed against the word of God, except he speedily repent, and acknowledge his lying and wickedness, and obey the message of eternal truth, which God has sent for the salvation of his people. God will smite him dumb, that he can no longer speak great swelling words against the Lord; and a trembling shall seize his nerves, that he shall not be able to write; and Zion’s Watchman shall cease to be published abroad, and its lies shall no longer deceive the public; and he will wander a vagabond on the earth, until sudden destruction shall overtake him; and if Mr. La Roy Sunderland enquires, when shall these things be? 1 reply, it is nigh thee—even at thy doors; and I say this in the name of Jesus Christ. Amen.

This is deleted in the 1842 edition. But perhaps its publisher—undoubtedly Lucian R. Foster—was a bit too cautious: within the year Sunderland seceded from the Methodist Episcopal Church over slavery and helped organize the Wesleyan Methodist Connection, thus terminating the Watchman, and a few years later he renounced Christianity altogether. [93]

This edition was issued in tan wrappers with the following printed on the front within an ornamental border: Pratt’s Reply to La Roy Sunderland. 4th Edition. New-York: J. W. Harrison, Printer, No. 465 Pearl-Street. It was advertised on the back wrapper of the 1842 edition of Orson Pratt’s Remarkable Visions (next item) at l2½¢. Two years later The Prophet dropped the price to 100 each or $6 per hundred. [94]

Flake 6614. CtY, MoInRC, US1C

147 PRATT, Orson. An interesting account of several remarkable visions, and of the late discovery of ancient American records. By O. Pratt, minister of the gospel. [Third American edition.] New-York: Joseph W. Harrison, Printer, No. 465 Pearl- Street. 1842.

36 pp. 17 cm. Tan printed wrappers.

It is not known exactly when the 1842 edition of Remarkable Visions was published. The back wrapper includes an advertisement for “P. P. Pratt’s reply to La Roy Sunderland. Price, YlVi cents,” suggesting it was printed after item 146. One might guess that Lucian R. Foster published these two pieces about the same time.

Its text is an exact reprint of the second American edition (item 110), including two misprints. But the body of the pamphlet does not include the poems “The Morning Star” and “Israel’s Redemption” which appear on the last two pages of the first and second American editions. Originally it was issued in tan printed wrappers with the following wrapper title within an ornamental border: An interesting account of several remarkable visions, and of the late discovery of ancient American records, which unfold the history of this continent from the earliest ages after the flood, to the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era. With a sketch of the rise, faith, and doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. By O. Pratt, minister of the gospel. [2 lines] Price, ten cents single, or six dollars per hundred. The recto of the back wrapper contains the poems “Israel’s Redemption,” and “The Happy Day Has Rolled On”—taken from the back wrapper of the first or second American edition. The verso of the back wrapper advertises “Mormon Books, for sale by L. R. Foster, New-York.” At the end of 1845 the New-York Messenger was still advertising Remarkable Visions, at 100 a copy. [95]

Flake 6504. CSmH, CtY, CU-B, MoInRC, NN, UHi, UPB, US1C.

148 The Wasp. Nauvoo: April 16, 1842–April 26, 1843.

1 v. (52 nos. in [208] pp.) 44 cm.

Ebenezer Robinson and Don Carlos Smith hoped to publish a weekly newspaper reporting local and national news as early as April 1840, when they printed a prospectus in the Times and Seasons for The News, which would “be devoted to Literature, Arts and Sciences” and “take perfectly neutral ground, in regard to politics.” Within eight months, however, they abandoned this plan for want of sufficient subscribers. The following June they ran a second prospectus for The Nauvoo Ensign and Zarahemla Standard to be issued weekly both in Nauvoo and in Zarahemla, Lee County, Iowa. “In its prosecution,” they promised, “the editor will not descend to the low scurrility and personal abuse, resorted to by many of the Journals of the day”—a clear reference to Thomas C. Sharp’s Warsaw Signal. But The Nauvoo Ensign too was doomed to a stillbirth, and Robinson announced in the Times and Seasons of November 1, 1841, that the death of his partner Don Carlos Smith and his own financial pressures had caused him to give up the project. [96]

Then on April 16, 1842, ten weeks after Joseph Smith and the Twelve bought out Ebenezer Robinson, The Wasp appeared without warning. It was a four-column weekly, at an annual subscription of $1.50 “invariably in advance.” Its first thirtynine numbers (April 16, 1842–January 28, 1843) issued on Saturdays, with two lapses: it skipped the week of August 6, 1842, and the two weeks of November 19 and 26. The last thirteen numbers (February 1–April 26, 1843) appeared on successive Wednesdays, without a lapse.

In each of the first five issues, its editor, William Smith, Joseph Smith’s younger brother, broke with the promises of the earlier prospectuses, as well as his own prospectus, as he commented on local politics and excoriated his journalistic adversary Thomas C. Sharp—whom he referred to as Thom-ASS and who, in turn, referred to The Wasp as the Pole Cat. [97] William’s vulgarity obviously drew some criticism, for the fourth number ran an “Apology” in which he defensively explained, “when we allude to Sharp, we consider that we are replying to the whole Anti-Mormon rabble.” After the fifth number, Sharp was hardly mentioned again. For most of its life The Wasp followed a format which would be continued by its successor, the Nauvoo Neighbor, printing articles from other papers, national and local news, the deliberations of the Nauvoo city council, poems, fiction, legal notices, and local advertisements.

The Wasp lists William Smith as the editor for the first thirty-one numbers (April 16–December 3, 1842). Thereafter it gives John Taylor as the editor and Taylor and Wilford Woodruff as the printers and publishers (December 10, 1842–April 26, 1843). But one might guess that Taylor guided The Wasp after the first few issues. Indeed William Smith referred to himself as “the nominal editor” in the October 8 issue (no. 25) when he announced that he would leave the paper in order to assume his seat in the state legislature. In November 1842, Taylor and Woodruff assumed the full responsibility for the Times and Seasons, The Wasp, and the Nauvoo print shop, and in January 1844 Taylor bought the shop outright (see item 60).

It seems clear that The Wasp was helped into existence by the unremitting anti-Mormon stance of the Warsaw Signal, which turned offensive toward the Mormons in June 1841 as it began to promote an anti-Mormon political party. It is also tempting to conjecture that William Smith’s political ambitions were another factor in the paper’s birth. The second issue comments on an anti-Mormon mass meeting called for May 30, 1842, at Carthage, to select candidates for the upcoming election in August. And slates of pro-Mormon candidates are given in the eighth, ninth, and thirteenth issues, none of which includes William Smith’s name. But the fourteenth issue (July 16) announces Smith’s candidacy for the state senate, and the next (July 23) prints a Democratic ticket which includes him as a candidate for one of the two Hancock County seats in the Illinois house of representatives. He and all the other local candidates endorsed by the Mormons easily won their races, but curiously The Wasp does not print the Hancock County returns. These are published in the Signal for August 13, 1842.

Besides the August election, three stories dominate the newspaper. The first is the fall from grace of John C. Bennett (see items 156–57), which begins with the notice in the sixth issue of his resignation as mayor of Nauvoo. The second, beginning in the seventeenth number, is the attempt by the state of Missouri to extradite Joseph Smith as an accessory in the attempted murder of Lilburn W. Boggs (see item 168). The third is the Illinois legislature’s effort to repeal the Nauvoo charter (see item 154). William Smith’s speech before the House in support of the charter is printed in the thirty-seventh issue.

The Wasp for April 5, 1843 (no. 49) carries a prospectus for the Nauvoo Neighbor (item 175) which would succeed it after its fifty-second number. Enlarged to twice the size and bearing a more conciliatory name, it too would be edited by John Taylor and published at the Times and Seasons office by Taylor and Woodruff.

Flake 9625. CtY, UPB[11 nos.], US1C.

149 Rank roll of the Nauvoo Legion. [Nauvoo? 1842?]

Broadside 38 x 3 I cm. Text in two columns.

The Nauvoo Legion came into being by virtue of the Nauvoocily charter (item 154), which authorized the city council to organize the citizenry into a “body of independent military mem” and the ordinance passed by the city council on Lebruary 3. 1841, which implemented this provision of the charter. John C. Bennett (see items 154, 156–57) seems to have been a principal in its organization, and for fifteen months he was second in command, a major general, and the Legion’s chief administrative officer—as well as mayor of Nauvoo. [98]

Although technically a part of the Illinois state militia, the Legion was for practical purposes an independent military unit. The city charter specified that it was subject to the call of the mayor to enforce city laws. (At this time the charter of Quincy, Illinois, also authorized the mayor to call out the militia in case of riot or lo enforce a city ordinance.) Unique to the Legion was a “court martial.” consisting of all the commissioned officers, with extensive law making powers (see item 200). The city ordinance of February 3, 1841, further empowered the “court martial” to nominate officers for original commissions and promotions, another departure from the usual military practice. Unique also were some of the terms defining the organization: the “Legion” was divided into two “cohorts,” each commanded by a brigadier general; the cohorts were divided into regiments, the regiments into companies, and so on. The commanding officer of the Legion carried the rank of lieutenant general, a rank not permanently held by any other U.S. military officer up to that time except George Washington. [99]

Rank Roll of the Nauvoo Legion is clearly a Nauvoo imprint. It lists 209 officers—a virtual “who’s who” in Nauvoo in 1842—beginning with Joseph Smith, the only lieutenant general, and ending with twenty-seven third lieutenants. Each entry consists of an officer’s name, his responsibility, the date of his commission, and his designation as a staff or line officer. For example, under “Captains”: “Edward I lunter. Herald, & Armor Bearer, Sept 9th 1841—staff.” The earliest commissions are Joseph Smith’s and John C. Bennett’s, February 5. 1841; the latest are dated May 6, 1842. Since Bennett was excommunicated from the Church on May 11, 1842, resigned as mayor of Nauvoo on the 17th, and was openly disaffected by the end of June, it would seem this broadside was printed no earlier than May 6 and no later than the first of July. [100] It was probably struck off for the Legion’s parade and review on May 7, which was witnessed by Stephen A. Douglas and other dignitaries. [101]

Flake 5723. CtY, ICHi, UPB, US1C.

150 PR ATT, Parley Parker. The world turned upside down, or heaven on earth. The material universe is eternal. -Immortal man has flesh and hones.Earth is his everlasting inheritance.To this hear all the prophets and apostles witness. The physical worlds were not formed for annihilation, hut for the pleasure of Cod they are and were created. BY P. P. Pratt. Published at the Millennial Star Office, 36, Chapel-Street, Liverpool, and sold by the booksellers. Printed by James and Woodburn, 14, Hanover-Street. [1842)

iv[5]–25 pp. 18 cm. Yellow printed wrappers.

This pamphlet reprints Parley Pratt’s essay “The Regeneration and Eternal Duration of Matter” in his Millennium and Other Poems (item 63). Parley published it in an edition of 3,000 and first advertised it in the Millennial Star of May 1842 at a price of 2d. [102] This advertisement claims that the reissue was “corrected and revised,” but it is the same as the first printing except for a rearranging and slight rewriting of the opening paragraphs and a half-dozen trifling changes throughout the rest of the essay. The tract was issued in yellow wrappers, the title page reprinted within an ornamental border on the front.

Flake 6713. CtY, MH, MoInRC, NN, UHi, UPB, US1C, UU.

151 BARNES, Lorenzo Don. The bold pilgrim; written mostly on board the ship “Southerner,” by Lorenzo D. Barnes, elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; while on his voyage from New York to England, on a mission. January, 1842. [Bradford? 1842?]

Broadside 38 x 25.5 cm. Text in two columns, ornamental border.

Called to accompany the Twelve on their mission to England in the spring of 1839, Barnes paused on the east coast and proselytized in Pennsylvania and New Jersey until August 1841, when the First Presidency instructed him to proceed with his mission. On January 11, 1842, he sailed for England. For three months he labored in Cheltenham and Bristol, and on May 16, 1842, he was called to preside over the Church in the Bradford area, a position he held until his death on December 20, 1842. [103]

The Bold Pilgrim was certainly printed after Barnes reached England and probably before his death. One might guess it was printed in Bradford while he presided there, about the same time as his Very Important References (next item).

A narrative poem in 32 five-line stanzas, it describes Barnes’s conversion to Mormonism and his call to serve as a missionary. Its first stanza: “I am a bold Pilgrim—a message to bear / To Islands, and Countries, and Kingdoms afar; / For the Lord, from the heavens, a message has sent / To call on all Nations—Believe and Repent, / In the Last Days.” It was reprinted, with the full title, in The Prophet for January 11, 1845. Two other examples of his poetry exist in the journal of Wilford Woodruff, the first a piece on virtue, the second a poem to his intended, Susan Conrad. [104]

Flake 308. US1C.

152 BARNES, Lorenzo Don. Very important references, to prove the religion and principles of the Latter Day Saints, to be true. By Lorenzo D. Barnes. Bradford, Yorkshire: Printed by B. Walker, Westgate. 1842.

8 pp. 11 cm.

Very Important References differs substantially from the 1841 editions of Barnes’s References (items 115–16). Although it shares a large number of prooftexts with the earlier editions, it eliminates some and adds many others, all arranged under a somewhat different set of topical headings: “The gospel”; “Christ taught these principles by precept and example”; “The promises, powers, and blessings of the Gospel”; “Antiquity of the Gospel”; “Apostacy of the Jews”; “Apostacy of Christendom”; “The Gentiles will be cut off; “The Gathering of Israel”; “Great Miracles will be wrought in the last days”; “Many Revelations will be given in the last days”; “Book of Mormon”; “Restoration of the Church and Kingdom of Christ in the last days”; “Christ receives this Kingdom and reigns over it at his second coming”; “Christ’s Second Coming and Millennial Reign”; “Mount Zion, a literal City”; “The Melchizedek Priesthood”; and “The God of Israel.” Also, the “Chronology of Time” at the end has been reworked so that the total age of the earth is now computed to be 5,988 years.

Barnes undoubtedly published Very Important References during the period he presided over the Bradford Conference (see the preceding item). Another edition with the same title was printed in Norwich in 1848.

Flake 311. CtY.

153 HARDY, John. Hypocrisy exposed, or J. V Himes weighed in the balances of truth, honesty and common sense, and found wanting; being a reply to a pamphlet put forth by him, entitled Mormon Delusions and Monstrosities. By John Hardy. [2 lines] Boston Printed by Albert Morgan. 1842.

16 pp. 19.5 cm.

On May 15, 1842, the date of the preface of Joshua V. Himes’s Mormon Delusions and Monstrosities. A Review of the Book of Mormon, and an Illustration of Mormon Principles and Practices (Boston: Published by Joshua V. Himes, 1842), the Latter-day Saint branch in Boston had been organized two months and had grown from thirty members to fifty (see items 125–26). For three years Himes had been advocating the teachings of William Miller, who preached that the Second Advent would occur in 1843, and who had been brought to national attention through Himes’s promotional genius. Ten years before, when he was pastor of the First Christian Church in Boston, Himes had reprinted Alexander Campbell’s Delusions in pamphlet form—the first anti-Mormon book. So in the spring of 1842, when Mormonism was taking root in his city, it was inevitable that he would again put an anti-Mormon piece in circulation. [105]

Mormon Delusions and Monstrosities is made up from two earlier sources, a fact Hardy ridicules in his reply. Following Himes’s four-page preface, the first half (pp. 7–43) again reprints Alexander Campbell’s Delusions, first published in the Millennial Harbinger of February 7, 1831. The second half (pp. 45–90) extracts La Roy Sunderland’s Mormonism Exposed: In Which is Shown the Monstrous Imposture, the Blasphemy, and the Wicked Tendency, of That Enormous Delusion, Advocated by a Professedly Religious Sect, Calling Themselves “Latter Day Saints” (New York: Printed and Published at the Office of the N.Y. Watchman, 1842), which used, in turn, E. D. Howe’s Mormonism Unvailed (Painesville, 1834), and William Harris’s Mormonism Portrayed; Its Errors and Absurdities Exposed, and the Spirit and Designs of its Authors Made Manifest (Warsaw: Sharp & Gamble, Publishers, 1841), including the appendix giving extracts from the congressional report of the testimony at Joseph Smith’s 1838 Missouri trial (26th Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Doc. 189). [106]

In Hypocrisy Exposed, Hardy mainly attacks Himes and Sunderland. He includes arguments that the scriptures predict the appearance of the prophets in the last days and that miracles are inevitable among believers. Where Delusions and Mormonism Exposed quote the Book of Mormon, Hardy enumerates the misquotations and contends that Campbell, Sunderland, and Himes were deceitful. Delusions argues that Joseph Smith alone wrote the Book of Mormon, while Mormonism Exposed repeats the Spaulding-Rigdon theory, and Hardy makes much of the fact that these contradict each other. To blunt the effect of the testimony at Joseph Smith’s Missouri trial, he reprints a long excerpt from Appeal to the American People (items 66, 79), which describes how the one-sided testimony was gathered.

Hypocrisy Exposed occurs with variant title pages. In the Harvard copy the opening phrase Hypocrisy exposed, or J. V. Himes weighed in the balances is in three lines, while in the LDS Church copy it is in four with J. V. Himes in larger type. The Church’s copy also adds a colon after Boston, so one might guess it is the later state.

John Hardy had been a convert to Mormonism for about a year when he took on Himes and Sunderland. He was ordained an elder in September 1842 and was chosen to preside over the Boston branch five months later (see item 186). In the fall of 1844 he became entangled in two unseemly slander trials arising out of the licentiousness of George J. Adams and William Smith, and ultimately he was expelled from the Church—a series of events he vividly describes in his History of the Trials of Elder John Hardy (Boston, 1844). Hardy followed Sidney Rigdon for about a year and then transferred his allegiance to James J. Strang (see items 240, 242, 303, 310). In 1847 he broke with Strang, and at that point he seems to disappear from the Mormon record. [107]

Flake 3858. DLC, MH, US1C.

154 The city charter: laws, ordinances, and acts of the city council of the city of Nauvoo. And also, the ordinances of the Nauvoo Legion: from the commencement of the city to this date. Nauvoo, III. Published by order of the city council. Joseph Smith, Printer. July 1842.

32 pp. 23.5 cm.

On December 16, 1840, Thomas Carlin, governor of Illinois, signed a bill granting a charter to the city of Nauvoo to take effect on February 1, 1841. Instigated by the Nauvoo high council a year earlier, the charter was drafted in the fall of 1840 by Joseph Smith and John C. Bennett and lobbied through the legislature by Bennett. [108] Among its provisions, it granted the Nauvoo city council the authority to pass laws not repugnant to the constitutions of Illinois and the United States, and it authorized a municipal militia (the Nauvoo Legion), a city university, and a municipal court empowered to issue writs of habeas corpus—in effect making Nauvoo a state within a state. It was devised, Joseph Smith declared, “for the salvation of the Church, and on principles so broad, that every honest man might dwell secure under its protective influence without distinction of sect or party.” [109] But the non-Mormons in Illinois soon began to view it as a device to circumvent the laws of the state. An effort to repeal the Nauvoo charter began in the legislative session of 1842–43, but was unsuccessful. By the winter of 1844–45, however, the Mormons had lost much of their political support, and the Illinois legislature repealed the charter on January 29, 1845. [110]

The Nauvoo charter itself was not greatly different from those granted to Chicago (1837), Alton (1837), Galena (1839), Springfield (1840), and Quincy (1840). It was clearly based on the Springfield charter and incorporated thirty-nine sections of that charter’s fifth article. The charters of Galena, Quincy, and Springfield, for example, also authorized the city council to pass any law not repugnant to the constitutions of the United States and Illinois. Both Alton and Chicago had municipal courts, and an 1839 amendment to the Alton charter empowered the judge of the municipal court to issue writs of habeas corpus. The provision in the Nauvoo charter for the Nauvoo Legion had an antecedent in the charter granted by the Illinois legislature to John C. Bennett and others in 1837 for an independent militia company, the “Invincible Dragoons.” And the sections in the Nauvoo charter dealing with the legislative powers of the city council were almost identical to those of Springfield and Quincy. What distinguished Nauvoo from these other cities was the way the Mormons interpreted and used the charter, particularly their use of the habeas corpus provision to thwart the attempts of the state of Missouri to extradite Joseph Smith. [111]

John C. Bennett was the first mayor of Nauvoo, serving from February 3, 1841, to May 17, 1842, when he was forced to resign amidst charges of philandering (see items 156–57). Joseph Smith replaced him on May 19. On June 11 the Nauvoo city council “resolved to publish the city charter, ordinances of the city council, and Nauvoo Legion, before the first day of next July.” [112]

The resulting publication, The City Charter: Laws, Ordinances, and Acts of the City Council, is a perplexing piece. It prints the charter (pp. [3]–8); those sections from the Springfield charter incorporated in the Nauvoo charter (pp. 9–11); the city officers elected February 1, 1841 (pp. 11–12); sixteen ordinances and a number of resolutions, motions, and actions of the city council, each signed by John C. Bennett (pp. 12–32); and “Officers of the City of Nauvoo, and the Courts, at This Date” which lists Bennett as the mayor (p. 32). In spite of its title, it does not include six ordinances, including that organizing the Nauvoo Legion, passed by the city council and published in the Times and Seasons of February 15, 1841; February 15, March 1 and 15, and April 15, 1842. Nor does it include seven other ordinances printed in The Wasp of April 30, June 4, and July 2, 1842. It also does not contain the two ordinances of the court martial of the Nauvoo Legion printed in the Times and Seasons of March 15, 1842 and The Wasp of June 11, 1842. Indeed it gives none of the actions of the city council after November 27, 1841.

Adding to the perplexity, the first signature (pp. [1]–8) seems to have been circulated by itself. Only two copies of the full thirty-two-page book are located, at the LDS Church, while five copies of the first signature only are located. The Harvard copy of this first signature is paged [l]–[2] [9]–14 but is otherwise typographically identical to the others—apparently an early impression.

It is conceivable that the thirty-two-page The City Charter: Laws, Ordinances, and Acts of the City Council is an unfinished book. Perhaps Bennett’s disaffection from the Church broke into the national headlines as it was being printed (see items 156–57). And because he was so prominently featured in the actions of the city council, the printing was stopped and only the first eight pages were circulated.

Flake 5714–14a. DLC[8p.], ICN[8p.], MH[8p.], UPB[8p.], USlC[32p., 8p.]

155 WINCHESTER, Benjamin. Synopsis of the Holy Scriptures, and concordance, in which the synonymous passages are arranged together.Chiefly designed to illustrate the doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter-day Saints. To which is added, as an appendix, an epitome of ecclesiastical history, etc. By B. Winchester, minister of the gospel. [7 linesj Philadelphia: Printed for the author, at the “United States” Book and Job Printing Office. 1842.

viii[9]–256 pp. 12.5 cm.

Winchester’s star was in decline when he headed for Nauvoo in October 1841, his reputation damaged by his abandonment of Erastus Snow in Salem (see items 125–26) and by the discord that swirled about him in the Philadelphia branch. On the 31st he began a series of meetings with Joseph Smith and the Twelve which resulted in his suspension for “disobedience” on January 12, 1842, and his official “silencing” in May. [113] Winchester had worked in the Times and Seasons office during November and December, and once he was relieved of his leadership of the branch in Philadelphia, he turned quite naturally to a publishing venture. Just before returning to Philadelphia, he announced in the Times and Seasons of January 15, 1842, his intention to publish a concordance which would collect by topic all the biblical passages that bore on Mormonism. His work on Synopsis of the Holy Scriptures occupied almost exactly the duration of his suspension: on July 22, seven days after the Times and Seasons announced his restoration to “former fellowship and standing in the Church,” he took out a copyright in the Eastern District Court of Pennsylvania. [114] The Times and Seasons of September 15, 1842 ran a favorable review of the book, and since Synopsis of the Holy Scriptures includes letters from Erastus Snow and Julian Moses dated July 19 and July 23, 1842, it was likely printed in late July or August. Moses notes in his autobiography that from May to July 1842 he assisted Winchester in compiling the book. [115]

The review in the Times and Seasons listed copies in “portable form”—probably a wallet binding—at 75¢ and “Morocco bound” at 62½¢. The following year Winchester advertised the book at 62½¢ a copy or $50 per hundred, and the Millennial Star offered it at 2s. [116] The Prophet began advertising it at 62½¢ on June 22, 1844, then at 75¢ in November and December. It dropped the price to 400 each or $4.25 a dozen on January 18, 1845—in spite of Parley Pratt’s article in the The Prophet of January 4 in which he enjoined the Saints not to buy Winchester’s books.

Synopsis of the Holy Scriptures derived from Lorenzo Barnes’s References (items 115–16, 136–37, 152) which Winchester first included in the Gospel Reflector (item 95). Following the letters by Snow and Moses (p. [ii]), table of contents (pp. [iii]–v), Directions, Abbreviations, Etc. (p. vi), and a preface (pp. [vii]–viii), the main part of the book (pp. [9]-213) reprints, by alphabetically arranged topic, those biblical passages Winchester believed to bear on that particular topic, with additional citations listed at the end of the quotation. Most of the approximately one hundred topics are of general Christian interest. But many are specifically directed to a Mormon audience, for example, “Baptism for the Dead,” “Book of Mormon,” “God a Real Person,” “Pre-existence of Spirits,” and “Zion for the Millennium.” At a number of places the book has a Note to the Reader which points to the desired exegesis of a particular set of passages. Thus it marks a significant step in the process which took Mormon theology from the informality of the pamphlet literature to the formality of the synthetic works (see e.g., items 334–35). An appendix (pp. [215]–56), compiled out of the standard church histories including William Gahan’s A Compendious Abstract of the History of the Church of Christ and Mosheim’s Ecclesiastical History, traces the development of Christianity from before the birth of Jesus to the nineteenth century, emphasizing, of course, the characteristics of primitive Christianity and the movement of the traditional churches away from their primitive roots.

The book is usually found in plain brown sheep with a black leather label and the binder’s title SYNOPSIS ETC. in gilt on the backstrip. Other original bindings include black horizontally ribbed sheep with a gilt border on the covers, gilt bands and the title in gilt on the backstrip; black striated sheep with a gilt or blind stamped border on the covers, gilt bands and the title in gilt on the backstrip; brown pebbled sheep with a blind stamped border on the covers, gilt paneled backstrip with the title in gilt, gilt edges; black smooth calf with a blind stamped border on the covers, raised bands and the title in gilt on the backstrip; and a wallet edged binding of black or brown striated sheep.

Flake 9943. CSmH, CtY, CU-B, DLC, ICN, MH, NjP, NN, RPB, UHi, UPB, USIC, UU.

156 The Wasp.Extra. Nauvoo, Illinois, Wednesday, July 27, 1842. [At head of first column:] Bennettiana; or, the microscope with double diamond lenses. [Nauvoo, 1842]

[4] pp. 38.5 x 26 cm. Text in four columns.

157 Affidavits and certificates, disproving the statements and affidavits contained in John C. Bennett’s letters. Nauvoo Aug. 31, 1842. [Nauvoo, 1842]

Broadsheet 38.5 x 31 cm. Text in five columns.

John C. Bennett’s meteoric career is unique in Mormondom. During the twenty-one months following his initial contact with Joseph Smith in August 1840, he became the first mayor of Nauvoo, major general in the Nauvoo Legion, chancellor of the University of Nauvoo, and assistant president of the Church. But his many talents were mixed with too few scruples, and his philandering ultimately brought about his excommunication from the Church on May 11, 1842, and his resignation as mayor on the 17th. For five weeks the Church leaders delayed a public announcement of the action against him, alternately hoping he would quietly leave Nauvoo or reform and remain in the Church. Finally, the Times and Seasons of June 15 printed a notice of his excommunication, and the next issue carried a long statement by Joseph Smith which, in general terms, discussed Bennett’s profligacy while emphasizing that it did not grow out of Smith’s teachings. [117]

Bennett’s retaliation was quick in coming. On July 8 the Springfield Sangamo Journal ran the first of seven sensational letters in which he accused Joseph Smith and those close to him of political despotism, wholesale land fraud, the attempted assassination of Lilburn W. Boggs, and wide-ranging sexual improprieties. These letters were widely reprinted around the country. Collected, revised, and fleshed out with generous excerpts from William Harris’s Mormonism Portrayed (Warsaw, 1841), E. D. Howe’s Mormonism Unvailed (Painesville, 1834), and J. B. Turner’s Mormonism in All Ages (New York, 1842), they formed the basis of Bennett’s book The History of the Saints; or, an Expose of Joe Smith and Mormonism published in Boston that October. [118]

Bennett’s expose, however, was vulnerable at two points: his allegations were overdrawn, and his personal life was less than spotless. The Saints moved quickly to discredit him. On July 23 The Wasp ran an article “Bennett As He Was,” and “Bennett As He Is” which contrasted statements in his Sangamo Journal letters with his earlier statements in the Times and Seasons published over the pseudonym “Joab, General in Israel.” This issue also included a summary of a public meeting called in Nauvoo the day before to air the Mormons’ side of the affair, and a short affidavit by Sidney Rigdon.

Four days later the Wasp Extra reprinted all of the Bennett material in The Wasp of July 23, including a slightly expanded report of the July 22 public meeting, together with long affidavits by the Nauvoo city council, Hyrum Smith, William Law, and Daniel H. Wells; shorter ones by Elias Higbee, Sidney Rigdon, Pamela Michael, and William Marks; and suitable editorial comments (e.g., a reference to Bennett as “a debaucher, a spoiler of character and virtue, and a living pestilence, walking in darkness to fester in his own infamy”). The Times and Seasons of August 1, 1842, reprinted part of the series “Bennett As He Was,” and “Bennett As He Is,” the summary of the July 22 meeting, all of the affidavits in the Wasp Extra, an additional short affidavit by Henry Marks, and three excerpts from national newspapers. The meeting summary and affidavits were republished in the Millennial Star of October 1842.

By mid-August it was clear that the national press was giving Bennett’s allegations full coverage. On the 26th Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, and some of the Twelve decided to call a number of the elders to travel about the eastern states to refute Bennett’s charges, and to reprint all of the Bennett affidavits for the elders to circulate. The next day, Smith, Young, and others prepared the affidavits for the press, and on August 29 they assembled a conference in Nauvoo at which 380 volunteered for the anti-Bennett campaign. Brigham Young left Nauvoo on September 9, and eight days later he was in Quincy with Heber C. Kimball, G. A. Smith, and Amasa Lyman holding public meetings to disabuse the public mind, “to some extent,” about John C. Bennett. While in Quincy, he approached the Whig and the Herald about printing the Bennett affidavits. When they refused, he returned to Nauvoo and had Affidavits and Certificates Disproving the Statements and Affidavits Contained in John C. Bennett’s Letters struck off at the Times and Seasons shop. [119]

Affidavits and Certificates reprints all of the affidavits in the Wasp Extra together with three short sworn statements by William Clayton, C. L. Higbee, and W. R. Powell. Three other groups of documents are printed here for the first time. The first refutes a statement by Martha Brotherton in the Sangamo Journal of July 22 that Brigham Young and Joseph Smith tried to persuade her to become Young’s plural wife. [120] The second group concerns an ambiguous and unsigned letter defending polygamy, purportedly from Joseph Smith to Sidney Rigdon’s daughter Nancy, which Bennett published in the Sangamo Journal of August 19. Affidavits and Certificates includes a statement by Sidney Rigdon denying Joseph Smith’s authorship of the letter and an affidavit by Stephen Markham suggesting that Nancy Rigdon was Bennett’s mistress. [121] The third group of documents describes in embarrassing detail an alleged affair between Bennett and Sarah M. Pratt, wife of Orson Pratt. This particular example of a Bennett liaison was included because of Bennett’s claim in the Sangamo Journal of July 15 that Sarah Pratt had refused to become a plural wife of Joseph Smith and because, at that moment, Orson and Sarah Pratt were out of the Church. [122]

Behind all of this was the fact of Mormon polygamy. In the spring of 1841, Joseph Smith secretly took a plural wife, and that summer he discreetly began to teach the new doctrine of marriage to some of the Twelve. Bennett’s charges regarding Sarah Pratt so disturbed Orson that he separated himself from the Church, and on August 20, 1842, he was dropped from the Quorum of Twelve and excommunicated. Five months later he and Sarah were rebaptized, and he was restored to his former standing among the Twelve. [123]

Generally the Mormon counterattack was successful in blunting Bennett’s expose, but not without a toll. The charges and countercharges certainly were demoralizing to the Latter-day Saints in Nauvoo and in the outlying branches. [124] Because of Bennett’s allegations about the attempt on Lilburn Boggs’s life, Missouri’s governor Thomas Reynolds launched new demands for Joseph Smith’s extradition (see items 168, 182). Bennett’s claims about spiritual wifery drove Mormon polygamy even further underground where it remained out of public view for another decade. And whatever the truth may have been, the charges concerning his wife certainly affected Orson Pratt’s life in the Church for years to come. [125]

Bennett was thirty-six years old when he first met Joseph Smith. Before that, he had practiced medicine in Ohio, had helped found a college in Indiana, had run a diploma mill in Ohio, and had been commissioned quartermaster general of Illinois by Thomas Carlin. In spite of his declaration in The History of the Saints, pp. 5–10, that he joined the Mormons only to expose them, his association with Mormonism did not end in 1842. In 1845 he had a brief flirtation with Sidney Rigdon’s faction in Pittsburgh, and the following year he attached himself to James J. Strang’s church, only to be expelled by Strang in 1847 (see items 240, 242, 303, 310, 311, 323). Back in Massachusetts, his native state, he turned to breeding poultry and in 1850 published a book on the subject. Eventually he moved to Polk City, Iowa, where he continued his medical practice. He died there in 1867.  [126]

Item 156: Flake 9626. CtY, US1C. Item J57: Flake 1312. US1C.

158 CRAWFORD, Robert P. An index, or reference, to the second and third editions of the Book of Mormon, alphabetically arranged. By Robert P. Crawford. Philadelphia: Brown, Bicking & Guilbert, Printers, No. 56 N. Third St. 1842.

21 pp. 15 cm.

Crawford’s Index is a set of topical references or an extended table of contents for the 1837 and 1840 editions of the Book of Mormon, similar in nature to the earlier “indexes” (items 24, 98, 83) except that it is alphabetically arranged. Crawford apparently drew on the index to the 1841 Book of Mormon (item 98). His index and the Liverpool index have about five-sixths of their entries in common, and a few of these common entries are sufficiently novel to suggest that they came from the same source. Only about a third of the common entries, however, are identically worded.[127] Since it mentions only the second and third editions of the Book of Mormon, he probably published it before the 1842 Book of Mormon was advertised. In June and July 1844 The Prophet offered it for sale at 60 a copy or $2 per hundred.

Virtually nothing is known about Robert P. Crawford. He labored in Chester County, Pennsylvania, with Erastus Snow in February 1841. And the Times and Seasons listed him among its traveling agents from January to July 1841 and as its agent in Delaware in February, June, and July 1842.[128] Beyond this, his name seems to be absent from the records of the LDS Church.

Flake 2578. CtY, PHi, UPB, US1C.

159 The book of Mormon. Translated by Joseph Smith. Fourth American, and second stereotype edition. Carefully revised by the translator. Nauvoo, Illinois. Printed by Joseph Smith. 1842.

[i–iv][7]–571[2]pp. 14.5 cm.

Technically, this is a later impression—probably the fourth—from the stereotype plates of the third edition, with a reset title page (see item 83). It was printed at the Times and Seasons shop, which at the time was under Joseph Smith’s direction but run by John Taylor and Wilford Woodruff. It is the only issue listing Joseph Smith’s name without Jr. or Jun., his father having died two years before, and it is the last printing of the Book of Mormon in America by the Church until the Salt Lake City edition of 1871 (see item 302).

According to the Times and Seasons of June 15, 1842, the book was then out of press and at the binders, and four issues later the Times and Seasons carried a notice, dated August 20, 1842, that it was “just published and for sale.”[129] How many copies comprised this run is not known, but it must have been a small number, given the relative scarcity of the 1842 Book of Mormon today. The Times and Seasons shop bound the book over a period of at least a year: on March 4, 1843, it billed Joseph Smith for binding 622 copies, and again on July 1, 1843, it billed him for eighteen more.[130] The 1842 Book of Mormon collates the same as the first and second states of the 1840 edition. It is usually found in brown sheep, the covers plain or with a gilt border, gilt decorations or gilt bands and a red, black, or brown leather label on the backstrip. On at least two occasions, in December 1841 and in January 1842, Joseph Smith read the 1840 Book of Mormon to correct the typographical errors, but it would appear that no such corrections were incorporated in the 1842 impression.[131]

Flake 599. CtY, CSmH, CU-B, DLC, ICN, MoInRC, NjP, NN, OC, UPB, US1C, UU.

160 HYDE, Orson. Ein Rufaus der Wiiste, eine Stimme aus dem Schoose der Erde. Kurzer Ueherblick des Ursprungs und der Lehre der Kirche “Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints” in Amerika, gekannt von Manchen unter der Benennung: “Die Mormonen.” Von Orson Hyde, Priester dieser Kirche. [1 line] Frankfurt, 1842. Im Selbstverlage des Verfassers.

115 pp. 18 cm. Green printed wrappers.

On May 1, 1840, two weeks after leaving Nauvoo for his mission to Jerusalem (see item 144), Orson Hyde wrote to Joseph Smith about publishing a book in German on the principles of Mormonism as well as German editions of the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants, and on the 14th, Joseph Smith responded approvingly.[132] Hyde seems to have begun working seriously on his book after he reached England in March 1841, writing most of it while he was in Bedford in April and May. By June 15 he was back in London with a finished English manuscript.[133] During the next six months he traveled to the Holy Land, and on December 21, 1841, as he was returning from Jerusalem, he wrote his wife that he intended to go directly to Bavaria and publish his book.[134] But passport problems, a quarantine, and the inevitable shortage of funds intervened, and for several months he paused in Regensburg, where he gave English lessons to help support himself. Here with the assistance of one of his students he translated his book into German.[135] When the city commissioner of Regensburg denied him permission to publish it on the grounds that it might cause unrest among the citizenry, Hyde took the manuscript to Frankfurt; and on August 10, 1842, he wrote from Regensburg that Ein Rufaus der Wiiste was then in press.[136] Two months later the Times and Seasons printed the preface, translated back into English by Alexander Neibaur.[137]

Hyde patterned Ein Ruf after Orson Pratt’s Remarkable Visions (items 82, 109–10, 147), a fact he acknowledges in his letter of June 15, 1841.[138] Following a preface (pp. [3]–[10]) dated at Frankfurt, August 1842, and an “Explanation” (pp. [11]–[12]) which comments on the name of the Church, the first chapter (pp. [13]–27) describes Joseph Smith’s early visions—including that of 1820—and his receiving the gold plates. The second (pp. [28]–43) summarizes the Book of Mormon. These two chapters closely follow the opening pages of Remarkable Visions.[139] The third chapter (pp. [44]—53) discusses the priesthood and includes a long excerpt from Oliver Cowdery’s first letter to W. W. Phelps, initially published in the Messenger and Advocate of October 1834 (see item 197). The fourth (pp. [54]–85) contains sixteen “Articles of Faith and Points of Doctrine”: “The Godhead”; “The Use and the Validity of the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament in Our Church”; “Faith”; “Repentance”; “Baptism”; “Confirmation by Laying on of Hands After Baptism”; “The Sacrament of the Bread and Wine”; “The Confession of Sins and the Method of Dealing with Members Who Act Contrary to the Laws of the Church”; “Children and the Church”; “Revelations and Commandments God Has Given to the Church Since It Was Organized (1830)”; “The Livelihood and Sustenance of Our Priests”; “Baptism for the Dead”; “Prayer and the Manner of Worship”; “Holidays”; “Washing of Feet”; and “Patriarchal Blessings and a Word About Marriage.” Next is “Some Collected Thoughts” (pp. [86]–108) which mentions the anti-Mormon violence in Missouri and includes Joseph Young’s account of the Haun’s Mill massacre (see items 55–56, 64, 66, 79). An “Appendix” (pp. [110]–15) talks about Hyde’s attempt to publish his book in Regensburg and warns the people there that if they refuse to hear the Mormon message, they invite afflictions which will force them to listen to it.

Ein Ruf was originally issued in green wrappers, the title page reprinted from a different setting within an ornamental border on the front, a vignette of an angel within a similar border on the back.

Flake 4169. US1C.

161 SNOW, Erastus. [Pamphlet refuting John C. Bennett’s falsehoods. Salem? 1842]

This pamphlet is mentioned in Erastus Snow’s journal, but no copy is known to have survived:

Soon after the conference [in Boston, September 9, 1842J Dr. West (who had discussed with elder Adams in Boston) and ex-Gen. John C. Bennett the great apostate from Nauvoo came to Salem and lectured against the Saints and the prophet Joseph Smith, and I withstood them before the people untill they left the city. But they turned away some from the faith that were beginning to believe, and the enemies of the cause were hardened more for they seemed to believe 20 lies before one truth. I immediately published a pamphlet refuting Bennetts falsehoods. I then left Bro. Moses to preach in Salem and went with my family to Boston.

Snow’s journal indicates that he and his family returned to Salem on October 2 after being away between two and three weeks, suggesting that he published his pamphlet in mid-September.[140]

162 MARTIN, Moses. A treatise on the fulness of the everlasting gospel, setting forth its first principles, promises, and blessings. In which some of the most prominent features that have ever characterized that system, when on the earth, are made manifest; and that it will continue to do so, so long as it can be found on the earth. By Elder Moses Martin, minister of the gospel. Read this little book and judge for yourselves; for the wise man has said, that he that judges a matter before hearing both sides of the question, is a fool. Therefore read, and then judge. New-York: J. W. Harrison, Printer, cor. Pearl and Chatham-sts. 1842.

64 pp. 15.5 cm. Blue or brown printed wrappers.

Moses Martin was born in New Hampshire, June 1, 1812. When he was a young boy he moved to Pennsylvania with his family, and there, in February 1833, was converted to Mormonism by John F. Boynton and Evan M. Greene, who also brought Benjamin Winchester and Jedediah M. Grant into the Church about the same time. Martin marched with Zion’s Camp and distinguished himself by being court-martialed for falling asleep on sentry duty. Despite this blot on his military record, he was picked for the First Quorum of Seventy the following year and sent out as a missionary. During 1846–48 he labored in England, serving as president of the London and Manchester conferences, and in March 1848 he sailed for America with a company of emigrants. At the April 1850 general conference, Brigham Young publicly excoriated him and cut him off from the Church, apparently because he had taken a plural wife in England. Martin moved to northern California and then, in 1857, to San Bernardino, where he lived until his death, May 7, 1899.[141]

Martin published A Treatise on the Fulness of the Everlasting Gospel while he was proselytizing in New York. It was undoubtedly printed between July 21, 1842, when he took out a New York copyright, and October 13, 1842, when he deposited a copy with the district court. Two years later The Prophet advertised the book for 12½¢ a copy or $8 per hundred.[142]

A Treatise is an apologetic work which attempts to validate the claims of the Latter-day Saints by placing Mormonism in the context of Judeo-Christian history. Following a preface (p. [3]), the main text (pp. [5]–59) begins with an argument—entirely reminiscent of the Voice of Warning—that the scriptures should be read literally. The book next infers that the gospel is the same for each generation, and that when God wishes to restore his kingdom upon the earth, he will reveal himself to some man and delegate him to organize his kingdom. It then discusses, in order, the principal Old Testament prophets and the primitive Christian church, emphasizing those characteristics it sees as shared with Mormonism. The decline of the Christian church was evident at the time of Constantine, it asserts, and its total apostasy a fait accompli by the time of Boniface III (606 AD). And it examines various biblical passages which, it claims, foretell the apostasy of the New Testament church and the reestablishment of Christ’s church by angelic visitation. It concludes with the declaration that Joseph Smith was God’s instrument in restoring his church in fulfillment of these prophecies.

At the end (pp. [60]–64), A Treatise reprints Daniel Shearer’s Key to the Bible (item 136), without the introduction, and with two modifications: a group of biblical references under the heading “Baptism” is added, and the “Book of Mormon” references are redone. It was issued in blue or brown wrappers, the title page reprinted from the same setting on the front and eight lines of errata on the outside back wrapper. Martin published a second edition in London in 1846 (item 316).

Flake 5292. CSmH, CtY, DLC, NN, UPB, US1, US1C.

163 [Mormon Expositor. Baltimore, 1842]

No issue of this paper is located. What is known about it comes from the report of a Church conference in New York on October 19, 1842, printed in the Times and Seasons of April 15, 1843:

Resolved, That in the judgment of this conference, the publication of a paper called the ‘Mormon Expositor,’ published at Baltimore, by elder Samuel C. Brown, is detrimental to the cause of the church of Christ, and that the clerk be instructed to transmit to the quorum of the Twelve, at Nauvoo, stating our disapprobation with the reason, and a file of the paper.

A conference in Philadelphia on October 31, 1842, also condemned Brown’s paper, stating that it was “entirely unauthorised by the society” and that he showed in it “a total want of ability to conduct any paper.”[143]

Samuel C. Brown, a Virginian, was twenty-two years old when the conferences censured him. In the spring of 1843 he was called to work on the Nauvoo Temple, and, according to the Gospel Herald of May 30, 1850, after working a while on the temple, he requested another mission from Hyrum Smith, who, “in mere irony,” called him to preach to the Twelve and the other Church authorities. This did not go well; George Miller “even whipped him out of his garden with a bean pole.” After Joseph and Hyrum Smith were murdered, Brown deduced that Hyrum was Joseph Smith’s successor and he was Hyrum’s successor. In December 1844 the Nauvoo high council excommunicated him. The Gospel Herald of May 30, 1850, reported that Brown was then issuing a paper occasionally in Philadelphia and Baltimore—no copies of which are known.[144]

164 WEBB, E. Henry. Latter Day Saints. A letter from the Rev. P. Alcock, Baptist minister, Berwick St. John’s, Dorsetshire, to his nephew, E. H. Webb, elder in the Church of the Latter Day Saints, Bristol, late of Cheltenham. [2 lines] Bristol: Printed by William Taylor, 39, Temple Street. 1842. 8 pp. 21 cm.

This pamphlet consists of two letters, the first from the Rev. Paul Alcock, the second from his nephew E. H. Webb.[145] At first glance, it is not entirely clear whether it is a pro- or anti-Mormon tract. The quotation, “The system altogether is rotten at the core, and therefore must come to the ground,” reprinted on the title page from Alcock’s letter, suggests that it is an attack on the Church. However, this letter, dated September 27, 1842, occupies little more than a page and is mainly a personal denunciation of Webb for joining the Mormons, while Webb’s reply (pp. 4–8) is a well-drafted defence of certain Mormon principles. Since this reply is not mentioned on the title page, one is tempted to guess that the tract was disguised a bit in order to attract a non-Mormon audience. Webb’s letter is dated at Bristol, October 4, 1842, presumably about the time the pamphlet was printed.

Webb’s response centers on two ideas: that all other Christian churches have strayed from the doctrines that originally characterized Christ’s church, and that the Latter-day Saints alone possess the authority to act in God’s name. At the end he repeats the basic Mormon message of repentance, baptism, and the gift of the Holy Ghost, and the belief that Christ will personally reign on the earth after his return and dwell with “the meek of every age.” As a final demonstration of the strength of the Church, he asserts that its membership is between two and three million, the most overdrawn estimate yet to appear in print.

E. H. Webb was born in Gloucestershire, England, August 16, 1808. He joined the Church in March 1840, and for the next eight years he was an active missionary in Gloucestershire, holding positions of leadership in the local conferences. He immigrated to Utah about 1848 and eventually went to California. In 1861 he aligned himself with the RLDS Church and was active in promoting the Reorganization in Sacramento and San Francisco, until his death in Sacramento, April 18, 1883.[146]

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165 JACOB, Udney Hay. An extract, from a manuscript entitled The Peacemaker. Or the doctrines of the millennium: being a treatise on religion and jurisprudence. Or a new system of religion and politicks. For God, my country, and my rights. By Udney Hay Jacob, an Israelite, and a shepherd of Israel. Nauvoo, III. J. Smith, Printer. 1842.

37 pp. 20.5 cm.

Strictly speaking, this is not a Mormon book. Its preface (p. [2]) states, “The author of this work is not a Mormon, although it is printed by their press.” It is included here because it was printed at the Times and Seasons office and bears—like three other 1842 Nauvoo imprints—Joseph Smith’s name as printer, and because some have argued that it was gotten out at Joseph Smith’s behest to promote the doctrine of plural marriage.[147]

Born in Massachusetts in 1781, Udney Hay Jacob and his family lived in Hancock County at the time the Mormons began moving into Nauvoo. His oldest son Norton joined the Church in March 1841, much to the dismay of his family (“my father said he had rather heard I was dead than that I was a Mormon”). That fall Norton left the family farm to locate seven miles from Nauvoo, and in early November 1842 he moved into the city. Udney Jacob joined the Church in 1843, became disaffected, and was rebaptized in 1845. As late as January 1844 he had not personally met Joseph Smith. He remained in Hancock while Norton traveled with the pioneer company to the Great Basin in the summer of 1847, and in the fall of 1850 he too made the overland trip to Utah. He died in Salt Lake City ten years later.[148]

Udney Jacob seems to have written a book sometime before March 1840, when he corresponded with Martin Van Buren in an attempt to promote his work.[149] Two chapters apparently make up An Extract from a Manuscript Entitled The Peacemaker. The Times and Seasons shop probably printed it in November 1842, since Joseph Smith repudiated it in the Times and Seasons of December 1, “a short time” after it appeared:

Notice. There was a book printed at my office, a short time since, written by Udney H. Jacobs, on marriage, without my knowledge; and had I been apprised of it, I should not have printed it; not that I am opposed to any man enjoying his privileges; but I do not wish to have my name associated with the authors, in such an unmeaning rigmarole of nonsence, folly, and trash. Joseph Smith.

Since it bears Joseph Smith’s name as printer, most likely it was published no later than November 12, when Smith turned the full responsibility for the printing office over to John Taylor and Wilford Woodruff, who had been managing it for the preceding nine months.[150]

That some in Nauvoo believed the pamphlet expressed the views of the Church authorities is indicated by Oliver Olney in an anti-Mormon tract published in the spring of 1843.[151] Thirty-four years later, John D. Lee made the same claim.[152] But in August 1845, in a response to a speech of William Smith, John Taylor publicly refuted this idea:

whatever the opinion of Bro. William might be, I knew that there was a great deal of hypocrisy and deception wherein the innocent were led away by false pretences, and that I had been called upon to expose the corruptions of some men who were in secret publishing the doctrines contained in a book written by Udney H. Jacobs which was a corrupt book; they state that it was Joseph’s views, published under a cloak of another man’s name and the character of Joseph Smith was implicated in the matter and whether [he] addressed the congregation on these things or not I should have spoken on that subject.[153]

Jacob himself commented on the pamphlet in 1851 in a letter to Brigham Young:

I cannot imagine why you suspected me unless it was that I wrote a pamphlet some years since entitled the Peace Maker—you have certainly a wrong idea of that matter. 1 was not then a member of this Church, and that pamphlet was not written for this people but for the citizens of the United States who professed to believe the Bible.[154]

The foregoing does not seem to support the contention that Joseph Smith sponsored the publication of An Extract from The Peacemaker. More likely, the stir over polygamy in the summer and fall of 1842 and his son’s recent move to Nauvoo prompted Udney Jacob to approach the Times and Seasons shop about printing his pamphlet, and a willing hand in the shop accepted the job without reviewing it with his superiors.[155]

An Extract from The Peacemaker consists of two chapters, numbered XVIII and XIX. The first (pp. [3]–26) argues that a married woman is her husband’s property and that male authority must maintain in a stable society; that divorce should be allowed only when a woman is irreconcilably alienated from her husband; and that a plurality of wives is necessary for a stable social order since it frees a man from the sexual power of his wife and allows him an alternative to an unsatisfactory marital relationship. The second chapter (pp. 27–37) expands on these ideas and specifies certain conditions under which polygamy is legitimately practiced.

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166 PRATT, Parley Parker. A letter to the Queen of England, touching the signs of the times, and the political destiny of the world. By P. P. Pratt. Manchester, Eng. 1841. [New York? 1842?]

15 pp. 17 cm.

This is a troublesome item. Despite the fact that it bears a Manchester imprint, in typography, format, and paper it more closely resembles the early New York Mormon publications. That it was printed in the United States is further suggested by its specifying the Queen of England and Manchester, England on the title page.

A Letter to the Queen was reprinted in the Times and Seasons of November 15, 1841. This printing is identical with the first edition (item 108) except for two apparently inadvertent deletions. Both of these deletions occur in item 166, along with seven other minor textual changes which are unique to it. The implication is that this edition was reprinted from the Times and Seasons, subsequent to November 15, 1841.

George J. Adams reprinted the text of A Letter to the Queen in New York in 1844 as A Letter to His Excellency John Tyler (item 194). Adams’s tract seems to have been taken from item 166, for it includes all of the textual changes unique to it and perpetuates two obvious typographical errors in the biblical citations on the sixth page. These considerations and the fact that other tracts by Orson and Parley Pratt were reprinted in New York in 1842 prompt a tentative listing of item 166 as an 1842 New York imprint.

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167 PRATT, Parley Parker? [Mormonism exposed! An epistle of Demetrius, Junior, the silversmith, to the workmen of like occupation and all others whom it may concern—greeting. Showing the best may [sic] to preserve our craft and put down the Latter Day Saints. (Printed for Elder Samuel Parker). Pittsburgh? 1842?]

Broadside. In three columns.

No copy of this item is extant (see item 92). It is listed in Charles L. Woodward’s 1880 auction catalogue Bibliothica Scallawagiana, p. 26, with the comment, “A three-column broadside, without place or date. Probably printed in Pittsburgh about 1842.” Complicating the issue is the fact that there were three Mormon Samuel Parkers, born, respectively, in 1783, 1790, and 1796. The two youngest Parkers were in Kirtland, and all three were in Nauvoo about 1845. One of them was called to labor in Maine in the spring of 1843 and seems to have remained there through the summer of 1844.[156] Whether one of them was in Pennsylvania “about 1842” has not been determined.

168 Jubilee songs. [Nauvoo, 1843]

Broadside 31.5 x 23.5 cm. Text in three columns, ornamental border.

Jubilee Songs arose out of the events proceeding from the attempt on the life of Lilburn W. Boggs, former governor of Missouri, on May 6, 1842. Within eight days news of the attack on Boggs reached Nauvoo, and immediately the anti-Mormon press began to point the finger of suspicion at Joseph Smith (e.g., the Quincy Whig of May 21, 1842). With some prompting from John C. Bennett, Boggs officially charged Joseph Smith with being an accessory to the attempted murder and persuaded Governor Reynolds to ask for his extradition to Missouri. On August 8, Smith was arrested on a warrant issued by Thomas Carlin, governor of Illinois, in response to Reynolds’s request. Joseph Smith immediately obtained a writ of habeas corpus from the Nauvoo municipal court, which the arresting officers refused to obey. But they left him in the custody of the local marshal and returned the warrant, unserved, to Carlin.[157]

Four months later, Thomas Ford was sworn in as governor of Illinois, and believing the Missouri writ to be illegal, he convinced Joseph Smith to test it in the Illinois courts. On December 26, 1842, Smith had himself rearrested by Wilson Law on Carlin’s warrant, and the next day he, Law, and a retinue of friends set out for Judge Nathaniel Pope’s court in Springfield. There he met Justin Butterfield, U.S. attorney for the district of Illinois, who would represent him. On January 5 Pope ruled in Joseph Smith’s favor, and on the 7th he and his group triumphantly returned to Nauvoo. To celebrate the victory, about fifty of Joseph’s friends gathered at his house for a feast on the morning of January 18. Jubilee Songs was struck off for this occasion.[158]

The broadside contains the words to two songs. The first was composed by Wilson Law and Willard Richards while they were returning with Joseph Smith from Springfield on January 7. Eliza R. Snow composed the second.[159] Both adaptations of the Scottish song “Nae Luck About the House,” they celebrate the triumph in Springfield and honor Ford and the officers of the court.[160] The first song is also printed in The Wasp of January 14, 1843, and the second is printed in the Times and Seasons of February 1 and The Wasp of February 8, in each instance from the broadside setting. Eleven of the fifteen verses of Eliza’s song are reprinted in her Poems, Religious, Historical, and Political (Liverpool, 1856), pp. 130–32, with a few changes.

Wilson Law (1807–1877) and his brother William (1809–1892) were born in Ireland and converted to Mormonism in Canada. In January 1841 Joseph Smith called William to be a counselor in the presidency of the Church, and the following month Wilson was elected to the first Nauvoo City Council and commissioned a brigadier general at the Nauvoo Legion’s initial organization. Three years later they became disaffected and, with several others, formed an opposition church and published the Nauvoo Expositor, which set in motion the train of events culminating in Joseph Smith’s assassination (see item 223).[161]

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169 PAGE, John Edward. The Spaulding story, concerning the origin of the Book of Mormon, duly examined, and exposed to the righteous contempt of a candid public; by John E. Page, pastor and elder of the Church of Jesus Christ ofLatter- Day Saints, in Pittsburgh—1843. [Caption title] [Pittsburgh? 1843?]

16 pp. 22 cm.

John E. Page reached Pittsburgh on December 26, 1841. The enthusiasm with which he was greeted by the Saints there persuaded him to return the following May and make Pittsburgh his home. He lived there for more than a year, until he began travelling with Brigham Young and others of the Twelve in the summer of 1843.[162] The Spaulding Story includes four affidavits dated between January 24 and February 4, 1843. These and the identification of Page as pastor of the Church in Pittsburgh suggest that the pamphlet was printed in Pittsburgh about February 1843. A year later Page advertised it in the second number of the Gospel Light:

Having resided in Pittsburgh, from the eighth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and forty-two, until the eighth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and forty-three, we had a sufficient opportunity to make ourself acquainted with all the particulars concerning one Mr. Solomon Spaulding, of whom it is said, that he wrote a romance, from which it is asserted, originated the Book of Mormon. We have duly examined the whole matter, and exposed the story to the righteous contempt of a candid public, in a pamphlet, entitled “The Spaulding Story.” Price ten cents per single copy, or six dollars per hundred.

Its focus is the link between the Spaulding manuscript and Sidney Rigdon (see item 77), and it prints a series of documents to demonstrate that Rigdon could not have come in contact with the manuscript. These include the Matilda Davison letter, which Page saw in the Philadelphia Saturday Courier of November 26, 1842—and which probably prompted his pamphlet; John Haven’s letter to his daughter Elizabeth, and Orson Hyde’s letter to George J. Adams, taken from Benjamin Winchester’s Plain Facts Shewing the Origin of the Spaulding Story (item 114); an affidavit of Robert Patterson, the printer to whom Spaulding delivered his manuscript, reprinted from Rev. Samuel Williams’s Mormonism Exposed [Pittsburgh? 1842?]; and excerpts from Parley Pratt’s letter to the New Era and Rigdon’s letter to the Quincy Whig, from Parley’s Reply to C. S. Bush (item 80).

US1C.

170 GREENE, John Portineus. [Printed handbill. Buffalo? 1843?]

No copy of John P. Greene’s handbill is known. It is mentioned, however, in his letter of March 18, 1843, to Joseph Smith:

I visited this city [Buffalo] about the middle of December last stopped about one week, baptized a number of persons and organized a branch of 15 members. I then left, but returned again in the latter part of February, 1843. I had, however, no opportunity to preach until the first Sunday in March, it being the 5th of the month. At that time I commenced a course of lectures on the principles of the Gospel, as believed in by the Latter-day as former day Saints. On printed hand bills I came out with a very polite invitation to any gentlemen or professor of Divinity to come out publicly and debate these principles, taking the Bible as a standard, but no one has come out as yet, except a Universalist whom 1 met this morning at 9 o’clock before a very respectable congregation. Five judges were chosen and we debated for two hours when the judges brought in a verdict unanimous in our favor, and we now hope for better times in Buffalo, for here are many respectable citizens who are favorably inclined toward us and who are seriously inquiring after the Book of Mormon.[163]

171 [Handbill advertising George J. Adams’s preaching in Boylston Hall, Boston. Boston? 1843?]

This too is not located. One learns of it from Belinda Marden Pratt’s autobiographical sketch:

In the winter of 1843 we were attracted by a hand-bill stating that a Mormon Preacher would hold three meetings in the Boylston Hall. Not having any particular thing to hinder we thought we would go in and hear him. The Elder was at prayer. And such a prayer! We stood in the isle till he finished. I think the light of heaven rested down upon me for the joy and peace I experienced was unexpressible.

Belinda and her husband attended subsequent meetings, and at the end of March 1843 they were baptized in Boston by Eli P. Maginn.[164]

These meetings in Boylston Hall were conducted by George J. Adams, on Thursday evening, March 23, 1843, Sunday the 26th, and Tuesday evening the 28th. The Times and Seasons of September 1, 1842, reprints a report of Adams’s lectures in Boylston Hall the preceding June, and Wilford Woodruff’s journal indicates that the Latter-day Saints were still using the hall in September 1843.[165]

172 [A collection of sacred hymns, for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Europe. Third edition. Liverpool, 1843]

336 pp. 11 cm.

The only located copy of this book, at Brigham Young University, lacks the first four pages as well as some interior pages, so the title is inferred from the second and fourth British editions. Its colophon James and Woodbum, Printers, Liverpool, and the fact that it is a different typesetting from the fourth British hymnal make it clear that the BYU book is indeed the third edition.[166]

In August 1842 the Millennial Star noted that the 1841 hymnal was out of print. By mid-February 1843, a new edition was at the binders, and the March issue of the Star announced, “A third edition of the Hymn Book is now ready for which cash orders will be gratefully received. Price 2s.”[167] Amos Fielding and Hiram Clark published the book in 2,000 copies.[168] A faithful reprint of the second edition, it thus contains the texts of 272 songs, numbered 1–271 with two numbered 52 (see items 78, 130), and with an index of first lines at the end (pp. [325]–36). The BYU copy is bound in black blind stamped sheep, the backstrip plain except for the title in gilt.

Hiram Clark, a native of Vermont, was the counselor to Thomas Ward in the presidency of the British Mission. On December 3, 1839, he landed at Liverpool for his first English mission and served in Manchester, Burslem, Macclesfield, Scotland, and the Isle of Man until February 7, 1841, when he sailed for America with a company of Saints. He returned to Liverpool on September 1, 1842. The following month he was appointed general tithing agent, and in November he was called to be Ward’s counselor. When Reuben Hedlock assumed the presidency of the mission in October 1843, he became Hedlock’s counselor, serving until he left for the United States with a company of Mormon immigrants in March 1844. In January 1845 he made a third trip to England, this time with his wife, and labored there for another twelve months. Clark and his family made the trek to Utah in 1849. At the April 1850 general conference he was sent to California as one of the “gold missionaries,” and that September he was called to preside over the Hawaiian mission. But Clark proved ineffective in Hawaii, and in March 1851 he sailed to Tahiti, where he was disfellowshipped for personal indiscretions. He returned to Utah in the fall of 1851, and the following summer he went to San Bernardino. There, on December 28, 1853, at age fifty-eight, he committed suicide.[169]

Amos Fielding was born in Bolton, Lancashire, England, July 16, 1792. He immigrated to America in 1811, returned to England several years later, and converted to Mormonism there in the fall of 1837. In April 1841 he was ordained a high priest and called to supervise the Mormon immigration. Four times during the next six years he sailed to the United States with a company of Mormon immigrants. He was a member of the Council of Fifty. In February 1851 he made his last voyage to America, and three years later he and his family crossed the plains to Utah. He died in Salt Lake City, August 5, 1875.[170]

UPB.

173 WARD, Thomas. Why do you not obey the gospel? [Caption title] [At foot of p. 4:] Printed for, and Published and Sold by T. Ward, 36, Chapel Street, Liverpool, Price, One Halfpenny, or 3s. per 100. [Liverpool? 1843]

4 pp. 21 cm.

174 WARD, Thomas. On the false prophets of the last days. [Caption title] [At end:] Printed for, and Published and Sold by T. Ward, 36, Chapel Street, Liverpool, Price, One Penny, or 6s. 6d. per 100. [At foot of p. 8:] James and Woodburn, Printers, 14, Hanover Street, Liverpool. [1843]

8 pp. 21 cm.

Thomas Ward, the editor of the Millennial Star, published these two tracts four months after he succeeded Parley Pratt as president of the British Mission (see items 70–71). Both are advertised in the Star of March 1843, with Ward listed as the author. Item 174 carries a notice on its back page for item 173, “also just published.” Ward’s letter to the First Presidency of March 1, 1843, notes that item 174 had gone to press two weeks before.[171]

Item 174 reprints an article in the Star of April 1842 which deals with the clergy’s continuing anti-Mormon attacks—a subject also discussed in the Star in each of its first three issues in 1843. The bulk of the pamphlet focuses on various biblical verses often used against the Latter-day Saints, 2 Thess. 2:3; 1 Tim. 4:1–3; 2 Tim. 3:1–7; 2 Peter 2:1–2; and 2 Peter 3:3–4. The purpose of the Saints, it asserts, is “to declare that the day of the Lord will come upon the earth, and that speedily.” It then draws on the fourth chapter of Ephesians to contrast the Primitive Church with modern Christendom.

Item 173 reprints an article in the Star of February 1843 which directs the question in the title to three classes of people who have heard the Mormon message: those who were turned away by anti-Mormon attacks, those who did not convert because of the effect on their worldly affairs, and those who did not convert because of the requirement to emigrate to Nauvoo. One might guess it was prompted by the declining number of baptisms in the British Mission, certainly a source of concern to the new president.[172]

Item 173: Flake 9595. CtY, UPB, US1C. Item 174: Flake 9593. CtY, CU-B, MH, MoInRC, NjP, NN, UPB, US1C.

175 Nauvoo Neighbor. Nauvoo: May 3, 1843–October 29, 1845.

3v. (127 nos. in [508] pp.) 58 cm.

The Wasp for April 5, 1843 (item 148) announced in a prospectus that following the completion of the volume, it would be enlarged to twice the size and given a more conciliatory name, Nauvoo Neighbor.[173] The Neighbor too would be edited by John Taylor and published by Taylor and Wilford Woodruff at the Times and Seasons shop on the northwest corner of Water and Bain. Its price would be increased to $2 per year, payable, of course, “in all cases in advance.”

One might guess that this larger format was made possible by the Nauvoo print shop’s acquisition of a second, bigger press.[174] Both the Times and Seasons and The Wasp were printed on a sheet approximately 60 x 48 cm., while the Neighbor was printed on one almost twice this size, approximately 80 x 58 cm.

On May 3, 1843, the first issue of the Neighbor appeared, one week after the fifty-second number of The Wasp. For two and a half years, it issued essentially every Wednesday, with only a few lapses, making a total of 127 numbers in three volumes, the first two volumes in fifty-two numbers, the third volume in twentythree. Occasionally it was late, for example, on October 4, 1843, November 13, 1844, December 25, 1844, and September 10, 1845. It skipped one Wednesday, November 20, 1844, because the shop ran out of newsprint, and a four-week lapse occurred between the next-to-last and the last issues.[175] Vol. 2, no. 49 was gotten out on Monday, April 7, 1845, and is so dated, instead of Wednesday, April 9.

Each issue has four pages, in six columns, with none of the pages numbered. A few errors occur in its dates: in the second volume, no. 9 (whole no. 113) is dated June 16 rather than June 26, and no. 36 is erroneously dated January 9 instead of January 8. Also in the numbering of the second volume, 4 and 5 are skipped, but this is corrected with the seventh issue; so there are two issues labeled vol. 2, no. 7, and two labeled vol. 2, no. 8. The Neighbor continues the whole numbering of The Wasp, but with mistakes. Whole nos. 108–9 are omitted, and this is corrected with the issue of June 12, 1844 (whole no. 111). The issue of January 1, 1845, is given an incomplete whole number, and those of the next seven issues are incorrect. Whole no. 150 (March 19, 1845) is misnumbered 140, a mistake perpetuated until whole no. 161. Like The Wasp, the Neighbor maintains the vignette in its masthead of a woman holding a shield and a llag(?), with a steamboat at her right and an eagle surrounded by stars at her left.

John Taylor edited the Neighbor throughout its life. But W. W. Phelps, who is referred to as the “jun. editor” in the August 27, 1845, issue, likely carried much of the editorial burden.[176] Taylor and Woodruff published it until January 31, 1844 (vol. 1, no. 40), when Taylor took over as sole “Editor and Proprietor.” Joseph Smith sold the Times and Seasons shop outright to Taylor in January 1844, and a notice of the dissolution of the partnership of Taylor and Woodruff, dated December 30, 1843, appears in the Neighbor of February 28, 1844. Taylor announced in the issue for May 21, 1845 (vol. 3, no. 3) that he had moved the print shop to the corner of Main and Kimball—its fourth, and last, location.

In the first issue John Taylor wrote that “we shall endeavor to cultivate a friendly feeling towards all, and not interfere with the rights of others, either politically or religiously.” And in the prospectus he added, “Concerning Politics we shall not be silent.” Like the later numbers of The Wasp, the Neighbor printed local and national news, poetry and fiction, agricultural advice, actions of the Nauvoo city council, articles from other newspapers, commodity prices, lists of letters at the post office, legal notices, local advertisements, and editorials on various issues facing the Saints. In February 1844 it began to include Joseph Smith’s political writings, and on the 14th it endorsed him for president of the United States. Each issue during July carried material on the assassination of the Smiths, and on October 2 it began to cover the arrests and trial of those accused of the murders. Throughout 1845 it printed articles on California, Oregon, and Texas, as well as excerpts from Lansford W. Hastings’s The Emigrants’ Guide, to Oregon and California and from the reports of John C. Fremont’s first and second expeditions. In its last five issues it reported anti-Mormon depredations, and in its next-to-last number it reprinted the announcement of September 24, 1845 (item 280) that the Saints would evacuate Illinois in the spring.

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176 APPLEBY, William Ivins. A few important questions for the reverend clergy to answer, being a scale to weigh priestcraft and sectarianism in, by William I. Appleby, elder in the Church of “Latter-day Saints,” Philadelphia. Brown, Bicking & Guilbert, Printers, No. 56 North Third Street. 1843.

12 pp. 16.5 cm.

William I. Appleby was born on August 13, 1811, in Monmouth County, New Jersey. He converted to Mormonism in September 1840 and commenced his missionary career a month later. In 1845 he presided over the Mormon branches in Pennsylvania and Delaware, and in 1847 he had charge of the Church in the eastern United States (see items 310, 325). Two years later he immigrated to Utah. He returned to the east coast in 1856 to assist John Taylor in publishing The Mormon, and served as president of the Eastern States Mission from 1857 to 1858. He died in Utah in 1870.[177]

Appleby composed A Few Important Questions in February or March 1843. On May 2, he traveled from his home in Recklesstown, New Jersey, to Philadelphia, to deliver the manuscript to the printer, and six days later he returned there to read the proof. He apparently distributed a few copies of his new tract at the debate between William Wharton and A. H. Wickersham in Centreville, Delaware, on May 13 (see item 189).[178]

According to its preface (p. 2), A Few Important Questions arose out of what Appleby perceived to be the persistent misrepresentations of Mormonism by the local clergy. The bulk of the tract consists of twenty-eight groups of rhetorical questions and comments, with biblical references, directed toward the Mormon position. Some of its main points: gifts of the Spirit follow the believer in any age; God always speaks to his church through designated prophets; God’s true church always embodies the authority to act in his name; neither Protestants nor Catholics have this authority; God is not the author of diverse religious claims; sprinkling children is an improper mode of baptism; William Miller’s prediction that the Second Advent will occur in 1843 is in error; and God has a physical body as well as passions and emotions.

Flake 189. CtY, MH, MoInRC, ULA, US1C.

177 PACKARD, Noah. Political and religious detector: in which Millerism is exposed, false principles detected, and truth brought to light. By N. Packard, minister of the gospel. Medina, Ohio: Printed by Michael Hayes. 1843.

40 pp. 19 cm.

Noah Packard, born in Massachusetts, May 7, 1796, was converted to Mormonism in Parkman, Ohio, twenty-five miles southeast of Kirtland, by Parley Pratt in 1832. For a time he presided over the Mormon branch in Parkman, and then he moved with his family to Kirtland, where he was chosen a member of the high council in January 1836. The violence in northern Missouri erupted as he was preparing to move there, so he headed west and met the exiled Saints at Quincy, Illinois. Several times during the next five years he traveled east as a missionary. In 1850 he immigrated to Utah, and the following year he settled in Springville, where he served as alderman, justice of the peace, and surveyor. He died in Springville, February 17, 1859.[179]

Packard left Nauvoo for a mission to the east coast on September 19, 1842. Illness kept him in Illinois for a few weeks. When he recovered, he slowly worked his way across Ohio, and then journeyed through New York, Vermont, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. On May 26, 1844, he arrived back in Nauvoo. Political and Religious Detector was published before he left Medina County, Ohio, in June 1843.[180]

Following a poem “Behold the Day is Nigh, Long by God Foretold” (p. [3]) and a preface (p. [4]), Political and Religious Detector divides itself into two parts. Its theme in the first part (pp. [5]–22) is that a kingdom divided against itself cannot stand, and it specifically applies this to the Mormon difficulties in Missouri and to the attacks from such enemies of the Church as John C. Bennett. Further, it urges the citizenry to elect only honorable men to public office. It decries the lapsing of the charter of the national bank in 1836, and in the same breath condemns the granting of special privileges—the reason Andrew Jackson used to justify his veto of the bank’s recharter. And it proposes that civil courts be allowed to hear writs of habeus corpus arising in criminal cases—an idea that obviously derived from Joseph Smith’s recent experiences (see items 168, 182). Inserted in this part is a four-line poem, signed with Packard’s initials and dated November 25, 1842 (p. 12).

The second part (pp. [23]–40), headed Chapter II, begins with a response to Lorenzo D. Fleming’s A Synopsis of the Evidences of the Second Coming of Christ, About A.D. 1843 (Boston: Published by Joshua V. Himes, 1842), a work supporting the Adventist claims of William Miller.[181] Here Political and Religious Detector collects six and a half pages of biblical references to dispute Miller’s eschatology. Pages 29–34 contain Joseph Smith’s letter to John Wentworth, originally published in the Times and Seasons of March 1, 1842, which gives an account of the birth of Mormonism and concludes with the thirteen “Articles of Faith” (see item 199). Pages 35–39 give Packard’s personal testimony and his responses to certain objections to Mormonism, and the final two pages reprint the “Chronology of Time” from the Nauvoo edition of Lorenzo D. Barnes’s References (item 116). A paragraph of errata is at the end.

Flake 6041. UPB, US1C.

178 The Gospel Light. Edited and published by John E. Page, elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. [Pittsburgh? and New York?] June 1843; February, May 1844.

v. l, nos. 1–3. [l]–4, [5]–8, [9]–24 pp. 26 cm. Text in two columns.

The Gospel Light bears no indication of where it was published, but some guesses can be made by following the movements of John E. Page during the period. Page had been settled in Pittsburgh for almost a year when he wrote to Joseph Smith in April 1843 about establishing a press there. Joseph Smith’s response shows that his patience with this member of the traveling high council was wearing thin: “I directed the Twelve to send him to Liberia, or some other place, in order to save him.”[182] Page left Pittsburgh on June 8, and the following month joined B. Young, H. C. Kimball, O. Pratt, W. Woodruff, and G. A. Smith and began to visit the branches in the East.[183] Apparently the first number of The Gospel Light was printed in Pittsburgh just before he left on this tour. When his companions returned to Nauvoo, Page remained in Boston, and in November wrote to Joseph Smith for permission to settle there. Brigham Young immediately ordered him to Washington D.C.[184] Page spent the first half of February in New York, at which time he and Lucian R. Foster published the pamphlet Correspondence Between Joseph Smith, the Prophet, and Col. John Wentworth (item 199). He likely published the second number of The Gospel Light in New York at this time as well. The fact that the second number is typographically different from the first and third supports this supposition. Page reached Washington D.C. on February 17, 1844, and before April 23 he returned to Pittsburgh.[185] He undoubtedly published the third number of The Gospel Light in Pittsburgh soon after his return.

The only located file of The Gospel Light consists of three issues, designated vol. 1, nos. 1–3, the first two in four pages, the third in sixteen, the whole continuously paged. Whether there were subsequent numbers is not known, but it seems unlikely since Page began a new periodical, The People’s Organ (item 222), in June 1844. The Gospel Light advertised itself as “published as often as the sale of one No. will secure the expense of the next; at 3 cents per single copy; and $ 1.00 per 50 copies”—hence its irregular appearance.

All three issues are mainly devoted to a defense of the Mormon concept of the Trinity. The first number quotes the Methodist Discipline regarding “God without body or parts” and then lists numerous biblical passages which refer to physical features of God or suggest his corporeality. Essentially all of these proof texts are found in Parley Pratt’s article “The True God and His Worship Contrasted with Idolatry” in the Millennial Star of April 1842. The second number quotes five articles from the Book of Common Prayer on the Trinity, with some sarcastic editorializing reminiscent of Parley Pratt’s Mormonism Unveiled: Zion s Watchman Unmasked (item 45). It then reprints thirty-three questions directed to the idea that God and Jesus Christ are distinct beings, apparently from a non-Mormon source. This is followed by a summary of Latter-day Saint beliefs.

The third number focuses on the Holy Ghost. After asserting that the views here represent only his opinions, Page states that he can “find no text in the scriptures sustaining the idea, that the Holy Ghost is a personage, but rather a principle.” Further, “it is clear that the ‘Holy Ghost’ is a principle of intelligence and not a personage, in a physical sense,” and the “Spirit, (which is synonymous with the Holy Ghost) is the only principle of knowledge by which we can know the things of God.” Page wrote this, of course, when he was away from the center of the Church, but it suggests that, at this point, the Mormon view of the Trinity was still in a state of flux (see items 334–35). The final ten pages reprint articles from Catholic, Episcopalian, and Methodist newspapers, followed by Page’s editorial comments.

Flake 3642. US1C.

179 Anthem, to be sung on the occasion of laying the corner stone of the Masonic hall, in the city of Nauvoo, June 24, 1843. [Nauvoo, 1843]

Broadside 20.5 x 11.5 cm. Ornamental border.

The idea of building a Masonic hall in Nauvoo was raised at the regular meeting of the Nauvoo Lodge on February 16, 1843 (see items 140, 206). Lucius N. Scovil, the senior warden and ultimately the architect of the building, Samuel Rolfe, and Aaron Johnson, were appointed a committee to superintend the construction, and it was resolved to put all funds in the lodge treasury into the hands of the building committee. On June 24, St. John’s Day, the lodge and a number of visitors marched in proper Masonic order to the southwest corner of Main Street and White Street, where Hyrum Smith laid the cornerstone of the new hall. After this, the procession moved to the grove near the temple to hear John Taylor’s oration, and then on to a banquet served to nearly two hundred.[186]

Anthem to be Sung on the Occasion of Laying the Corner Stone was undoubtedly struck off for this event. It prints two Masonic songs, the second, for example, found in Luke Eastman’s Masonick Melodies (Boston, 1818). It is reprinted from the same typesetting in the Nauvoo Neighbor of June 21, 1843.

US1C.

180 A brief account of the | discovery of the brass plates [heavy bold type] | recently taken from a mound in the vicinity of Kinderhook, Pike County, Illinois. [At bottom of text: | Nauvoo, Hancock county, Illinois, June 24th, 1843. [Taylor & Woodruff, Printers. [Nauvoo, 1843?]

Broadside 39 x 31 cm. Text in two columns, followed by woodcut facsimiles.

181 A brief account of the | discovery of the brass plates | recently taken from a mound in the vicinity of Kinderhook, Pike County, Illinois. [At bottom of text:] Nauvoo, Hancock county, Illinois, June 24th, 1843. [Nauvoo? 1843?]

Broadside 48 x 30.5 cm. Text in two columns, followed by woodcut facsimiles.

In its issue of May 1, 1843, the Times and Seasons carried a report of the discovery of six bell-shaped brass plates, 7.4 x 5.8 cm., covered on both sides with “hieroglyphics.” These were dug up a week before by Robert Wiley, “a respectable merchant,” W. R Harris, M.D., and some others, from an Indian mound near Kinderhook, Pike County, Illinois, sixty miles south of Nauvoo. This report includes a statement by Harris describing the find; a certificate signed by nine citizens of Kinderhook, including Wiley, Harris, and W. Fugate, announcing the discovery and briefly describing the plates; and an article from the Quincy Whig giving additional details. An editorial in the same issue of the Times and Seasons remarks, “Mr. [Joseph] Smith has had those plates, what his opinion concerning them is, we have not yet ascertained. The gentleman that owns them has taken them away, or we should have given a fac similie of the plates and characters in this number. We are informed however, that he purposes returning with them for translation; if so, we may be able yet to furnish our readers with it.” The report itself was republished in the Nauvoo Neighbor of May 10, 1843.[187]

Six weeks later the Times and Seasons shop published the broadside A Brief Account of the Discovery of the Brass Plates which reprints the report in the Times and Seasons together with wood engraved facsimiles of the twelve sides of the six brass plates. The broadside also adds one additional line at the bottom of the report: The contents of the Plates, together with a Fac-Simile of the same, will be published in the “Times & Seasons,” as soon as the translation is completed. The Nauvoo Neighbor advertised A Brief Account of the Discovery at 12½¢ a copy or $1 per dozen in its issue of June 28, 1843, and in each issue thereafter for about sixteen months.[188] But except for these advertisements, no mention of the Kinderhook plates appears again in either the Times and Seasons or the Nauvoo Neighbor subsequent to the initial report.[189]

Many years later, W. P. Harris and, independently, Wilbur Fugate acknowledged that the Kinderhook plates with all their inscriptions were actually made by Robert Wiley, Bridge Whitton, and Fugate as a hoax.[190] One of the plates is now in the Chicago Historical Society, and recent scientific examinations of it confirm that it is a modern alloy, its characters etched with acid.[191]

The textual parts of items 180 and 181 are printed from different typesettings. Which is the earlier is not known, but one might guess it is item 180 since its text contains some misspelled words (e.g., throught in the first paragraph, line 8, and pictoral in the first paragraph of the second column, line 16). Item 180 also exists in three states: (1) with the third line of the title reading recently taken from a mound near Kinderhook, Pike County, Illinois and without the line Nauvoo, Hancock county, Illinois, June 24th, 1843. [Taylor & Woodruff, Printers just following the text; (2) with the third line of the title recently taken from a mound in the vicinity of Kinderhook, Pike County, Illinois and with the line Nauvoo, Hancock county, Illinois, June 24th, 1843. [Tailor & Woodruff, Printers just following the text; and (3) with the third line of the title recently taken from a mound in the vicinity of Kinderhook, Pike County, Illinois and with the line Nauvoo, Hancock county, Illinois, June 24th, 1843. [Taylor & Woodruff, Printers just following the text. The LDS Church has a copy of state (1) which is inscribed at the bottom in Wilford Woodruff’s hand, “Printed By Taylor & Woodruff June 24th 1843.”

The facsimiles of the Kinderhook plates were reproduced in The Prophet for February 15, 1845, and in the Deseret News for September 3, 1856, and the Millennial Star for January 15, 1859, as part of the serial “History of Joseph Smith.” A Brief Account of the Discovery was reprinted in a folding plate tipped in at the end of John Taylor’s Three Nights’Public Discussion (Liverpool, 1850), most often found in Orson Pratt’s A Series of Pamphlets (Liverpool, 1851). This plate is easily distinguished from the Nauvoo broadsides by the first line in its title, Fac-Simile of the Brass Plates.

Flake 8956. Item 180: DLC[2], MH[3], US1C| 1]. Item J81: UHi, US1C.

182 Evidence taken on the trial of Mr. Smith, before the municipal court of Nauvoo, on Saturday, July 1, 1843. Respecting the late persecution of the Latter Day Saints, in the state of Missouri, North America. Nauvoo: Printed by Taylor and Woodruff, Water and Bain Streets. [1843]

[i–ii] [l]–38 pp. 24 cm. Text in two columns.

Once again Missouri attempted to extradite Joseph Smith (see item 168). With some urging from John C. Bennett, the Daviess County circuit court indicted him in June 1843 for treason in connection with the 1838 conflict. Governor Reynolds ordered his extradition, and Governor Ford complied by issuing a warrant for his arrest. On June 23, the sheriff of Jackson County, Missouri, and the constable from Carthage, Illinois, arrested Joseph at his wife’s sister’s house near Dixon, Lee County. Cyrus Walker, one of Illinois’s most able criminal lawyers and a Whig, was in the area campaigning for a seat in the U.S. Congress, and he agreed to represent him in exchange for his vote. Joseph Smith obtained a writ of habeas corpus returnable before the nearest tribunal in the fifth judicial circuit from the master in chancery in Dixon, and on the 26th he, his lawyers, the officers, and a number of others started for Stephen A. Douglas’s court in Quincy 260 miles away. Three days later they met a large contingent from Nauvoo, and at this point Joseph Smith insisted that the nearest tribunal was the municipal court in Nauvoo. Assured by Walker that the Nauvoo court did indeed have jurisdiction, the two groups turned for Nauvoo, and on June 30 they reached the city. The next day, the municipal court convened with William Marks acting chief justice and Daniel H. Wells, Newel K. Whitney, George W. Harris, Gustavus Hills, and Hiram Kimball, associate justices. After hearing considerable testimony, it ordered Joseph Smith released for want of substance in the warrant.[192]

Throughout Illinois the response was swift and angry, particularly over the use of the municipal court to set aside a state process. On July 3 and 5, Joseph Smith and the Twelve called eighty-two elders to travel about the state and dispel the public wrath. Evidence Taken on the Trial of Mr. Smith undoubtedly was struck off for this campaign.[193]

Joseph Smith’s clerks spent the night of July 7 copying the testimony given before the municipal court, and the next day the court approved the transcription and made some revisions for the press. Two days later Willard Richards was still preparing the minutes for publication.[194] Except for the added title page, Evidence Taken on the Trial of Mr. Smith was printed from the typesetting used to print the text in the Times and Seasons of July 1 and 15, and August 1, 1843, and in the Nauvoo Neighbor of July 5, 12, 19, 26. Richards wrote to Brigham Young on July 19 that the testimony was being published serially in the Neighbor and Times and Seasons and that it would be printed “all in pamphlet when finished.”[195] And that day the Neighbor reported, “As we intend publishing the whole proceeding of the trial in pamphlet form, it will be impossible for us to conclude the testimony given in on that occasion, before next week.” One infers that Evidence Taken on the Trial of Mr. Smith was printed after July 19 and probably soon after July 26.

Included in the pamphlet are an opening editorial comment which outlines the events leading up to the July 1 trial, an affidavit of Joseph Smith, and the warrants of Governors Reynolds and Ford. The bulk of it consists of the testimonies of Hyrum Smith, Parley Pratt, Brigham Young, George W. Pitkin, Lyman Wight, and Sidney Rigdon, which focus on the 1838 expulsion from Missouri and the trial of the Mormon leaders before Austin A. King in November 1838.[196]

The pamphlet exists in two states. The Yale copy has the caption title Before the Municipal Court of Nauvoo at the head of page [1], the first page of text, while in the Newberry Library and LDS Church copies this is preceded by the phrase Trial of Mr. Smith.

Joseph Smith won his freedom on July 1, 1843, but at a price. Up to that time the Mormons, for the most part, were on friendly terms with their Illinois neighbors. But the events surrounding the hearing, the subsequent political jockeying to head off further action by Thomas Ford, and the solid Mormon support of Cyrus Walker’s Democratic opponent in the August election despite Joseph Smith’s pledge to support Walker, generated widespread animosity toward the Saints. Ford later wrote that after the August election, the Whigs and some of the Democrats grew determined to drive the Mormons from Illinois.[197]

Flake 7955. CtY, ICN, MH, US1C.

183 WINCHESTER, Benjamin. A history of the priesthood from the beginning of the world to the present time, written in defence of the doctrine and position of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; and also a brief treatise upon the fundamental sentiments, particularly those which distinguish the above society from others now extant. By B. Winchester, minister of the gospel. [3 lines] Philadelphia. Brown, Bicking & Guilbert, Printers, No. 56 North Third Street 1843

 iv[5]–168 pp. 15 cm.

Winchester’s restoration to full Church fellowship in July 1842 carried the suggestion that he locate away from Philadelphia (see item 155), and by November he was preaching in Baltimore. At the end of the year, however, he returned to Philadelphia and to the conflicts that had earlier surrounded him. Inevitably, news of the dissension in the Philadelphia branch reached the Church leaders, and in May 1843 Winchester was again summoned to Nauvoo. On May 27 he met with Joseph Smith and some of the Twelve, who withdrew his license to preach and directed him to move to Illinois. Not until the fall of 1843 did he come with his family to Nauvoo, nor did the rift between him and the Church leaders heal. In September 1844, after he had returned to Philadelphia, he was excommunicated from the Church, and the following month he aligned himself with Sidney Rigdon, ultimately becoming one of Rigdon’s apostles (see items 240, 242). A year later he split with Rigdon, thus terminating his association with Mormonism. He moved to Pittsburgh in 1845 and then to Council Bluffs in 1854, where he died on January 25, 1901.[198]

History of the Priesthood was in Winchester’s mind before he traveled to Nauvoo in May 1843, since he had obtained a copyright for it on February 21, 1843.[199] He finished writing it, however, after he returned to Philadelphia following his May 27 “trial.” In the opening sentence of the first chapter he refers to “a train of events” that precludes his active proselytizing, a clear allusion to the trial. The book was advertised in the Philadelphia edition of Parley Pratt’s An Address by a Minister of the Church (next item) which was printed before August 17, 1843, and the October issue of the Millennial Star announced that Reuben Hedlock had just arrived in England with eight hundred copies.[200] So History of the Priesthood was probably printed in July or August. Winchester deposited a copy with the district court on November 6. The Times and Seasons did not mention it until January 15, 1845, when Parley Pratt enjoined the Latter-day Saints to stop buying Winchester’s books.

History of the Priesthood marks another step in the development of Mormon apologetics, and in broad outline it is similar to Moses Martin’s Treatise on the Fulness of the Everlasting Gospel (item 162). The first three chapters discuss the concept of priesthood, its possession by Adam and Abraham, God’s covenant with Abraham, and the history of the priesthood to Jethro and Moses. The next three chapters—which are reminiscent of the appendix in Synopsis of the Holy Scriptures (item 155)—examine what Winchester claims was the apostate condition of the Jews at the time of Christ; the purpose of his coming; the characteristics of his church after his crucifixion, particularly those Winchester sees as paralleling Mormonism; the apostasy of the primitive church; and the scriptural predictions of a restoration of God’s true church which, he argues, are fulfilled in the advent of Mormonism. The final chapter, reworked from his articles in the Gospel Reflector (item 95), outlines the history and contents of the Book of Mormon and discusses some doctrinal issues including the gathering of Israel and the Millennium. The main text (pp. 15–168) is preceded by a preface (pp. [iii]–iv), which follows the copyright notice on the verso of the title page.

One usually finds History of the Priesthood in brown vertically ribbed cloth, the title in gilt on the backstrip, but it also occurs in three-quarter brown leather with marble paper boards, gilt ornaments and the title in gilt on the backstrip. It was issued as well in tan stiff paper wrappers. The title page, without the phrase and also a brief treatise . . . now extant, is reprinted from a different setting on the front wrapper within an ornamental border; advertisements within the same border are on the back. One of these ads is for the book itself, at $20 per hundred for those in wrappers, $25 for those in cloth. In November 1843 the Millennial Star advertised it for 1s. 6d. each, and seven months later The Prophet offered copies, apparently in wrappers, for 250.[201]

Flake 9940. CSmH, CtY, CU-B, DLC, ICHi, ICN, MH, MoK, NjP, NN, OClWHi, UHi, ULA, UPB, US1, US1C, UU, WHi.

184 PRATT, Parley Parker. An address by a minister of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. To the people of the United States: [Caption title] [Philadelphia? 1843?]

4 pp. 18.5 cm.

The final paragraph of this edition gives the times of Mormon meetings in Philadelphia at the Julianna Street Church, suggesting that it is a Philadelphia imprint. Also, it would seem to have been printed before August 17, 1843, when the Philadelphia branch voted to move their meetings from the Julianna Street Church to the Marshall Institute on Third Street.[202] And as the list of publications on p. 4 includes Benjamin Winchester’s History of the Priesthood, it can date no earlier than that book.

This edition was reprinted from the first New York edition (item 111) and is textually identical to it except for the change of one word on the first page. Like the New York editions, it does not identify Parley Pratt as the author.

Flake 6558. CtY, US1C.

185 The testament of the twelve patriarchs, the sons of Jacob, is most respectfully dedicated to my well-beloved brother, John Albitson [sic], patriarch in the Church of Latter-day Saints. As a token of respect and esteem for his services and unwearied zeal in the cause of God in this the evening of time. By his brother in Christ, Samuel Downes. Manchester: Printed by Ralph J. Bradshaw, 6, Church-Street. 1843.

[i–ii][ii]–v [1]–102 pp. 16.5 cm.

Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs is a reprint of the Anthony Gilby translation of this Old Testament apocryphal book, originally published in 1574 and republished many times thereafter.[203] Thomas Ward announced in the Millennial Star of October 1843 that he was in receipt of one hundred copies and remarked that “this publication is not at all connected with the Church of Latter-day Saints, but merely printed by a brother, elder Samuel Downes, as a relic of antiquity, containing many portions of truth, and as a general curiosity. Price 1s. 8d.” Downes’s preface (pp. [ii]–v) is dated September 18, 1843, so the book must have been printed just before Ward’s announcement. The following June the Star dropped the price: 1s. 6d. each or 16s. per dozen for “full bound” copies, 1s. each or 11s. per dozen for copies with “stiff covers.” Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs is usually found in brown plain or striated sheep, the covers either blind stamped or plain with gilt borders, the title in gilt on the backstrip.

John Albiston—not Albitson—to whom the book is dedicated, was a much revered British Saint. He was ordained a patriarch on April 6, 1841, the second patriarch in England. His last years were characterized by illness and disability which he bore heroically; he died on June 2, 1849, one day before his sixty-seventh birthday.[204]

Samuel Downes was born in Manchester, January 16, 1816, converted to Mormonism in July 1842, and began proselytizing full time the following June. Two years later he became involved with the British and American Commercial Joint Stock Company, served as its treasurer, and ultimately shared some of the blame when the company collapsed (see item 273). In 1847 he was back in the field as a missionary. Downes immigrated to Utah in 1886 and died in Salt Lake City five years later.[205]

CtY, CU-B, UPB, US1C.

186 HARDY, John. A collection of sacred hymns, adapted to the faith and views of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Compiled by John Hardy. Boston: Dow & Jackson’s Press, 1843.

160 pp. 11.5 cm.

John Hardy presided over the Boston branch of the Church from February 1843 to October 1844 (see item 153).[206] In the preface to his hymnal (p. [3]) he states that his only object in publishing the book was “to meet the immediate and urgent demand for hymn books by the branch in this city.” This might suggest that he published his book late in the year, since the Times and Seasons office had copies of the Nauvoo hymnal in sheets as late as December 1843 (see item 103). Hardy was a composer of hymns himself; three of his songs, for example, appear in The Prophet for June 29, August 31, and September 21, 1844 (see item 257). One might guess, therefore, that a second object in publishing his book was to include some of his own compositions.

Hardy’s hymnbook contains the texts of 155 numbered hymns (pp. [5]–154), followed by an index of first lines (pp. [155]–60). Eighty-six of the hymns came from the Nauvoo hymnal, which include twenty-three in the 1835 hymnal (item 23) and thirty-eight in the 1840 hymnal (item 78). Six others came from the 1840 hymnal, including one from the 1835. The opening song, “When Earth’s Foundation First Was Laid,” is the first five verses of Parley Pratt’s “Historical Sketch from the Creation to the Present Day,” printed in The Millennium, a Poem (item 21) and reprinted in The Millennium and Other Poems (item 63). Of the remaining sixty-two songs, seven can be identified which are by Mormon authors, including Austin Cowles, Parley Pratt, Joel H. Johnson, and Gustavus Hills.[207] Some of the hymns are undoubtedly Hardy’s. The book is bound in brown mottled sheep with a black leather label stamped in gilt Saints Hymns.

Two songs in Hardy’s book, Johnson’s “The Glorious Gospel Light Has Shown” and the hymn “Come Thou Glorious Day of Promise,” were added to the official LDS hymnal in 1847 and 1851, respectively, and have remained in it to the present. One other song introduced by Hardy, Thomas Kelly’s “Men of God Go Take Your Stations,” also had a long life in the official hymnal.[208]

Flake 3857. CtY, MB, MH, MoInRC, NjP, ULA, UPB, US1C.

187 SMITH, Joseph. Times and SeasonsExtra. J General Joseph Smith’s appeal to the Green Mountain Boys, December, 1843. Nauvoo, III. Taylor and Woodruff, Printers. 1843.

7 pp. 23.5 cm.

Throughout the summer and fall of 1843, the threat of further legal action from Missouri plagued Joseph Smith. Anti-Mormon meetings in Carthage, for example, urged the governor of Missouri to continue to demand his extradition.[209] But 1844 was an election year, and some of the local politicians still valued the Mormon vote. On November 2 Joseph Smith and some of the Twelve discussed a proposal of John Frierson of Quincy, who was promoting John C. Calhoun for the presidency. Frierson claimed to have some influence with men in Missouri who he felt were willing to make a settlement with the Latter-day Saints, and he volunteered to initiate another memorial to Congress asking for a resolution of the Mormon claims. At this meeting the Church leaders decided to write to the five leading candidates for the U.S. presidency to determine their views of the Mormon problem (see items 199, 201, 214, 271).[210] Here also, perhaps, the idea arose of seeking support from other states in another attempt to wring some compensation from Missouri—an effort which would at least respond to Missouri’s ongoing legal attacks.

On November 21, after meeting all day with the Twelve and others, Joseph Smith “gave W. W. Phelps instructions to write an appeal to the citizens of Vermont.”[211] Five days later he, his brother Hyrum, and the Twelve met with Frierson, who drafted his memorial to the U.S. Congress on November 28.[212] On the 29th a group of Nauvoo citizens met in the assembly room over Joseph Smith’s store to discuss the memorial. W. W. Phelps read Joseph Smith’s appeal to the Green Mountain Boys, and Parley Pratt was delegated to deliver it in all the large towns in New York and Vermont. Joseph Smith moved that “every man in the meeting who could wield a pen write an address to his mother country” (see items 202, 204).[213] The next day the Times and Seasons shop started on Appeal to the Green Mountain Boys, printing 1,300 copies in two runs.[214] On Sunday, December 3, and again on Monday the 4th, Phelps read it to public gatherings, and at the Monday meeting Parley Pratt also read his appeal to the citizens of his native state (item 202).[215]

Appeal to the Green Mountain Boys is a disappointment. Wordy, too hostile, and embellished with superfluous foreign-language phrases, it describes the Mormon losses in Missouri and their futile efforts to seek redress, and it urges Vermont to lend its influence for a settlement of their claims.

Frierson’s memorial briefly outlines the Mormons’ experiences in Missouri and asks Congress to intervene since there is no hope of obtaining redress from the Missouri courts. In March 1844 Orson Pratt left for Washington with the final draft, in Thomas Bullock’s hand, dated November 28, 1843, and signed by 3,419 including Joseph Smith and the city council. James Semple, senator from Illinois, submitted it to the Senate on April 5, which referred it to the Judiciary Committee, and there it seems to have died (see item 229).[216]

Flake 7956. DLC, ICN, MBAt, MH, MoInRC, US1C.

188 Nauvoo Neighbor:Extra. Nauvoo Hancock County, Illinois, Dec. 9, 1843. [Nauvoo, 18431

Broadside 35 x 33 cm. Text in four columns.

On December 4, 1843, an already anxious Mormon community learned that, two days earlier, Daniel Avery, president of the Montrose elders’ quorum, had been forcibly taken into Missouri by Levi Williams and eight others, and charged with horse stealing. Avery’s son had been abducted to Missouri two weeks earlier. On the 7th, a public meeting convened in Nauvoo to protest the Avery affair and the ongoing attempts by the state of Missouri to extradite Joseph Smith. The next day, December 8, the Nauvoo city council, warned by Joseph Smith “to be prepared for any invasion from Missouri,” passed the first of two extraordinary ordinances. Entitled “An Extra Ordinance for the Extra Case of Joseph Smith and Others,” this provided that any officer coming into Nauvoo with a warrant for Smith’s arrest based on the Missouri difficulties would be subject to arrest and trial before the municipal court, and if found guilty, to a sentence of life imprisonment in the city jail, with pardon contingent upon the consent of the mayor of Nauvoo. The second, “An Ordinance to Prevent Unlawful Search or Seizure of Person or Property by Foreign Process in the City of Nauvoo,” passed December 21, made the execution of a warrant in Nauvoo without prior approval of the mayor a criminal offense. Both were repealed February 12, 1844. Daniel Avery languished in the Missouri jails for three weeks and then was released on Christmas day. His son had been released a few days earlier.[217]

These events precipitated one other unprecedented action. At the meeting of the city council on December 8, Joseph Smith proposed that Congress be petitioned to receive Nauvoo as a U.S. territory, and John Taylor, Orson Spencer, and Orson Pratt were appointed to draft such a memorial. On December 21, Pratt was delegated to submit this memorial to Congress, and the following March he left for Washington, D.C. (see item 229).[218]

The, Nauvoo Neighbor Extra of December 9, 1843, prints the resolutions which were drawn up at the public meeting on December 7, and “An Extra Ordinance for the Extra Case of Joseph Smith and Others.” It also includes a second city ordinance passed December 8 which authorized Joseph Smith to build a dam across the Mississippi from below the Nauvoo House to the island near Montrose, and to use this for a harbor and the location of a mill. In addition, it prints two letters from Illinois state officials denying claims submitted by the Nauvoo Legion on the grounds that the Legion was not a part of the regular state militia and the ordinance authorizing it made no provision for the payment of the officers by the state.

The text of the extra was reprinted from a rearrangement of the same typesetting in the Nauvoo Neighbor of December 13, 1843. “An Ordinance to Prevent Unlawful Search or Seizure” appears in the Neighbor of December 27. The Neighbor of February 14, 1844, reports the repeal of the two extraordinary ordinances.

Flake 5727a. US1C

189 APPLEBY, William Ivins. Mormonism consistent! Truth vindicated, and falsehood exposed and refuted: being a reply to A. H. Wickersham, by W. I. Appleby, elder in the Church of “Latter Day Saints.” [2 lines] Wilmington, Del: Porter & Naff, Printers. J843.

24 pp. 20.5 cm.

Mormonism Consistent! arose out of two debates in Centreville, Delaware—on May 13, 1843, between William Wharton, a Mormon elder, and Amos H. Wickersham, a local politician who had earlier debated against Mormonism; and on May 20 between Wickersham and W. I. Appleby. At the end of May, Appleby published an article in the Wilmington Delaware Republican criticizing what he thought was Wickersham’s manipulation of the debates, and a month later Wickersham issued a pamphlet in response to this newspaper article, An Examination of the Principles of Mormonism, as Developed in the Recent Discussion Between the Author and Elders Wharton & Appleby, with a Brief Statement of Facts in Regard to Said Discussion (Wilmington: Allderdice, Jeandell & Miles, Printers, 1843). Appleby added the last printed word with Mormonism Consistent!, which he apparently composed in August 1843, the date of the preface (p. 2).[219] On January 19, 1844, he picked up some copies of the pamphlet from the printer. That evening he preached in Centreville, with A. H. Wickersham in the audience, and after his talk he distributed Mormonism Consistent! About two weeks later Wickersham lectured against Mormonism and attacked Appleby’s pamphlet. Appleby responded in a public lecture in Centreville on February 7, again with Wickersham in the audience. But this time Wickersham slipped out of the hall after the lecture, and Appleby did not encounter him again.[220]

About a third of Mormonism Consistent! is concerned with the events surrounding the May debates. The remainder deals with a number of disputed biblical interpretations, for example, the “last days” did not occur at the time of Christ, and the “two sticks” of Ezekiel 37 do refer to the Bible and Book of Mormon. It condemns Wickersham’s use of John C. Bennett’s The History of the Saints; or, an Expose of Joe Smith and Mormonism. It compares some of the structures described in John L. Stephens’s Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan and Josiah Priest’s American Antiquities with those mentioned in the Book of Mormon. And it cites a number of examples where Wickersham either misquoted or misread the Book of Mormon in his attempt to discredit it.

Flake 191. NN.

190 PAGE, John Edward. [Keep it constantly before the public, that eternal life, is the knowledge of God, by direct revelation. Published by John E. Page, elder of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints, A.D. 1843. Pittsburgh?]

Broadside?

This is not located. It is included in Charles L. Woodward’s Bibliothica Scallawagiana [New York, 1880], p. 19, with the comment, “Broadside. ‘Designed to be put into a frame, or otherwise suspended in some conspicuous place, for the convenience of visitors to read.’” Page spent the first half of 1843 in Pittsburgh before traveling for a few weeks with the Twelve, and then paused in Boston until the end of the year (see item 178). Since he published two other pieces in Pittsburgh in 1843 (items 169, 178), this item is tentatively listed as a Pittsburgh imprint.

191 SMITH, William. Defence of Elder William Smith, against the slanders of Abraham Burtis, and others; in which are included several certificates, and the duties of members in the Church of Christ, in settling difficulties one with another, according to the law of God. [7 lines] Philadelphia: Brown, Bicking & Guilbert, Printers, No. 56 North Third Street. J844.

24 pp. 19.5 cm.

192 SMITH, William. To the public. Slander refuted! An extract from church proceedings; and expulsion of Mormon apostates, from the church! [1 line] To the Saints scattered abroad, greeting: [Caption title] [Signed at end:] Wm. Smith. [Philadelphia? 1844?]

4 pp. 20.5 cm.

Conflict seemed to follow William Smith, and it is conflict that brings him back into the bibliographic record (see items 148, 318). These two tracts grew out of his dispute with the presiding elder, Abraham Burtis, and some of the members of the Mormon branch in New Egypt, New Jersey, fifteen miles southeast of Trenton. Smith visited there in the summer of 1843, and at a meeting of the branch on September 15, he criticized the branch leadership for what he perceived was “a somewhat disorganised state.” This offended Burtis and his wife, who reacted by circulating unflattering reports about Smith. He responded by charging Burtis with unchristian conduct, and on October 18 a Church council excommunicated him.[221] From there the dispute erupted into print.

Defence of Elder William Smith prints a speech which Smith delivered in Cream Ridge, New Jersey, December 2, 1843. He begins the speech with a discussion of divisions in the Church and the appropriate ways of resolving them, but then he rehearses his version of the conflict with the Burtises and inserts various documents intended to defend himself and discredit Burtis and his wife, including the minutes of the October 18 council. To the Public continues the controversy. It reprints an affidavit from Defence of Elder William Smith clearing Smith of any wrongdoing and directs more invective toward Burtis and his supporters. It was published niter Defense of Elder William Smith, apparently because Burtis continued to spread his charges. Subsequently Burtis joined Sidney Rigdon’s faction (see items 240, 242).[222]

The LDS Church’s copies of these two tracts bear in manuscript on the first page, “Filed in the office of the Twelve” and the date May 10, 1844. Most likely they were printed soon after the first of the year.

Item 191: Flake 8139. MolnRC, US1C. Item 192: Flake 8144. US1C.

193 ADAMS, George J. A lecture on the doctrine of baptism for the dead; and preaching to spirits in prison. By Elder G. J. Adams missionary to Russia. As originally delivered by him in the city of New-York on the 7th of January, 1844. Reported and published by his friend David Rogers. New-York. Printed by C. A. Calhoun No. 1 Division-Street. 1844.

12 pp. 20.5 cm.

The doctrine of baptism for the dead was first publicly mentioned by Joseph Smith in August 1840 at the funeral of Seymour Brunson.[223] It was further clarified in a series of discourses and articles, for example, Times and Seasons 1:186; 2:397–99, 577–78; 3:625–27, culminating in two letters by Joseph Smith, dated September 1 and 6, respectively (D&C 127–28), in the Times and Seasons of September 15 and October 1, 1842. An editorial in the Times and Seasons of April 15, 1842 (3:759–61), best laid out the philosophical and scriptural basis for the doctrine. Lecture on the Doctrine of Baptism for the Dead essentially repeats this editorial. The tract ends with a brief summary of Mormonism’s first principles (pp. 11–12) by the publisher, David Rogers.

The David Rogers here is undoubtedly the New York portrait painter, not the David W. Rogers who compiled the 1838 hymnal (item 50). Rogers, the artist, came to Nauvoo with George J. Adams in September 1842 and painted Joseph and Hyrum Smith’s portraits. At the time he seems to have been a member of the Mormon branch in New York, and during the next three years he was active in the affairs of the branch, serving, for example, as the clerk at several conferences. In February 1847 he was appointed the presiding elder in New York, but that fall he was excommunicated, probably because he had transferred his allegiance to James J. Strang. Rogers is listed in the New York City directory as a portrait painter from 1829 to 1858, and at least twice during this period he exhibited his work at the National Academy of Design in New York.[224]

Adams was riding high at the outset of 1844. The previous June he and Orson Hyde had been called to introduce Mormonism into Russia, and in the fall of 1843 he returned to the east coast, advertising himself as a “missionary to Russia.” In January and February 1844 he produced three pamphlets (see the next two items), probably to raise funds for his Russian mission, which he did not undertake.[225]

Flake 19. CtY, MH, MolnRC, NN, US1C.

194 ADAMS, George J. A letter to His Excellency John Tyler, president of the United States, touching the signs of the times, and the political destiny of the world: by G. J. Adams, minister of the gospel. New York. Printed by C. A. Calhoun No. 1 Division-Street. 1844.

16 pp. 17 cm.

This tract, signed and dated at the end, New York, January, 1844, is a faithful reprint—including typographical errors—of Parley Pratt’s Letter to the Queen of England (item 166). The text of the letter shows only those changes necessitated by addressing it to Tyler rather than Queen Victoria. Adams supplied a concluding paragraph reminding the president of the Mormon losses in Missouri and their fruitless efforts to obtain redress, and a grudging and disingenuous postscript acknowledging the source of the text: “It is but justice for me to add, that I am indebted to Elder Parley P. Pratt for many truths contained in the foregoing letter.”

Flake 20. MolnRC, US1C, WHi.

195 ADAMS, George J. A lecture on the authenticity & scriptural character of the Book of Mormon. By G. J. Adams, a minister of the gospel. Delivered at the town hall, Charlestown, Mass on Sunday evening, February 4th, and Wednesday evening, February 7th. Reported and published by his friend C. P. B. Boston: Printed by J. E. Farwell, No. 4 Washington Street. 1844

24 pp. 18 cm.

The text of Adams’s lecture is preceded by a preface (p. [2]) signed and dated, “C. P. B. Boston, February 1844.” Who C.P.B. was is not known.

Adams’s principal point in this lecture is that the Bible predicts and describes the advent of the Book of Mormon, and he bases his argument on Isaiah 28–29, Ezekiel 37:15–19, and Genesis 48–49. This line of reasoning dates to the beginning of Mormon writing. It appears in all its essentials, for example, in W. W. Phelps’s article in The Evening and the Morning Star of January 1833, William Smith’s piece in the Messenger and Advocate of January 1837, the fourth chapter of Voice of Warning, the Gospel Reflector (item 95), Julian Moses’s A Few Remarks in Reply (item 133), and Charles B. Thompson’s Evidences in Proof of the Book of Mormon (item 134).

Flake 17. CtY, MH, MolnRC, UPB, US1C.

196 PHELPS, William Wines. A Song of Zion. By W.W. Phelps. [Nauvoo, 1844] Broadside 13x7 cm. This sheet contains a hymn in 4 eight-line stanzas, printed from the same typesetting in the Times and Seasons of February 1, 1844. Why it was struck off as a separate is not known. Although most of Phelps’s songs found their way into some Mormon hymnal, this one seems to be an exception. Its first four lines: “How sweet is the communion / Of saints that fear the Lord, / And strive, in perfect union, / To gain the great reward.”

Flake 6353a. US1C.

197 COWDERY, Oliver. Letters by Oliver Cowdery, to W. W. Phelps, on the origin of the Book of Mormon, and the rise of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Liverpool: Published by Thomas Ward and John Cairns, 36, Chapel Street. 1844

48 pp. 17.5 cm. Yellow printed wrappers.

Oliver Cowdery’s eight letters to W. W. Phelps, first published in the Messenger and Advocate between October 1834 and October 1835, constitute the earliest printed account of the birth of Mormonism. Extracts from the letters were included in the Millennial Star for June and September–November 1840, and the letters were reprinted more or less in full in the Times and Seasons of November 1–December 15, 1840, and March 15–May 1, 1841. They were again republished in the sixth number of the Gospel Reflector (item 95). A comparison of the various printings makes it clear that the pamphlet Letters by Oliver Cowdery was taken from the Gospel Reflector.[226]

Thomas Ward included the first letter in the Millennial Star of January 1843 and announced there that he intended to publish all eight in pamphlet form. One year later the Star noted that Letters by Oliver Cowdery was in press, and in February 1844 it advertised the pamphlet as just published, price 6d. each, or 5s. per dozen. The Star advertised it again in November 1846, now at 3d. And the European Mission financial records show that during 1847 the Millennial Star office sold about nine hundred copies at a wholesale price of 2d. each.[227]

It is the second work co-published by John Cairns (see item 102). The verso of the title page bears the imprint Liverpool: Printed by James and Woodburn, Hanover-Street, while the colophon at the foot of p. 48 reads Liverpool: Printed by James and Woodburn, South Castle Street. It was issued in yellow wrappers, the title page, with an added line “Truth will prevail” following Latter-day Saints, reprinted within an ornamental border on the front, and book advertisements on the back.

Cowdery’s first letter describes his initial contact with Joseph Smith, his participation in translating the Book of Mormon, and the appearance of John the Baptist which he and Joseph Smith shared. In the third letter he moves back in time and discusses the revival led by Rev. Lane in the Palmyra area, the attendant religious excitement, and the Smith family’s religious seeking—events that are usually associated with Joseph Smith’s 1820 vision. At this point a curious textual change occurs. The version of this letter in the Messenger and Advocate states that this religious excitement occurred during Joseph Smith’s fifteenth year. In the pamphlet 15th is changed to 17th. The fourth letter picks up the narrative and, in the original version, it states that the reference to the fifteenth year in Letter III was “an error in the type—it should have been in the 17th. . . .This would bring the date down to the year 1823.” The pamphlet version eliminates any reference to an error and, like the original, proceeds from this point with an account of the appearance of the angel to Joseph Smith on September 21, 1823, an event that is entirely unrelated to the religious excitement described in the third letter. These changes follow the Gospel Reflector, so Benjamin Winchester must have been responsible for them.[228]

Whatever was intended in Letter III, certain problems persist. Joseph Smith’s seventeenth year was 1822, not 1823. And Rev. George Lane was most prominently in the Palmyra area in 1824–25.[229] It is conceivable that Cowdery shifted the date after realizing he had introduced Lane at the wrong time. It is also possible that he described the events leading up to Joseph Smith’s 1820 vision in Letter III with the intent of recounting it in Letter IV; then, after Letter III was printed, he decided not to mention the vision, which at the time was not openly discussed (see item 82).

Letter VII continues the account of the angelic visitation on September 21, 1823, and of the events just following. It includes a description of the Hill Cumorah, where Joseph Smith obtained the plates. Letter VIII further describes Cumorah and relates the vision he had at this spot. The next-to-last paragraph refers to a trial he was subjected to sometime between 1823 and 1827—undoubtedly the trial at South Bainbridge, New York, in 1826.[230] The pamphlet concludes with a short letter from Joseph Smith, first published in the Messenger and Advocate of December 1834, in which he comments on his early life.

Flake 2546. CSmH, CtY, CU-B, DLC, ICHi, MoInRC, UHi, UPB, US1C, UU.

198 SMITH, Joseph. Reply of Joseph Smith, to the letter of J. A. B-. of A—n House, New York. Liverpool: Published by R. Hedlock and T. Ward, 36, Chapel Street. Price 1d. or 7s. per 100. [1844]

24 pp. 17.5 cm.

James Arlington Bennet, a New York lawyer, writer, and land speculator, first made contact with the Mormons through John C. Bennett at whose instigation Bennet was named inspector-general of the Nauvoo Legion and granted an honorary degree from the University of Nauvoo—before he had had any contact with Joseph Smith. Subsequent correspondence with Joseph Smith and discussions with Willard Richards and Lucian R. Foster drew Bennet closer to the Latter-day Saints, and on August 30, 1843, Brigham Young baptized him into the Church. Six months later Joseph Smith considered him for a vice-presidential running mate until it was reported that he was of Irish birth and thus ineligible. Eventually Brigham Young wrote Bennet off as an opportunist when he volunteered to come to Nauvoo and take command of the Nauvoo Legion.[231]

On October 24, 1843, Bennet wrote a letter to Joseph Smith in which he announced that he was considering running for governor of Illinois and expected, through Joseph Smith’s influence, to be elected. Joseph Smith responded on November 13 with a rambling, ostentatious letter embellished with phrases from other languages, which, like his appeal to the Green Mountain Boys (item 187) and his views on government (item 201), was obviously written by W. W. Phelps.[232] After thousands of words, this letter finally comes to the point: “shall I stoop from the sublime authority of Almighty God to be handled as a monkey’s cat’s paw, and petify myself into a clown to act the farce of political demagoguery? No, verily no!” Bennet would not have his endorsement.

Both Bennet’s and Smith’s letters are printed in the Times and Seasons of November 1, 1843, and in the Nauvoo Neighbor of December 6, 1843, with a one-sentence introduction signed “Viator”—undoubtedly Phelps. In both instances Bennet’s name and Arlington House are given in full. Soon after the first of the year Reuben Hedlock and Thomas Ward reprinted the letters and Viator’s preface in pamphlet form, now with Bennet’s name discreetly replaced by his initials. This book carries the imprint Liverpool: Printed by James and Woodburn, 39, South Castle-Street on the verso of its title page (see the preceding item). It was advertised in the Millennial Star of February 1844 as “just out of the Press . . . Price 1d. each, or 7s. per hundred.” Three and a half years later the Star noted that it had one thousand copies, “for gratuitous distribution.”[233] Twice more the Bennet-Smith exchange was reprinted in pamphlet form (items 199, 271).

Flake 7994. CSmH, CtY, CU-B, MH, MoInRC, UHi, UPB, US1C, UU.

199 SMITH, Joseph. Correspondence between Joseph Smith, the prophet, and Col. John Wentworth, editor of “The Chicago Democrat,” and member of Congress from Illinois; Gen. James Arlington Bennet, of Arlington House, Long Island, and the Honorable John C. Calhoun, senator from South Carolina. In which is given, a sketch of the life of Joseph Smith, the rise and progress of the Church of Latter Day Saints, and their persecutions by the state of Missouri: with the peculiar views of Joseph Smith, in relation to political and religious matters generally; to which is added a concise account of the present state and prospects of the city of Nauvoo. New-York: Published by John E. Page andL. R. Foster, elders of the Church of Latter Day Saints. 1844. J. W. Harrison, Printer, corner of Pearl and Chatham-Streets, NY.

16 pp. 21.5 cm. Ornamental border on title page, pp. [3]–16 in two columns.

Joseph Smith’s letter to “Long John” Wentworth, printed in the Times and Seasons of March 1, 1842, is the earliest published account of the birth of Mormonism by Joseph Smith himself, antedating the first installment of his official memoirs in the Times and Seasons by two weeks (see also item 177). The letter outlines his early history, including his 1820 vision, and ends with thirteen “Articles of Faith,” a summary of basic tenets later included in the Pearl of Great Price and canonized in 1880. A description of Joseph Smith’s 1820 vision first appeared in Orson Pratt’s Remarkable Visions (item 82), and at key points the account of the vision in the Wentworth letter coincides word-for-word with that in Remarkable Visions. The “Articles of Faith” also bear a striking resemblance to the “sketch of the faith and doctrine” that concludes Orson’s tract. It seems clear, therefore, that the Wentworth letter was composed with Remarkable Visions in view. A note prefacing the letter in the Times and Seasons indicates that Joseph Smith supplied it at Wentworth’s request for a friend, George Barstow, who was writing a history of New Hampshire. Apparently Barstow never used the letter.[234]

Correspondence Between Joseph Smith prints the Wentworth letter (pp. [3]–6) and Joseph Smith’s exchange with James Arlington Bennet (pp. [7]–11) (see the preceding item). These are followed by his correspondence with John C. Calhoun (pp. 11–14) which derived from the decision on November 2, 1843, to write each of the major presidential candidates about his views on the Mormons, particularly their claims against Missouri (see item 187). This group consists of Joseph Smith’s letter to Calhoun of November 4, 1843; Calhoun’s reply; and Smith’s response to Calhoun of January 2, 1844, which again was written by W. W. Phelps.[235] These were originally printed in the Times and Seasons of January 1, 1844, and in the Nauvoo Neighbor of January 10, and twice reprinted in later pamphlets (items 214, 271). Smith’s letter of January 2 excoriates Calhoun for his states’ rights point of view and argues that, just as Washington could send federal militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion and Jackson could threaten the use of force when South Carolina attempted to nullify the tariff laws, the federal government is justified in assisting the Latter-day Saints to recover their lost property in Missouri—an argument the U.S. Supreme Court rejected in Barron v. Baltimore (1833). The pamphlet concludes with “City of Nauvoo—Its Prospects” (pp. [15]–16), reprinted from an editorial in the Times and Seasons of January 1, 1844.

The preface (p. [2]) refers to Joseph Smith’s harsh language in speaking of Missouri’s treatment of the Mormons, and to offer some justification, it quotes a statement in J. B. Turner’s anti-Mormon book Mormonism in All Ages (New York, 1842), p. 57, that the Saints were victimized by the state.[236] This preface is dated at New York, February 1844, a moment when Page paused in New York on his way to Washington D.C. (see items 178, 205). He and Lucian R. Foster probably did not know of Joseph Smith’s decision to run for the presidency when they issued the tract but sensed that something was afoot (see item 201). Given Page’s impecuniousness, one might be tempted to conjecture that he seized the occasion in hopes of making some money. That June and July The Prophet advertised Correspondence Between Joseph Smith for 12½¢ a copy or $8 per hundred.

Flake 7953. CSmH, CtY, ICHi, NN, US1C.

200 Revised laws of the Nauvoo Legion, from the Constitution of the United States. By authority. John Taylor, Printer, Nauvoo, Illinois. 1844.

36 pp. 22.5 cm.

This pamphlet includes the twenty-fifth section of the Nauvoo city charter (see items 149, 154), which provided for the Nauvoo Legion (p. 4); the ordinance of the Nauvoo City Council of February 3, 1841, which created the Legion (pp. 4–5); the ordinance of the court martial of February 14, 1844, which, in seventy-seven sections, detailed the Legion’s organization and procedures (pp. 5–19); four resolutions of the court martial, dated June 10, 1843, October 21, 1843, and January 13, 1844 (p. 19); and a rank roll of the principal officers (p. 20). Preceding Section 25 of the city charter are excerpts from the U.S. and Illinois constitutions dealing with the state militia and the right to bear arms, and following the rank roll are the Articles of War adopted by the U.S. Congress, April 10, 1806 (pp. 21–35). The last page contains errata.

Since the ordinance of February 14 was “to take effect and be in force from and after its publication,” it would seem Revised Laws of the Nauvoo Legion was published soon after this date. It was certainly printed before May 9, 1844, when Wilson Law, who is listed in the rank roll, was cashiered.[237]

The city ordinance of February 3, 1841, was earlier printed in the Times and Seasons of February 15, 1841. The court martial’s ordinance of February 14, published here, superseded the court martial’s ordinance of March 12, 1842, published in the Times and Seasons of March 15, 1842. The two resolutions of June 10, 1843, are printed in the Nauvoo Neighbor for June 21, 1843, with two others not included in the pamphlet.

Flake 5724. CtY, MoInRC, UPB, US1C.


101

[1] Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 1:531–89; 2:1–47. Kimball, On the Potter’s Wheel, 35, 41, 43–44. Millennial Star 1:282.

Ellen Balfour Redman, a widow with three children, had taught French, Italian, and music “in the families of some of the first Lords in London” before moving to New York, where she joined the Church. Woodruff met her there before he sailed for England, and a few months later she returned to London. He remarks that she had traveled the world, had been shipwrecked several times and had been “taken once by the Indians once by pirates.” Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:25–27.

[2] Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:48–52.

[3] Indeed Woodruff refers to his tract in his journal as “Address to the citizens of London.” Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:49.

102

[4] Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:92–93. Millennial Star 27:103–4. Lyndon W. Cook, The Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City, 1985), 232–33. Dale Morgan, A Bibliography of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints [Strangite] (Salt Lake City, 1951), 38, 43–44. “Journal of Thomas Bullock,” BYV Studies 31 (winter 1991): 55–56, 59. History of the Church 7:582–83. “Journal History,” 9 February 1846. John Quist, “John E. Page: An Apostle of Uncertainty,” Journal of Mormon History 12 (1985): 53–68.

[5] “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register,” 270. “Journal History,” 10 April, 24 April, 11 May, 23 May, 29 July 1843; 16 July 1846 (p. 9). Millennial Star 4:94, 130, 195–99; 5:59, 64, 140. Saints’Herald 32:477, 648–49. Mt. Olivet Cemetery Records, Hannibal, Mo.

[6] Three of Mary Judd Page’s hymns are in the 1841 hymnal, one of which, “Ye Who Are Called to Labor,” is also in the Page-Cairns book.

[7] Helen Hanks Macare, “The Singing Saints: A Study of the Mormon Hymnal, 1835–1950” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1961). See also “A Comprehensive List of Hymns Appearing in Official Hymnals of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1835–1950,” accompanying Macare’s dissertation.

Phelps’s “Wake O Wake the World from Sleeping” was published in the Nauvoo Neighbor, 4 September 1844, and the Times and Seasons, 15 September 1844.

103

[8] History of the Church 4:3, 13–14, 17–18,47–49, 161, 164. Times and Seasons 1:25, 140.

[9] Times and Seasons 1:186; 2:204, 355, 375–76.

[10] The hymnbook is advertised on the back wrapper of Orson Pratt, An Interesting Account of Several Remarkable Visions (New York, 1842).

[11] Macare, “The Singing Saints,” 265–79, and “A Comprehensive List of Hymns Appearing in Official Hymnals.”

[12] The shop billed Joseph Smith on May 17, 1843, for binding 176 hymnbooks; May 24 for 201; August 1 for 24; September 13 for 30; October 3 for 60; November 20 for 507; and on December 16 for 2 hymnbooks—a total of 1,000 books. “Joseph Smith and Others Trustees &c In Account with John Taylor,” Whitney MSS, UPB.

105

[13] Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:693–97. Eliza R. Snow, “Sketch of My Life,” The Relief Society Magazine 31 (1944): 131–36, 192, 207–14, 272–78, 313–14, 351, 392–94, 450–53, 504–5, 578–81. The Life and Labors of Eliza R. Snow Smith; with a Full Account of Her Funeral Services (Salt Lake City, 1888). Edward W. Tullidge, The Women of Mormondom (New York, 1877), 63–66, 294–300. Maureen Ursenbach Beecher, “The Eliza Enigma,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 11 (spring 1978): 31–43.

106–107

[14] In January 1841 and again in February the Times and Seasons repeated the phrase Deluded and Infatuated Mormons, taken from an Illinois newspaper. Times and Seasons 2:265–66, 314.

[15] Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:717–18. James B. Allen, Trials of Discipleship: The Story of William Clayton, a Mormon (Urbana, III, 1987). George D. Smith, ed., An Intimate Chronicle: The Journals of William Clayton (Salt Lake City, 1991).

108

[16] Document Containing the Correspondence, Orders, &c. in Relation to the Disturbances with the Mormons (Fayette, Mo., 1841), 99, 111, 128, 139.

[17] “Diary of Joseph Fielding,” 116.

[18] A Letter to the Queen [second edition with preface], 1. Times and Seasons 4:163.

109–110

[19] Millennial Star 2:77–78; 26:7–8, 40–41, 71. Copyright Records, Southern District of New York, 1841–42, vol. 144, p. 110, no. 23, in Roger W. Harris, “Copyright Entries Works by and About the Mormons, 1829–1870,” photocopy, UPB.

[20] Pratt’s and Kelly’s hymns, better known by their first lines, “The Night is Wearing Fast Away,” and “On the Mountain’s Top Appearing,” had long lives in the LDS hymnal. Dibble’s hymn has remained in the official LDS hymnal from 1835 to the present time. Macare, “The Singing Saints,” and “A Comprehensive List of Hymns Appearing in Official Hymnals.”

113

[21] Lyman O. Littlefield, Reminiscences of Latter-day Saints (Logan, Utah, 1888), 82–83, 107.

[22] “Early Church Information File.” Littlefield, Reminiscences. Deseret Evening News, 5 September 1893, 4–5.

114

[23] Times and Seasons 2:220–21. Smith, An Intimate Chronicle, 130. Dale Morgan, A Bibliography of the Churches of the Dispersion (Salt Lake City, 1953), 117, 177–78. Morgan, A Bibliography of the Church [Strangite], 41–43, 48–49, 52–53. Peter Amann, “Prophet in Zion: The Saga of George J. Adams,” New England Quarterly 37 (1964): 477–500. Death certificate of G. W. J. Adams, certified copy, UPB. Burial record of G. W. J. Adams, North Cedar Hills Cemetery, Philadelphia, photocopy, UPB. Philadelphia Public Ledger, 13 May 1880. “Journal History,” 9 October (pp. 4–7), 3 December 1844; 10 April 1845. The Prophet, 10 May 1845, 2.

Peter Amann refers to Adams as George Washington Joshua Adams. Reed M. Holmes, The Forerunners (Independence, Mo., 1981) calls him George Jones Adams, and erroneously gives his year of birth as 1813.

[24] Times and Seasons 3:826–28. Millennial Star 2:33–37, 143. “Diary of Joseph Fielding,” 105.

[25] Winchester, Plain Facts, Shewing the Origin of the Spaulding Story, 25. George J. Adams, A Few Plain Facts, Shewing the Folly, Wickedness, and Imposition of the Rev. Timothy R. Matthews (Bedford, England, 1841), iii–iv.

115–116

[26] David J. Whittaker, “East of Nauvoo: Benjamin Winchester and the Early Mormon Church,” Journal of Mormon History 21 (fall 1995): 51–52.

[27] “Journal of Lorenzo D. Barnes,” US1C. History of the Church 2:203,221; 3:38, 347; 4:413; 5:207, 319–20, 360. Millennial Star 1:185; 3:159; 4:74. Times and Seasons 2:204–5, 412. “Statement of A. O. Smoot, 3 September 1852,” US1C. Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 3:307–8. Black, Membership of the Church, 3:660–62. International Genealogical Index, UPB.

117

[28] Times and Seasons 2:570–71.

[29] Millennial Star 2:93. See also Orson Hyde, A Voice from Jerusalem (Liverpool, England, 1842), 8.

118

[30] Only one copy of Rollo’s Mormonism Exposed is located, at NN. A microfilm of it exists at UPB.

[31] Millennial Star 2:62. History of the Church 4:488. Rollo, Mormonism Exposed, 1, 3. “Abstract Record of Casual Events Edinburgh Branch,” 6, microfilm 104, 151, UPB.

[32] In July 1852, in San Francisco, Parley published the broadside “Mormonism!” “Plurality of Wives! “An Especial Chapter, for the Especial Edification of Certain Inquisitive News Editors, Etc.

119–120

[33] Times and Seasons 4:163.

121

[34] Journal of Heber C Kimball (Nauvoo, 1840), 24–25. Millennial Star 1:292–93. “Diary of Joseph Fielding,” 10, 46, 51, 55–56, 82–83, 85–86, 91, 94, 96, 107.

Matthews was born in Long Sutton, Isle of Ely, Lincolnshire, England, June 26, 1795, married Ann Fielding in 1821, and died in Bedford, September 4, 1845. Ancestral File, UPB.

[35] Adams, A Eew Plain Facts, iii–iv. Millennial Star 2:33–37. Times and Seasons 3:826–28.

122

[36] Lyndon W. Cook, “Isaac Galland—Mormon Benefactor,” BYU Studies 19 (1979): 261–84. Galland s Iowa Emigrant is reprinted in Annals of Iowa 12 (January 1921): 482–509, together with a sketch of his life. B. L. Wicks summarizes the Half-Breed Tract litigation in Annals of Iowa 7 (April 1905): 16–29.

[37] David Wells Kilbourne (1803–76) was born in Connecticut and engaged in merchandising in New York before coming to Lee County, Iowa, about 1836, where he represented the New York Land Company in buying and selling land in the Half-Breed Tract. He helped lay out the cities of Montrose and Keokuk in 1837. In 1848 he was admitted to the Iowa bar, and in 1855 he was elected mayor of Keokuk. He was one of the original promoters of the Des Moines Valley Railroad and in 1868 became its president. He died in New York City and was interred in Keokuk. History of Lee County Iowa (Chicago, 1914), 2:434. Inaugural Address of D. W. Kilbourne, Esq., Mayor of the City of Keokuk (Keokuk, Iowa, 1855). Annals of Iowa 15 (April 1926): 310–13.

123–24

[38] Millennial Star 2:77.

[39] Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:52–54. Millennial Star 1:72, 283, 305.

125–26

[40] “Erastus Snow Sketch Book,” 71–72, typescript, UPB. Whittaker, “East ofNauvoo,” 48–51.

[41] “Erastus Snow Sketch Book,” 74–75. B. Winchester to J. Smith, 18 September 1841, “Journal History,” under date. Andrew Karl Larsen, Erastus Snow (Salt Lake City, 1971), 67–71.

[42] “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register,” 12. “Early Church Information File.”

Ancestral File, UPB. Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:690–91. “Erastus Snow Sketch Book,” 74–75. Millennial Star 3:66–67.

[43] “Erastus Snow Sketch Book,” 75.

[44] B. Winchester to J. Smith, 18 September 1841. “Erastus Snow Sketch Book,” 76–79. Times and Seasons 3:797–98. Millennial Star 3:66–67.

[45] Times and Seasons 3:797–98, 844. Millennial Star 3:66–67.

127

[46] Times and Seasons 4:163.

[47] See also Millennial Star 2:96; 3:80, 208. See the back wrappers of Hyde, A Voice from Jerusalem, and Letters by Oliver Cowdery to W. W. Phelps (Liverpool, England, 1844).

128

[48] “Journal History,” 1 September 1841.

[49] “Journal History,” 30 January 1842.

[50] “Journal History,” 6 July, 1 September, 18 September, 29 November 1841; 1 January, 30 January 1842.

[51] Slander Refuted, 1.

[52] For a biographical sketch of Levi Ward Hancock, one of the seven presidents of the Seventy, see Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:188–89.

129

[53] Eliza R. Snow, Biography and Family Record of Lorenzo Snow (Salt Lake City, 1884), 5 Iff. Times and Seasons 2:404–5, 529–30. “Lorenzo Snow Notebook,” 21 December 1841, US1C. WilfordWoodruff’s Journal 2:45–46. Millennial Star 1:282–83, 302; 2:76, 172; 3:29, 110, 124.

[54] “Journal of Lorenzo Snow 1840–44,” 109, US1C.

[55] “Journal of Lorenzo Snow 1840–44,” 44.

130

[56] Millennial Star 25:819; 26:7.

[57] Millennial Star 2:112. See also Hyde, A Voice from Jerusalem, back wrapper.

[58] Times and Seasons 4:163.

[59] 1 am grateful for the assistance here of J. Samuel Hammond, Rare Book Librarian, Special Collections Library, Duke University.

132

[60] Biography of Christopher Merkley. Written by Himself (Salt Lake City, 1887). “Journal History,” 2 May 1893, 6.

133

[61] “Early Church Information File,” microfilm, UPB. Deseret Evening News, 12 April 1892, 8. Times and Seasons 1:60, 64. “Journal History,” 12 June (p. 2), 20 August (p. 3) 1837; 26 September 1838; 7 January 1841. Orson F. Whitney, History of Utah (Salt Lake City, 1904), 4:325–26.

[62] A copy of Mormonism Dissected in the LDS Church archives has Adrian Orr inscribed twice in a contemporary hand on the title page. Flake (6011) gives Adrian Van Brocklin [sic] Orr as the author, and the published catalogue of the Bancroft Library gives Adrian Van Bracklin Orr, 1809–1887[sic].

W. I. Appleby wrote, “Dr. 0 - , of Pennsylvania, the first great champion, . . . was called out to debate with Elder Barnes, and afterwards with Elder Davis; but soon retired from the field of battle, shorn of all his laurels, in disgrace and contempt; but like the country school master publishes his valedictory, and fires off his squib, in pamphlet form, as the last resource; but Elder Moses took the retiring hero’s own weapons, and whipped him so completely that he has never dared to attack Mormonism since.” Mormonism Consistent! (Wilmington, Del., 1843), 4. Elisha H. Davis’s obituary also mentions his debate with Dr. Orr. Deseret Evening News, 6 August 1898, 7.

The Missouri State Archives at Jefferson City has a letter from A. V. B. Orr, dated at Steeleville, Chester County, Pennsylvania, July 7, 1841, in which he asks Gov. Thomas Reynolds for information about the Mormons in Missouri, presumably to be used in an anti-Mormon expose.

Adrian Van Bracklin Orr, a physician, was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, February 12, 1809. At the time of the 1840 census, he resided in Christiana, New Castle County, Delaware, along with his wife and four children. Four years later he joined the Lancaster City and County Medical Society and appears to have lived in Lancaster County with his second wife, Maria Moffett, and their children from about that time until his death on May 17, 1880. In Lancaster he was known as a “star” debater. “St. James Episcopal Church, Lancaster, Pa. Register 1755–1829. vol. IT [Baptisms 1783–1829],” photocopy, Lancaster County Historical Society, Lancaster, Pa. 1840 Delaware census, Christiana, New Castle County, 219. 1860 Pennsylvania census, Lancaster, Lancaster County, 920 [Andrew V. Orr]; 1870 census, Ephrata, Lancaster County, 63. International Genealogical Index, UPB. Ancestral File, UPB. Franklin Ellis and Samuel Evans, History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1883), 268, 271. Historical Papers and Addresses of the Lancaster County Historical Society 1 (1896–97): 214; 2 (1897–98): 45–46.

[63] “Diary of Julian Moses, 1841–42,” 1–2, 5–6, 8, 14, US1C. “Autobiography of Julian Moses,” 43–48, US1C.

[64] John Alonzo Clark (1801–43) was born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, graduated from Union College in 1823, and was admitted to orders in the Episcopal Church three years later. After serving in New York City and Providence, he went to Philadelphia as rector of St. Andrew’s church in 1835, in which capacity he served until a few months before his death. In addition to Gleanings by the Way (1842), he wrote The Pastors Testimony (1835), Gathered Fragments (1836), A Walk About Zion (1836), and Glimpses of the Old World (1838). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, s.v. “Clark, John Alonzo.”

134

[65] “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register 10 Dec 1845–7 Feb 1846,” 55, UPB. Family Group Record of Charles Blanchard [Blancher] Thompson, microfilm 442,486, UPB. Death certificate of Charles B. Thompson, certified copy, UPB. History of the Church 3:92, 126, 254; 4:488; 6:336; 7:306. The Twelve Apostles (Kirtland? 1836?). Morgan, A Bibliography of the Churches of the Dispersion, 114–15, 147–57. Ancestral File, UPB.

[66] Times and Seasons 2:348–49, 371. Copyright Records, Northern District of New York, 1839–45, vol. 118, p. 67, in Harris, “Copyright Entries.”

[67] “Journal History,” 26 December 1841.

[68] See e.g., The Prophet, November-December 1844, January 1845.

[69] For a recent article on Stephens and Catherwood see Richard Preston, “America’s Egypt: John Lloyd Stephens and the Discovery of the Maya,” Princeton University Library Chronicle 53 (1992): 243–63.

135

[70] Millennial Star 1:287, 302; 2:127, 141–44; 3:29.

136–37

[71] “Erastus Snow Sketch Book,” 78.

[72] “Early Church Information File.” “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register,” 285. “Journal History,” 28 December 1838; 29 January, 29 November 1839; 15 April, 1 June 1844; 20 January 1848 (p. 10); 24 February 1856. 1850 Iowa census, Pottawattamie County, 94. J. R. Kearl, Clayne L. Pope, and Larry T Wimmer, comps., Index to the 1850, 1860 & 1870 Censuses of Utah Heads of Households (Baltimore, 1981), 321. Deseret News 23:177.

138

[73] “Journal History,” 28 May 1852, 3. Millennial Star 14:448. P. Pratt, Dialogue Between a Latter-day Saint and an Enquirer After Truth, 4. “Diary of Thomas Smith, 1845,” 1, US1C.

This Thomas Smith should not be confused with the Thomas Smith who presided over the Worcestershire and Norwich Conferences; see e.g., Millennial Star 5:167, 169–70, 172; 7:186, 192–96; 9:80, 160, 262–63, 315–16, 380; 10:149, 171–72, 252, 299, 380 (see item 332).

140

[74] James C. Bilderback, “Masonry and Mormonism: Nauvoo, Illinois—1841–1847” (master’s thesis, University of Iowa, 1937). Kenneth W. Godfrey, “Causes of Mormon non-Mormon Conflict in Hancock County, Illinois, 1839–1846” (Ph.D. diss., Brigham Young University, 1967), 73–89. Mervin B. Hogan, “The Explosive Rupture Between the Grand Lodge of Illinois and the Mormon Lodges of Illinois and Iowa in 1843,” typescript, UPB. M. B. Hogan, The Founding Minutes of Nauvoo Lodge (Des Moines, Iowa: Research Lodge No. 2, 1971). M. B. Hogan, The Involvement of Freemasonry with Mormonism on the American Midwestern Frontier (Salt Lake City, 1982). M. B. Hogan, The Official Minutes of Nauvoo Lodge (Des Moines, Iowa: Research Lodge No. 2, 1974). M. B. Hogan, Mormonism and Freemasonry: The Illinois Episode (Salt Lake City, 1980). Stanley B. Kimball, “Heber C. Kimball and Family, the Nauvoo Years,” BYU Studies 15 (1975): 456–59. Stanley B. Kimball, Heber C. Kimball: Mormon Patriarch and Pioneer (Urbana, III., 1981), 12–23, 83–85. John C. Reynolds, History of the M.W. Grand Lodge of Illinois, Ancient, Free, and Accepted Masons (Springfield, 111., 1869), 165–66, 172–75, 184, 192–94, 199–200, 202–3, 218–19, 232, 244. Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:158–59.

[75] Heber C. Kimball to Parley and Mrs. Pratt, 17 June 1842, quoted in Elden J. Watson, comp., The Orson Pratt Journals (Salt Lake City, 1975), 557–58.

[76] Hogan, The Founding Minutes of Nauvoo Lodge.

141

[77] Messenger and Advocate 2:233–37. History of the Church 2:348–50. John A. Wilson, et al., “The Joseph Smith Egyptian Papyri,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 3 (summer 1968): 67–105. [Photographs of the Joseph Smith Papyri] BYU Studies 8 (1968): 179ff. James R. Clark, “Joseph Smith and the Lebolo Egyptian Papyri,” BYU Studies 8 (1968): 195–203. Klaus Baer, “The Breathing Permit of Hor,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 3 (autumn 1968): 109ff. Hugh Nibley, “The Meaning of the Kirtland Egyptian Papers,” BYU Studies 11 (1971): 350–99. Edward H. Ashment, “The Facsimiles of the Book of Abraham: A Reappraisal,” Sunstone 4 (December 1979): 33–48. Hugh Nibley, “The Facsimiles of the Book of Abraham: A Response,” Sunstone 4 (December 1979): 49–51. H. Donl Peterson, “Antonio Lebolo: Excavator of the Book of Abraham,” BYU Studies 31 (summer 1991): 5–29. James B. Allen and Glen M. Leonard, The Story of the Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City, 1976), 67–68.

[78] History of the Church 4:519, 543.

[79] Ashment, “The Facsimiles of the Book of Abraham.” History of the Church 4:543.

[80] [Emma Smith’s Bill of Sale] BYU Studies 8 (1968): 179–81. Clark, “Joseph Smith and the Lebolo Egyptian Papyri,” 203.

[81] Remy, A Journey to Great Salt Lake City, 2:536–46. The first edition is Jules Remy, Voyage au Pays des Mormons, 2 vols. (Paris, 1860). Remy’s effort eventually produced a Mormon response by George Reynolds, The Book of Abraham (Salt Lake City, 1879).

[82] Spalding was replied to by J. E. Homans, alias R. C. Webb, in Joseph Smith as a Translator (Salt Lake City, 1936). See also R. C. Webb’s articles in The Improvement Era 16(1913): 435ff, 691 ff, 1075ff.

[83] See, e.g., note 1.

142

[84] James Linforth and Frederick Piercy, Route from Liverpool to Great Salt Lake Valley (Liverpool, 1855), 14, 120.

[85] History of the Church 4:286–87,400,402–4,409–10,412–13, 600. Millennial Star 26:72. Robert B. Flanders, Nauvoo: Kingdom on the Mississippi (Urbana, 111., 1965), 58 n. 2, 144–210. Dallin H. Oaks and Joseph I. Bentley, “Joseph Smith and Legal Process,” BYU Law Review (1976): 735–82.

[86] History of the Church 2:494–95, 528. “Early Church Information File.” Deseret Evening News, 20 December 1875, 3. Kate B. Carter, Heart Throbs of the West (Salt Lake City, 1950), 11:445.

[87] History of the Church 4:279, 483, 503–4, 568. Millennial Star 3:31–32; 4:148; 26:120. Andrew Jenson, Church Chronology (Salt Lake City, 1914), 21–22.

143

[88] “Journal History,” 11 April, 18 May, 11 September 1842; 9 February, 1 April, 18 June, 25 June, 29 July, 9–11 September 1843. Times and Seasons 3:778–79, 844–45; 4:31–32, 124–25, 205–7, 300–2. George A. Morison, History of Peterborough New Hampshire (Rindge, N.H., 1954), 1:187–88. Autobiography of Charles Henry Hales in Kenneth Glyn Hales, Windows: A Mormon Family (Tucson, 1985), 33. The RLDS Church’s “Early Reorganization Minutes” include a record of Maginn baptizing a man in Newport, Rhode Island, in November 1843.

[89] Times and Seasons 3:778–79.

144

[90] Times and Seasons 1:86–87, 92–95, 116–17; 2:482–83. History of the Church 4:105–10; 5:200. Sidney Rigdon, An Appeal to the American People, 2nd ed. (Cincinnati, 1840), iii–vi. “Diary of Joseph Fielding,” 105. For Page’s explanation of his failure to accompany Hyde, see Times and Seasons 3:761–62.

[91] Times and Seasons 4:163. Millennial Star 2:167, 189. In a letter to Joseph Smith of 13 March 1842, Parley Pratt remarked, “I am printing his [Orson Hyde’s] account of the mission to Jerusalem and will send a copy next week to be reprinted by you.” “Manuscript History of the British Mission,” 13 March 1842, US1C.

145

[92] Parley Pratt to Joseph Smith, 13 March 1842.

146

[93] Ira Ford McLeister, History of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of America (Syracuse, N.Y., 1934), 26–27, 31. Edward D. Jervcy, “LaRoy Sunderland: Zion’s Watchman,” Methodist History 6 (1968): 16–32. Douglas M. Strong, “Partners in Political Abolitionism: The Liberty Party and the Wesleyan Methodist Connection,” Methodist History 23 (1985): 99–115. Zion’s Herald, 22 April (p. 122), 3 June (p. 170) 1885. New York Christian Advocate, 28 May (p. 341), 4 June (pp. 357–58) 1885. L. Sunderland, Pathetism (Boston, 1847). L. Sunderland, Book of Human Nature (New York, 1853), 107, 424–25.

[94] The Prophet, 22 June-13 July 1844.

147

[95] New- York Messenger, 144.

148

[96] Times and Seasons 1:96, 106; 2:234, 453, 497; 3:585.

[97] Thomas Coke Sharp was born in New Jersey, September 25, 1818, attended Dickinson College, studied law in Pennsylvania, and was admitted to the Cumberland County Bar in April 1840. That year he moved to Hancock County, Illinois, and began practicing law in Warsaw. In November 1840 he and a partner bought the Warsaw Western World, and the following spring they changed its name to Warsaw Signal. Sharp was hard of hearing, which caused him to abandon his law practice after about a year, and at this point he bought out his partner’s interest in the paper. In 1842 he sold the Signal back to the original owner, started it up again in February 1844, and closed it in 1846 after the Mormons left Illinois. Sharp was one of five men tried, and acquitted, for the murder of Joseph Smith in May 1845 (see item 261). Beginning in 1853 he served three terms as mayor of Warsaw, was elected judge of Hancock County in 1865, and later became a school principal. He owned the Carthage Gazette at the time of his death in 1894. Dallin H. Oaks and Marvin S. Hill, Carthage Conspiracy: The Trial of the Accused Assassins of Joseph Smith (Urbana, 111., 1975), 56–58, 217–18. Thomas Gregg, History of Hancock County, Illinois (Chicago, 1880), 748–57. Portrait and Biographical Record of Hancock, McDonough and Henderson Counties Illinois (Chicago, 1894), 430–33. Biographical Review of Hancock County, Illinois (Chicago, 1907), 108–12. Millennial Star 56:349–50.

149

[98] In Wayne County, Illinois, in 1837, Bennett and several others obtained a charter from the Illinois legislature for an independent militia company called the “Invincible Dragoons,” which, like the Nauvoo Legion, also involved a court martial consisting of the commissioned officers with extensive law-making powers. James L. Kimball, Jr., “The Nauvoo Charter: A Reinterpretation,” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 64 (1971): 77. The city ordinance of February 3, 1841, is printed in the Times and Seasons, 15 February 1841.

[99] Hamilton Gardner, “The Nauvoo Legion, 1840–1845—A Unique Military Organization,” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 54 (1961): 181–97.

[100] Times and Seasons 3:790, 830. History of the Church 5:3–5, 12. The Wasp, 21 May 1842.

[101] A schedule for the military review on May 7 is given in The Wasp, 30 April 1842, and the event itself is reported in The Wasp, 14 May 1842.

150

[102] Times and Seasons 4:163.

151

[103] {.Millennial Star 2:190; 3:28–32, 143, 159; 26:88. History of the Church 4:413. L. D. Barnes to Elijah Malin, 9 January 1842, typescript, US1C.

[104] Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:276, 512–15.

153

[105] Times and Seasons 3:797–98, 844. Alexander Campbell, Delusions. An Analysis of the Book of Mormon . . . With Prefatory Remarks by Joshua V. Himes (Boston: Benjamin H. Greene, 1832).

For biographical sketches of Campbell and Himes, see Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. “Campbell, Alexander,” and “Himes, Joshua Vaughan.”

[106] Mormonism Portrayeaf was actually written by Thomas C. Sharp, which he acknowledged in the Warsaw Signal, 11 September 1844, 1: “This work was written by the editor of this paper, from materials furnished by Mr. Harris. Apart however, was ours entire; such as the Chapter on the Book of Mormon and the evidence of its truth, and also, the Chapter giving a history of the Mormons.”

William Harris, an apostate, was born in Fredericton, New Brunswick, January 19, 1803. By November 1834 he was an elder, and on May 2, 1836, he received a patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith, Sr., in Kirtland. Harris, Mormonism Portrayed, 25. “Early Church Information File.” Donald Q. Cannon and Lyndon W. Cook, eds., Far West Record (Salt Lake City, 1983), 99.

[107] History of the Trials of Elder John Hardy. “Journal History,” 11 September 1842; 9, 14 October 1844. Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:471–74. Messenger and Advocate (Rigdonite) 64, 80, 96, 112, 131–32, 393. Dale Morgan, A Bibliography of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints [Strangite] (Salt Lake City, 1951), 51.

154

[108] History of the Church 4:39, 172, 178, 205–6, 239–49. Times and Seasons 1:186; 2:264, 281–86. James L. Kimball, Jr., “A Wall to Defend Zion: The Nauvoo Charter,” BYU Studies 15 (1975): 491–97. Flanders, Nauvoo: Kingdom on the Mississippi, 92–114.

[109] History of the Church 4:249. Laws of the State of Illinois, Passed by the Twelfth General Assembly (Springfield, 111., 1841), 52–57.

[110] Reports Made to the Senate of the State of Illinois (Springfield, 111., 1842), 1:127–30. William Smith’s speech in the Illinois House of Representatives in opposition to the repeal of the charter is printed in The Wasp, 14 January 1843.

At the 1844–45 legislative session, the Illinois Senate voted 25 to 14 on December 19, 1844, to repeal the charter, and the House voted 75 to 31 in favor of the Senate bill on January 24, 1845. Five days later the bill was signed into law. Reports Made to the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Illinois (Springfield, 111., 1845), 1:139–40. Journal of the Senate of the Fourteenth General Assembly of the State of Illinois (Springfield, 111., 1844), 80–81, 224, 357. Journal of the House of Representatives, of the Fourteenth General Assembly of the State of Illinois (Springfield, 111., 1844), 276–77, 406–7. Laws of the State of Illinois, Passed by the Fourteenth General Assembly at Their Regular Session (Springfield, 111., 1845), 187–88.

[111] Kimball, “The Nauvoo Charter,” 66–78. Flanders, Nauvoo: Kingdom on the Mississippi, 92–114. Samuel A. Burgess, “The Nauvoo Charter,” Journal of History 9 (1916): 2–23.

[112] History of the Church 4:287–88; 5:11–13, 25. Times and Seasons 2:309, 316–19, 321–22.

155

[113] David J. Whittaker, “East of Nauvoo: Benjamin Winchester and the Early Mormon Church,” Journal of Mormon History 21 (fall 1995): 50–54. Millennial Star 26:119, 134. Times and Seasons 3:666–67, 798. History of the Church 4:442–43, 494; 5:8–9.

[114] Times and Seasons 3:862. Copyright Records, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, 16 November 1841–24 November 1844, vol. 270, no. 191, in Harris, “Copyright Entries.” Winchester deposited a copy with the district court on October 20, 1842.

[115] “Autobiography of Julian Moses,” 48, US1C.

[116] This ad appears on the back paper wrapper of Winchester’s History of the Priesthood. Millennial Star 4:112.

157

[117] History of the Church 5:11 ff. Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:179.

[118] These letters are in the Sangamo Journal, 8, 15, 22 July; 19 August; 2 September. Bennett’s book is reviewed in the Sangamo Journal, 11 November 1842.

[119] History of the Church 5:131–32, 136–39. Millennial Star 26:151.

[120] The rumor that Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, and H. C. Kimball had tried to persuade Martha Brotherton to accept polygamy was earlier denied at the April 6, 1842, conference in Nauvoo. Times and Seasons 3:763.

[121] Sidney Rigdon refuted Markham’s statement in Sangamo Journal, 23 September 1842.

[122] History of the Church 5:256. Millennial Star 26:151.

[123] Linda K. Newell and Valeen T. Avery, Mormon Enigma: Emma Hale Smith (Garden City, N.Y., 1984), 95–105, 130–56. Millennial Star 26:151, 167. History of the Church 5:253–56. Lawrence Foster, Religion and Sexuality: Three American Communal Experiments of the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1981).

[124] See e.g., “Erastus Snow Sketch Book,” 83, typescript, UPB. Times and Seasons 3:892.

[125] See e.g., Elden J. Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals (Salt Lake City, 1975), 495–97. Messenger and Advocate (Rigdonite), 401.

[126] History of the Church 4:169. James J. Tyler, John Cook Bennett, Colorful Freemason of the Early Nineteenth Century (Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Ohio, 1947). Dale Morgan, A Bibliography of the Churches of the Dispersion (Salt Lake City, 1953), 127–28. Morgan, A Bibliography of the Church [StrangiteJ, 40–41. Lyndon W. Cook, The Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City, 1985), 253.

158

[127] For a discussion of Crawford’s index, see Grant Underwood, “The Earliest Reference Guides to the Book of Mormon: Windows into the Past,” Journal of Mormon History 12 (1985): 69–89.

[128] “Erastus Snow Sketch Book,” 63. Times and Seasons 2:272, 486; 3:702, 830, 846.

159

[129] This same ad also appears in the next five issues of the Times and Seasons.

[130] “Joseph Smith and Others Trustees &c In Account with John Taylor,” Whitney MSS, UPB.

[131] History of the Church 4:468, 494. See e.g., p. 18, line 2 from the bottom; p. 33, line 7; p. 136, line 19; p. 159, line 27; p. 377, line 18; p. 568, line 12 from the bottom.

160

[132] History of the Church 4:123–24, 128–29.

[133] Times and Seasons 2:510, 544, 551–52.

[134] Times and Seasons 3:776.

[135] Hyde, Ein Rufaus der Wiiste, 107–8. Marvin H. Folsom states that the misspellings, inconsistencies, and grammatical errors, together with the many phrases and word choices clearly based on English usage, suggest that Hyde played a significant role in translating the work. Folsom, “The Language of Orson Hyde’s Ein Rufaus der Wiiste,’’’’ Proceedings of the Deseret Language and Linguistic Society, 13 March 1989, Provo, Utah. Hyde also acknowledges his limitations with the German language in Ein Rufaus der Wiiste, 114.

[136] Hyde, Ein Rufaus der Wiiste, 113–14. Millennial Star 3:96.

[137] Times and Seasons 3:949–51.

[138] Times and Seasons 2:551–52.

[139] An English translation of Ein Rufaus der Wiiste by Justus Ernst is at UPB and US1C. A translation of the part dealing with the birth of Mormonism by Marvin H. Folsom is in Dean C. Jessee, ed., The Papers of Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City, 1989), 1:405–25.

161

[140] “Erastus Snow Sketch Book,” 83–84.

162

[141] “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register 10 Dec 1845–7 Feb 1846,” 36, UPB. “Early Church Information File.” “Journal History,” 15 January 1833, 8 March 1835, 26 December 1841, 19 October 1842. Millennial Star 8:121; 9:230–31, 266; 10:54, 104; 12:259–60. History of the Church 2:66–68, 184, 204. Kate B. Carter, Our Pioneer Heritage (Salt Lake City, 1961), 4:483. International Genealogical Index, UPB. “Deaths,” Book 9, p. 371, San Bernardino County Archives, San Bernardino, Ca.

[142] Copyright Records, Southern District of New York, 1841—42, vol. 144, no. 481, in Harris, “Copyright Entries.” The Prophet, 22 June-13 July 1844.

163

[143] “Philadelphia Branch Records, 1842–50,” microfilm, US1C.

[144] History of the Church 5:288, 349. “Early Church Information File.” Morgan, A Bibliography of the Churches of the Dispersion, 180. Times and Seasons 5:742.

164

[145] Paul Alcock was born in 1791 and joined the Baptist church in Gloucestershire. In 1830 he became the Baptist pastor at Sandy Lane, near Devizes, Wilts, and in 1834 he transferred to Berwick St. John’s. He took charge of the church at Parley, Dorsetshire, in the neighborhood of Christchurch, Hants, in 1844 and moved to Christchurch in 1851, where he died February 5, 1854. A Manual of the Baptist Denomination for the Year 1854 (London, 1854), 45–46.

[146] Millennial Star 4:199–200; 5:76, 167, 172–73; 8:77; 9:30, 80, 282–85; 10:21–23, 267–68. Saints’ Herald 2:155; 4:79, 159; 5:1, 52–53, 93; 6:151–54; 7:141; 9:41–43; 11:42–44; 19:355–57; 30:335, 408. “Sacramento, Cal. Branch Report Dec. 31, 1871,” in “General Membership Ledger Books,” MoInRC. I am grateful to Patricia Struble for bringing these sources to my attention.

165

[147] See, e.g., John D. Lee, Mormonism Unveiled; or the Life and Confessions of the Late Mormon Bishop, John D. Lee, ed. W. W. Bishop (St. Louis, 1877), 146. Fawn M. Brodie, No Man Knows My History (New York, 1963), 298–99. Lawrence Foster, “A Little-Known Defense of Polygamy from the Mormon Press in 1842,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 9 (winter 1974): 21–34. Foster, Religion and Sexuality, 174–77. Kenneth W. Godfrey, “A New Look at the Alleged Little Known Discourse by Joseph Smith,” BYU Studies 9 (1968): 49–53.

David J. Whittaker has pointed out to me that in 1895 Joseph F. Smith discussed divorce with the First Presidency and Quorum of Twelve and referred to Udney Hay Jacob’s pamphlet. “Abraham H. Cannon Journal,” 10 October 1895, UPB.

The three other 1842 Nauvoo imprints bearing Joseph Smith’s name as printer or publisher are items 141, 154, 159.

[148] “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register,” 311. “The Life of Norton Jacob,” 2, 4–5, 19–20, 46, 153–57, 171–76, 178, typescript, UPB. Udney H. Jacob to Joseph Smith, 6 January 1844, as quoted in Godfrey, “A New Look at the Alleged Little Known Discourse,” 53. Salt Lake City Cemetery, Sexton’s Record.

[149] Udney H. Jacob to Martin Van Buren, 19 March 1840, photocopy, UPB.

[150] Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:191 -92.

[151] Oliver Olney, The Absurdities of Mormonism Portrayed (Hancock County, 111., 1843), 10; this tract is dated at the end, April 1, 1843.

[152] Lee, Mormonism Unveiled, 146.

[153] Dean C. Jessee, ed., “The John Taylor Nauvoo Journal,” BYU Studies 23 (summer 1983): 84.

[154] Udney H. Jacob to Brigham Young, 5 March 1851, as quoted in Godfrey, “A New Look at the Alleged Little Known Discourse,” 52–53.

[155] This explanation was given in 1850 by the British Church authorities when they condemned Paul Harrison for publishing an extract from The Peacemaker, which he attributed to Joseph Smith. In 1866 Harrison, the “Notorious Apostate, and Anti-Mormon lecturer,” was imprisoned for bigamy. Paul Harrison, An Extract of Grand Selections from a Manuscript Entitled the Peace Maker (Manchester, England, 1850). Millennial Star 12:92–93, 280–83; 28:793.

In May 1843, the Times and Seasons did more job printing for Jacob, at a cost of $2. “Joseph Smith, Trustee &c In Account with John Taylor,” Whitney MSS, UPB.

167

[156] “Early Church Information File.” “Journal History,” 2 January 1837 (p. 2); 6 February, 13 March, 20 July 1838; 29 November 1839 (p. 12); 10 April 1843; 15 April, 7 July 1844; 11 April 1848. “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register,” 62, 166. Milton V. Backman, Jr., A Profile of Latter-day Saints of Kirtland, Ohio and Members ofZions Camp 1830–1839 (Provo, Utah, 1982), 52.

168

[157] History of the Church 5:8, 86–87. Brodie, No Man Knows My History, 323–30.

[158] History of the Church 5:173–79, 205–6, 209–46, 252. Scott H. Faulring, ed., An American Prophet’s Record: The Diaries and Journals of Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City, 1987), 258–93. Times and Seasons 4:65–71. Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:212.

[159] History of the Church 5:246. Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 287–92.

[160] Michael Hicks, “Joseph Smith, W. W. Phelps, and the Poetic Paraphrase of ‘The Vision’,” Journal of Mormon History 20 (fall 1994): 68–69.

[161] History of the Church 4:20, 282, 287, 296; 6:341, 362. Lyndon W. Cook, “William Law, Nauvoo Dissenter,” BYU Studies 22 (1982): 47–72. Dean C. Jessee, ed., The Papers of Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City, 1992), 2:565.

169

[162] “Journal History,” 29 November 1841; 30 January, 6–12 April, 11 May 1842; 19 April, 2, 16 May, 30 July, 1,5, 17 August, 9, 11, 20 September, 30 October, 25 November 1843.

170

[163] “Journal History,” 18 March 1843, 1–2.

171

[164] Autobiographical Sketch of Belinda Marden Pratt, Salt Lake City, 17 February 1884, photocopies at UPB and US1C.

[165] History of the Church 5:322–23. “Journal History,” 1 April 1843. Dollar Weekly Bostonian, 9 July 1842. Wilford Woodruff’s Journal’ 2:285–86.

172

[166] James and Woodburn were printing the Millennial Star at this time. After March 15, 1846, James and Woodburn became R. James. The fifth edition was published in 1847.

[167] Thomas Ward and Hiram Clark to the First Presidency, 1 March 1843, in “Manuscript History of the British Mission,” USIC. The back wrapper of Letters by Oliver Cowdery to W. W. Phelps (Liverpool, England, 1844) also advertises the hymnal at 2s.

[168] Millennial Star 13:249.

[169] Millennial Star 1:49–51,70, 166–68, 296; 3:112, 124–25; 4:16,94, 108–9, 145–48, 159; 5:128; 7:8–9, 44; 16:363. Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:338–39. Juanita Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier: The Diary of Hosea Stout (Salt Lake City, 1964), 2:506. Donald R. Shaffer, “Hiram Clark and the First LDS Hawaiian Mission: A Reappraisal,” Journal of Mormon History 17 (1991): 94–109.

[170] “Early Church Information File.” Millennial Star 1:69–71, 166–68, 303, 311; 2:61, 96, 112, 144, 155, 176; 3:31, 192; 4:33, 175; 5:14, 28; 7:1; 8:30–31,43–44; 9:45, 231; 10:198. “Journal History,” 26 March 1845; 5, 7 August 1875. George D. Smith, ed., An Intimate Chronicle: The Journals of William Clayton (Salt Lake City, 1991), 129–31. “European Emigration Card Index 1849–1925,” microfilm, UPB. Deseret News 24:444. Deseret Evening News, 6 August (p. 3), 9 August (p. 3) 1875.

173–74

[171] Thomas Ward and Hiram Clark to the First Presidency, 1 March 1843, in “Manuscript History of the British Mission.”

[172] Richard L. Evans, A Century of “Mormonism” in Great Britain (Salt Lake City, 1937), 244.

175

[173] In a letter of August 16, 1842, James Arlington Bennet objected to the name of The Wasp and urged that “mildness should characterize everything that comes from Nauvoo; and even a name, as Peleg says in his ethics, has much influence on one side or the other.” History of the Church 5:114.

[174] The shop apparently had a second press by September 21, 1842. History of the Church 5:165. See also Brigham Young to Messrs. Babbitt, Heywood, and Fullmer, 27 September 1846, in “Journal History,” 28 September 1846, 1–2.

[175] The Neighbor, 8 January 1845, promised: “Having received a supply of paper for the Neighbor, we shall endeavor to make our weekly issue regularly hereafter.”

[176] See also St. Louis Daily New Era, 29 June 1846, in “Mormons in Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, Etc. News Clippings,” 8:325, UPB.

176

[177] “Biography and Journal of William I. Appleby,” 3, 39, USIC. Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:330–31. “Philadelphia Branch Records 1842–50,” microfilm, USIC. “Early Church Information File.” “Temple Index Bureau,” microfilm, UPB.

[178] “Biography and Journal,” 101–2. W. I. Appleby, Mormonism Consistent! (Wilmington, Del., 1843), 7–8.

177

[179] “Early Church Information File.” “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register,” 6. Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 2:684–85. Esshom, Pioneers and Prominent Men of Utah, 1083. “The Life and Travels of Noah Packard,” in Voices from the Past: Diaries, Journals, and Autobiographies (Provo, Utah, 1980). Springville City Cemetery Records.

[180] “The Life and Travels of Noah Packard,” 5–6. “Journal History,” 1 September, 28 October, 3 December 1843.

[181] Packard actually refers to Fleming’s tract as The Midnight Cry, which apparently was the cover title; see the preface of the 1842 edition. A Synopsis of the Evidences was published in three editions: Portland, Maine, 1840 (52+ pp.); Newark, New Jersey, 1841 (77 pp.); and Boston, 1842 (76 pp.). Packard’s references to the work make it clear that he was responding to the third edition; see, e.g., Political and Religious Detector, 23, 25, 27; A Synopsis of the Evidences, (2nd ed.) pp. 64, 58, and (3rd ed.) pp. 63–64, 57.1 am grateful to Jean Rainwater, Hay Library, Brown University, for checking the second edition for me.

For a biographical sketch of William Miller see Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. “Miller, William.”

Lorenzo D. Fleming (1808–67) was a minister in Portland, Maine, when he espoused the Adventist cause of William Miller about 1840. He was also an abolitionist and a temperance advocate. He edited the Millerite paper Glad Tidings, and in addition to A Synopsis of Evidences, he wrote New Testament Companion (1839) and First Principles of the Second Advent Faith (1844). Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (Washington, D.C., 1966), 409.

178

[182] History of the Church 5:379.

[183] The Gospel Light, 8. Millennial Star 26:231–32, 247–48, 262–64, 279–81, 294–96.

[184] History of the Church 6:81–82.

[185] History of the Church 6:369. “Journal History,” 1 March 1844, 3.

179

[186] Mervin B. Hogan, “The Erection and Dedication of the Nauvoo Masonic Temple,” typescript, UPB. History of the Church 5:446.

180–81

[187] Much nonsense has been written about the Kinderhook plates, on both sides of the issue. A good account is Stanley B. Kimball, “Kinderhook Plates Brought to Joseph Smith Appear to be a Nineteenth-Century Hoax,” Ensign, August 1981, 66–74.

[188] The Prophet, 24 August 1844, advertised the broadside at 60 each.

[189] History of the Church 5:372, under the date May 1, 1843, has Joseph Smith saying with regard to the Kinderhook plates, “I have translated a portion of them, and find they contain the history of the person with whom they were found. He was a descendant of Ham, through the loins of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and that he received his kingdom from the Ruler of heaven and earth.” But Kimball in “Kinderhook Plates Brought to Joseph Smith” points out that this was rewritten, in the first person, into the “History of Joseph Smith” by Leo Hawkins in 1855 from an entry in William Clayton’s journal; and Kimball further argues that Clayton was merely repeating rumors that were then circulating about Nauvoo. Joseph Smith’s journals, kept for him by Willard Richards, has only one reference to the Kinderhook plates: “Sunday, May 7th 1843 Forenoon visited by several gentlemen concerning the plates which were dug out [of] a mound near Qunig [Kinderhook, Pike County, Illinois]. Sent by W[illialm Smith to the office for Hebrew Bible and Lexicon.” The entry for May 1, 1843, reads in total, “Rode out (in the] forenoon and afternoon.” Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 375–76.

[190] Harris’s letter is printed in “A Hoax,” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 5(1912): 271–73; Fugate’s is printed in W. Wyl, Mormon Portraits (Salt Lake City, 1886), 207–8.

[191] Kimball, “Kinderhook Plates Brought to Joseph Smith,” 68–70.

182

[192] Fawn M. Brodie, No Man Knows My History (New York, 1963), 348ff. Donna Hill, Joseph Smith the First Mormon (New York, 1977), 324ff. History of the Church 5:422, 431, 435–36, 438–79. Evidence Taken on the Trial of Mr. Smith, 1–3, 38. Wm. Reese Co., Catalogue One Hundred Fifty-Four (New Haven, Ct., 1996), item 83.

For biographical sketches of Cyrus Walker, see Newton Bateman and Paul Selby, eds., Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois (Chicago, 1899), 547; or S. J. Clark, History of McDonough County Illinois (Springfield, 111., 1878), 306–11.

[193] History of the Church 5:484–85. Times and Seasons 4:240.

[194] History of the Church 5:493, 497, 511.

[195] History of the Church 5:511–13.

[196] George White Pitkin was born in Hartford, Vermont, May 17, 1801, joined the Church in May 1831, and served as sheriff of Portage County, Ohio. He and his family crossed the plains to Utah in 1848 and eventually settled in Cache Valley, where he died on November 26, 1873. Kate B. Carter, Our Pioneer Heritage (Salt Lake City, 1964), 7:252–55. “Biography of George White Pitkin,” microfilm, UPB. Susan Easton Black, Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 1830–1848 (Provo, Utah, 1989), 35:42–45.

[197] Thomas Ford, History of Illinois (Chicago, 1854), 319. For an account of the events surrounding the Mormons’ shift to Walker’s opponent, see History of the Church 5:526–27; and Brody, No Man Knows My History, 352–54.

183

[198] David J. Whittaker, “East of Nauvoo: Benjamin Winchester and the Early Mormon Church,” Journal of Mormon History 21 (fall 1995): 55–81. History of the Church 5:403, 409–12. Times and Seasons 3:862; 4:27–28; 5:670, 701.

[199] Copyright Records, Eastern District of Pennsylvania 1841–44, vol. 270, no. 32, in Roger W. Harris, “Copyright Entries Works by and About the Mormons, 1829–1870,” photocopy, UPB.

[200] Hedlock gave Winchester a note for the books he took to England, apparently in the amount of $300. Two years later this note was still unpaid, and it passed to Sam Brannan as part of the settlement of a slander suit between Winchester and William Smith. Samuel Brannan to Brigham Young, 22 July 1845; Brannan to Young, 29 August 1845; Brannan to Young, 31 October 1845; US1C. Whittaker, “East of Nauvoo,” 70–72.

[201] Millennial Star 4:112. The Prophet, 22 June-13 July 1844.

184

[202] “Philadelphia Branch Records, 1842–50.” Walter W. Smith, “History of Philadelphia Branch,” Journal of History 12(1919): 114–17.

185

[203] Anthony Gilby (c. 1510–85) received a B.A. from Christ’s College, Cambridge, in 1531–32, and an M.A. in 1535. A strong Puritan, he sought refuge in Geneva during the reign of Queen Mary and was pastor of the English Church there. He was one of the translators of the Geneva or Breeches Bible of 1560. John Venn and J. A. Venn, Alumni Cantahrigienses I (Cambridge, 1922), 2:215. A. S. Herbert, Historical Catalogue of Printed Editions of the English Bible (London and New York, 1968), 61.

[204] Millennial Star 1:69, 71, 301–4 ; 11:196. “Early Church Information File.”

[205] Millennial Star 4:35, 96; 8:68, 156; 9:22; 10:54; 53:576. Family Group Record of Samuel Downes, microfilm 598,967, UPB.

186

[206] History of the Trials of Elder John Hardy (Boston, 1844), 2. “Journal History,” 9 October 1844. Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:471–74.

[207] Helen Hanks Macare, “The Singing Saints: A Study of the Mormon Hymnal, 1835–1950” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1961), 281–86. See also “A Comprehensive List of Hymns Appearing in Official Hymnals of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1835–1950,” accompanying Macare’s dissertation.

[208] Macare, “The Singing Saints,” and “A Comprehensive List.”

187

[209] History of the Church 5:537–38; 6:4–8.

[210] History of the Church 6:62–63.

[211] Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 428. History of the Church 6:80.

[212] History of the Church 6:83. Millennial Star 26:311.

[213] History of the Church 6:88–95. Millennial Star 26:311.

[214] Faulring, An American Prophets Record, 429. History of the Church 6:95. Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:330. “Joseph Smith and Others Trustees &c In Account with John Taylor,” Whitney MSS, UPB.

[215] History of the Church 6:98–99. Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 2:329–30.

[216] Congressional Globe 13:497. Bullock’s docketed draft of this memorial is in the National Archives; microfilm 298 #20, UPB.

188

[217] History of the Church 6:99–110, 122–24, 145–48,212. Times and Seasons 4:375–76; 5:392–93. Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 431.

Avery was born in Oswego County, New York, July 1, 1797 or 1798. He lived in Far West in 1838, and in January 1840 he was ordained the president of the elders quorum in Montrose, Iowa. He worked as a carpenter on the Nauvoo Temple and participated in its ordinances, but subsequently was cut off from the Church, apparently because he had joined James J. Strang. Avery served on the Strangite high council at Voree for about two years, until he was dropped in June 1848 for “trying to bring the [Strangite] Church and its authorities into disrepute.” “Early Church Information File.” “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register,” 148. Donald Q. Cannon and Lyndon W. Cook, eds., Far West Record (Salt Lake City, 1983), 188, 196. History of the Church 4:54; 7:326. John J. Hajicek, ed., Chronicles of Voree 1844–1849 (Burlington, Wise, 1992), 95, 98, 105, 122, 143, 147, 151, 166.

[218] History of the Church 6:107, 124–32, 262. Millennial Star 27:88–89.

189

[219] Mormonism Consistent!, 2–12. Wickersham, An Examination of the Principles of Mormonism, 3–4, 6–7. “Biography and Journal of William I. Appleby,” 102–6, US1C. The issue of the Delaware Republican containing Appleby’s article is not located; a single copy of Wickersham’s pamphlet is located, at UPB.

William Wharton, “of Philadelphia,” was called to labor as a missionary in Wilmington in April 1843. After the death of Joseph Smith, he followed Sidney Rigdon for a time. History of the Church 5:347–48. Messenger and Advocate (Rigdonite), 64, 80, 96, 112, 168.

[220] “Biography and Journal of William I. Appleby,” 107, 110–11, 113–14.

Amos H. Wickersham was born in Pennsylvania about 1806. He was register of wills in New Castle County, Delaware, December 1847-February 1854, and chairman of the town council of New Castle township in 1851. He died in New Castle, October 6, 1854. 1840 Delaware census, New Castle County, 132; 1850 census, New Castle County, 287. J. Thomas Scharf, History of Delaware (Philadelphia, 1888), 2:621. God With Us: A Continuing Presence and the Vital Records Taken from the Parish Registers of Immanuel Church, New Castle, Delaware (N.p., 1986), 130. George A. Talley, A History of the Talley Family on the Delaware and their Descendants (Philadelphia, 1899), 89–90. A. H. Wickersham, “Petition for Town of New Castle,” 15 January 1851, Delaware Historical Society, Wilmington.

191–92

[221] Defence of Elder William Smith.

[222] Messenger and Advocate (Rigdonite), 168.

193

[223] History of the Church 4:179,231.

[224] Deseret News 5:325. “Journal History,” 19 October 1842, 4 September 1844, 29 November 1855. History of the Church 5:153, 155, 162, 164–65. The Prophet, 29 June, 7 September, 5 October, 2 November 1844. “Biography and Journal of William I. Appleby,” 168. Millennial Star 9:275. W. I. Appleby, Circular to the Church of Christ of Latter-day Saints, in the East (Philadelphia, 1847), 6. M. Sirrine, Circular to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in the East (New York? 1847?). Gospel Herald, 6 September 1849, 116. George C. Groce and David H. Wallace, The New-York Historical Society’s Dictionary of Artists in America 1564–1860 (New Haven, Ct., 1957), 544. National Academy of Design Exhibition Record 1826–1860 (New York, 1943), 2:100.

The David Rogers issue is complicated by the presence of a third David Rogers, son of Noah Rogers, born May 24, 1828, who came to Utah in 1849 and died in St. George in 1903.

[225] History of the Church 5:410–12,417,453; 6:2. Times and Seasons 4:218; 5:387–88. Millennial Star 5:7.

197

[226] Compare, for example, the footnote in Letter III, the last paragraph in Letter III, the first sentence and second paragraph of Letter IV, the first two paragraphs in Letter V, the first four paragraphs of Letter VI, and the first six paragraphs of Letter VII.

[227] Millennial Star 8:144. “European Mission Financial Records,” vol. 6 (1846–49), US1C.

[228] In the Times and Seasons, Letter III has thirteenth in place of 15th, while Letter IV is reprinted as in the Messenger and Advocate.

[229] Larry C. Porter, “Reverend George Lane—Good ‘Gifts,’ Much ‘Grace,’ and Marked ‘Usefulness’,” BYU Studies 9 (1969): 321–40. Wesley P. Walters and Richard Bushman, “Roundtable: The Question of the Palmyra Revival,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 4 (spring 1969): 59–100.

[230] Marvin S. Hill, “Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties,” BYU Studies 12 (1972): 223–33. Wesley P. Walters, “Joseph Smith’s Bainbridge, N.Y, Court Trials,” The Westminster Theological Journal 36 (1974): 123–55. Gordon A. Madsen, “Joseph Smith’s 1826 Trial: The Legal Setting,” BYU Studies 30 (spring 1990): 91–108.

198

[231] History of the Church 4:593, 600–1; 5:112–14, 156–59, 162–64, 170–72, 556; 6:71–78, 230–33, 244; 7:429, 483, 488, 528. Millennial Star 26:281.

James Arlington Bennet (1788–1865) was actually born in New York. Lyndon W. Cook, “James Arlington Bennet and the Mormons,” BYU Studies 19 (1979): 247–49. Dean C. Jessee, ed., The Papers of Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City, 1992), 2:525.

[232] Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 426–27’.

[233] Millennial Star 9:208.

199

[234] For a biographical sketch of John Wentworth see Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. “Wentworth, John.” Sketches of Wentworth and George Barstow are in Jessee, The Papers of Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City, 1989), 1:427–29. Barstow’s History of New Hampshire came out in two editions: Concord, 1842; and Boston, 1853. The note in the Times and Seasons gives Barstow’s name as Bastow.

[235] Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 436.

[236] For a biographical sketch of J. B. Turner, author of Mormonism in All Ages, see Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. “Turner, Jonathan Baldwin.”

200

[237] History of the Church 6:362.