Peter Crawley, A Descriptive Bibliography of the Mormon Church,1848–1852 (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, 1997), 1:339–74.
16 pp. 19 cm. Flake 4472. Dennis 4.
CSmH, UPB, US1C, WsCS, WsN.
[i–ii]–448 pp. 15 cm.
The 1846 Doctrine and Covenants was reprinted from the stereotype plates of the 1844 edition (item 236) and is largely identical to it and the 1845 Nauvoo impression (item 270). The title page is again reset, as are certain other pages which differ from both the 1844 and 1845 settings: pp. 363,414,416–19,424–32. Indeed, unlike the 1844 and 1845 impressions, the heading Section CIV is omitted on p. 414, and the phrase and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven is omitted from the second paragraph of p. 424. Exactly when it was printed or what the size of the impression was is not known. One might guess it was printed after the Saints began evacuating Nauvoo in February 1846 and before the violence broke out there in September. It is usually found in plain or striated brown sheep with double gilt bands and the title in gilt on the backstrip.
On September 27, 1846, Brigham Young wrote to Almon W. Babbitt, Joseph Heywood, and John S. Fullmer, who had been charged with disposing of Mormon properties in Nauvoo, to send him the two printing presses and equipment, along with the stereotype plates for the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants. Babbitt, Heywood, and Fullmer wrote back on November 6 that the two sets of stereotype plates had been packed in boxes. Five months later Young urged Babbitt and his associates to keep a “watchful eye” on the plates. But what eventually happened to them is not known. Neither set was used after 1846, and the Doctrine and Covenants was not published again in America by the LDS Church until 1876.
Flake 2864. CtY, DLC, ICN, MH, MBAt, MoInRC, NjP, UHi, ULA, UPB, US1C, UU, WHi.
Broadside 25.5 x 20.5 cm. Text in two columns.
The Yale copy of this broadside and one at the LDS Church are on single sheets (25.3 x 40.6 cm.) folded to make four unnumbered pages with the text on the first page. The third page of the Yale copy bears a signed note in Orson Hyde’s hand to “Brother Sanger” which begins, “I send you a communication which is original & given through me. I would be glad that you would send it to the Norwegian brethren after you have read it”; the fourth page has Sanger’s address at Ottawa, Illinois, with a Nauvoo postmark dated March 18. The LDS Church’s copy contains a long letter from Hyde to Brigham Young, dated March 16, 1846, in which Hyde remarks, “If I have done wrong in publishing it [the broadside], I will receive whatever correction or chastisement you may think me worthy of when we meet.”
Thomas Bullock, Isaac C. Haight, and Samuel W. Richards report in their diaries that Hyde preached at the temple on Sunday, March 15, and distributed copies of his broadside. Jesse C. Little reprinted the broadside in his Circular of April 6, 1846 (next item), the Voree Herald commented on it in its issue for April 1846, and Thomas Ward reprinted it in the Millennial Star of May 15, along with a letter from Hyde which acknowledged that the revelation was “through” him.
He That Hath Ears to Hear marks another episode in Hyde’s ongoing contention with the Mormon schisms (see items 263–64). Written in the style of a revelation from God, it opens with Hyde’s introduction, “In my meditations, this morning, the Spirit of the Lord came upon me, and I was moved to write.” The main point is made midway through the second paragraph: “Behold James J. Strang hath cursed my people by his own spirit and not by mine. Never, at any time, have I appointed that wicked man to lead my people, neither by my own voice, nor by the voice of my servant Joseph Smith, neither by the voice of mine angel.” In the fourth paragraph the Saints are urged to “gather up with all consistent speed and remove westward . . . according to the counsel of my servants, the Twelve whom I have chosen, and who have abode in me.”
During the month preceding He That Hath Ears to Hear, James Strang was much discussed in Nauvoo. In mid-February, Reuben Miller published the first pamphlet in Strang’s defense (see item 311). On the 22nd, Brigham Young devoted his sermon at the Sunday worship service to a denunciation of Strang’s teachings. But a week later, a former apostle John E. Page began publicly to advocate “the Principles of Strangism.” The next Sunday, March 8, Hyde himself spoke on the authority of the Twelve and the fallaciousness of Strang’s claim to the leadership of the Church.
James Jesse Strang was born in New York in 1813. In the fall of 1843 he moved to southern Wisconsin, and in February 1844 he was baptized into the Church in Nauvoo. Soon after the murder of Joseph Smith, Strang produced a letter purportedly written by Smith nine days before his death, which, in effect, named him Joseph Smith’s successor. That August he went to Florence, Michigan, and presented this letter to Crandall Dunn, the presiding elder there, who branded it a forgery and excommunicated him (see item 310). But Strang continued to press his claims, and in the course of the following year he succeeded in gathering a following at Voree, Wisconsin. In January 1846 he issued the first number of a paper promoting his cause, the Voree Herald. Four and a half years later he moved his church’s headquarters to Beaver Island in Lake Michigan, and in 1856 he was murdered by an apostate. Nevertheless a core of his followers endured, and today his adherents number several hundred.
Flake 4166–67. CtY, US1C, UU.
8 pp. 22 cm.
At the end of January 1846, Brigham Young called Jesse C. Little to preside over the Church in the eastern states, to replace Sam Brannan, who was about to sail for San Francisco (see item 297). Two months later, on the anniversary of the founding of the Church, Little issued his first circular to the eastern branches.
Circular opens with Little’s epistle, which is signed and dated at the end, Peterborough, N.H., April 6, 1846. At several points he emphasizes that he is the presiding elder in the East, responsible only to the Twelve, and all Church business, particularly that pertaining to the move west, is to be done under his authorization. He mentions that he hopes to get some assistance for the emigration from the federal government—perhaps a grant or a loan of $50,000, and he plans to visit Washington D.C. in the summer. He urges the rich to assist the poor in going west. On September 1, he writes, he intends to sail with a company of Saints to San Francisco and then proceed to the “valley of the Sacramento,” where they will meet other Mormon immigrants. He then announces that conferences will be held in Peterborough, May 2; in Boston, May 6; in New York, May 9–10; and in Philadelphia, May 13. After these conferences, he promises, he will issue a second circular (item 306).
Following Little’s epistle is Brigham Young’s letter of January 26, 1846, appointing him to preside in the East. This letter also urges him to follow Brannan by sea to San Francisco and to seek help for the move from the federal government. Brigham Young’s letter is followed by one from Wilford Woodruff, dated at Farmington, Connecticut, March 21, 1846, which sustains Little’s appointment. Circular then concludes with Orson Hyde’s He That Hath Ears to Hear (preceding item).
One might guess that Little stressed his authority and reprinted He That Hath Ears to Hear because of the competing claims to the leadership of the Church then being promoted throughout the eastern states by Sidney Rigdon and James J. Strang (see items 240, 242, 303). In his third circular (item 313), issued seven months later, he remarked that “Rigdomism is dead—and Strangism will die,” an implicit acknowledgement that Strang was having some successes in the eastern branches (see item 310).
Nineteen days after Little issued his circular, a company of American dragoons skirmished with Mexican cavalry in the disputed territory just east of the Rio Grande, and on May 12 the U.S. Congress passed a resolution of war with Mexico. War would grant the Latter-day Saints the funds Little hoped for in his epistle of April 6 (see item 306).
Flake 4953. CHi.
No copy of item 305 is located. One learns of it from Candland’s autobiographical sketch in Gems for the Young Folks (Salt Lake City, 1881), p. 39: “Placards announced my coming—the first from the temple at Nauvoo. Sunday found me in the pulpit, with a vast host assembled.” Candland arrived in England in April 1846. On Sunday, April 19, he preached three times in Liverpool and “the hearts of the Saints were much rejoiced.” The Millennial Star included four articles by him in its issue of May 1.
Born in Middlesex, England, October 15, 1819, David Candland converted to Mormonism in 1841 and immigrated to Nauvoo the following year. In January 1846, just before he left for England, he was adopted into the family of Heber C. Kimball, and during his mission used the name David C. Kimball. He served as president of the Manchester Conference and frequently contributed to the Star. Returning to America in April 1847, he settled at Winter Quarters and in 1852 made the trek to Utah, where he was an officer in the territorial militia, a territorial legislator, county assessor and collector, and justice of the peace. He died in Mt. Pleasant, Utah, March II, 1902.
8 pp. 24 cm.
Jesse C. Little remained in Philadelphia from the time of the conference there on May 13–14 until he left for Washington on May 20. He reports that on May 16 he “bargained for the printing” of Circular the Second, so it seems clear that he had it printed in Philadelphia. This is consistent with its typography, which differs from that of the first and third circulars.
Most of Circular the Second reports resolutions passed at each of the four conferences Little called in his first circular (item 304), at Peterborough, May 2–3; Boston, May 6; New York, May 9–10; and Philadelphia, May 13–14. In each case these resolutions sustain the Twelve as the leaders of the Church and Little as the presiding authority in the East, and dedicate the time and means of those in the eastern branches to the move west. No doubt he called this series of conferences to unite the Saints in the eastern states behind the Twelve and to commit them to join the main body of the Church, which then was scattered across Iowa.
In his epistle “To the Saints Scattered Abroad in the Eastern Lands” which follows the resolutions, Little calls W. I. Appleby to assist him, and he assigns certain elders to local positions of leadership. He remarks that he will visit Washington in a few days to try to get some assistance from the federal government for the move west (see item 304). He mentions the war with Mexico and urges the Saints to express only loyalty to the United States: “our persecutions have come from mobs, and not from the general Government, and, at present as far as we can learn it feels disposed to sympathize and succour us.” Referring to his plan to sail to San Francisco in September (see item 304), he requests those with means to send what funds they can as soon as possible so that he can charter a ship, and he asks those who are unable to pay the passage to send in their names so he will know how much assistance they will require. In a postscript he promises further circulars (see item 313). Circular the Second ends with a report from Addison Pratt and B. F. Grouard of their proselytizing success in Tahiti and a note that 1,570 had been baptized in the British Isles from April to December 1845.
Little left for Washington on May 20, armed with letters of introduction to various members of the Polk administration, one from Thomas L. Kane, whom he met at the conference in Philadelphia. Two days later, in Washington, he called on Amos Kendall, a former postmaster general, and that evening he was introduced to President Polk. The next day he talked about the Mormon emigration with Kendall, who thought that there might be some chance of enlisting one thousand Mormon men into the U.S. army and marching them to California, and on the 26th he learned that Kendall had presented this idea to Polk. During the next five days, however, Little received no word from the president; so on June 1 he sent him a long letter in which he asked for assistance to move the Saints west and declared that should help not come from the United States he was determined to get it from some other country. Polk met with his cabinet on June 2 and authorized Col. Stephen W. Kearny, who was to lead the expedition to California, “to receive into service as volunteers a few hundred of the Mormons who are now on their way to California, with a view to conciliate them, attach them to our country, & prevent them from taking part against us.” The following day the secretary of war issued an order to Kearny to muster into service a number of the Mormons not to exceed one-third of his force, to be paid as other volunteers and allowed to choose their own officers. Little tarried in Washington until June 9 and then headed for the Mormon camps in Iowa, reaching them four weeks later, in time to reassure the Saints that the call for volunteers then being made by Capt. James Allen was legitimate. On July 21, in company with the departing Mormon Battalion, he left Council Bluffs for the eastern states, to resume his duties as presiding elder. It has been estimated that the pay and allowances of the Battalion, much of which was sent back to the Church leaders, totaled more than the $50,000 Little had hoped to get from the federal government (see item 304).
Flake 4955. CHi, UPB, US1C.
3 v. (30 nos. in 580 pp.) 16 cm. Printed wrappers for the first six nos.
Flake 6773. Dennis 5. CSmH[v. 1], CU-B, MH, NjP, UPB, US1C, WsN.
3 nos. 4–8–16 pp. 21.5 cm.
David Candland introduced the Fireside Visitor in the Millennial Star of August 1, 1846. Here he advertised the first number at one penny each, and remarked that if it was favorably received, he intended to publish “seven or more . . . till every principle embraced and believed by myself and friends, is placed before the people at their firesides.” The Star advertised the second number two weeks later, and the third on October 1. This October 1 ad also mentioned that the first two numbers were being reprinted and would be available in a few days. Indeed each of the first two numbers occurs in two distinct—although virtually identical—editions. For No. 1: edition (a) includes the sentence on p. 4 beginning Farewell kind readers inside a longer last paragraph, while edition (b) begins the last paragraph with this sentence. And for No. 2: edition (a) has glad as the final word in the third line of p. 8, while edition (b) has made as the final word in this line. Moreover, at the end of the first number, edition (a) gives the price as “one penny, or six shillings per hundred”—consistent with the advertisement in the Star of August 1, 1846, while edition (b) gives “Price one halfpenny, or four shillings per hundred”—the same price as in both editions of the second number. It would seem, therefore, that edition (a) of the first number preceded edition (b). Which edition of the second number is the earlier is not known.
It is reasonably certain that Candland got out only three numbers. Thomas D. Brown reported in the Star of February 1, 1847, that he had “some hundreds” of the three numbers to sell in order to settle the printer’s bill. The catalogue of books in the Star of July 1, 1847—issued after Candland left England—lists just the three numbers, the first two at Vkl. each or 4s. per hundred, the third at Id. or 7s. The European Mission financial records also mention only three numbers. On October 3, 1846, Orson Hyde and John Taylor arrived in Liverpool to investigate the Joint Stock Company (see item 273). Since Candland was slightly involved in promoting the company, its collapse undoubtedly diverted his attention from the Fireside Visitor.
Each number of the Fireside Visitor is signed at the end David C. Kimball, the name Candland adopted during his mission (see item 306). The first two numbers are in four pages, and the third is in eight, the three continuously paged. Each is numbered on the first page at the lower left, and each bears a separate subtitle descriptive of the topic it treats: “On the Necessity of Baptism as a Means of Salvation,” “On the Departure from the True Order of the Kingdom Foretold,” and “The Restoration of the Kingdom.” Candland’s treatment of the first topic is nearly identical with that in the third chapter of the Voice of Warning. The second number marshalls New Testament proof-texts which, Candland declares, predict that Christ’s church would slip into apostasy after his death. Almost all of these are included in Benjamin Winchester’s Synopsis of the Holy Scriptures (item 155) under the headings “Apostacy From the True Order of the Gospel Foretold” and “False Prophets,” and in Moses Martin’s Treatise on the Fulness of the Everlasting Gospel, p. 33 (item 162). In the third number Candland cites passages from the Bible to support the contention that the ancient gospel must necessarily be restored by God to man, a concept more forcefully argued in the second chapter of Voice of Warning and in Treatise on the Fulness of the Everlasting Gospel, pp. 33–41. But Candland’s idea of issuing a series of tracts each defending a particular tenet of Mormonism was a good one, which would be borrowed by Orson Spencer with his Letters (items 334–35) and by Orson Pratt with his 1856–57 series of pamphlets—two of the Church’s most influential works.
Flake 1132. CtY[a, a], MH[b, b], ULA[b, b], UPB[b, b], USIC[a, a; b, b], UU[a, a].
12 pp. 17 cm.
This tract argues, in the traditional Mormon way, that entrance into the kingdom of God requires baptism for the remission of sins and the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands by someone commissioned by revelation to perform these ordinances. Nowhere are the Latter-day Saints mentioned until the last sentence, which makes reference to the Book of Mormon and “the Gathering of the Saints in the Last Days.” Ward had published the text as the lead article in the Millennial Star of August 1, 1845. Perhaps the circulation of the Fireside Visitor (item 308) prompted him to reprint his article in pamphlet form. The version in the tract is identical to that in the Star except for a handful of trivial changes in punctuation.
A Voice of Warning was advertised as “just published” in the Star of September 1, 1846, a month before Ward was dropped from the presidency of the British Mission and six months before he died (see items 70–71, 273). The following July the Star advertised it again, at the same price, Id. each or 7s. per hundred—the price printed on p. 12 of the pamphlet.
Flake 9594. CU-B, UPB, US1C.
No copy located. Dunn’s letter, Appleby’s and Taylor’s statements, and two brief letters exchanged between James J. Strang and Orson Hyde and Taylor are reprinted in the Millennial Star of October 15, 1846, with the note,
The following is the copy of a letter written by elder Dunn, then in New York, to elder Appleby, of Philadelphia, who published the same in a circular with some appropriate remarks of his own, together with a brief statement from elder Taylor.
Appleby was the presiding elder in Philadelphia and the assistant to Jesse C. Little, who presided over the Church in the eastern United States (see items 306, 325). As Dunn alludes in his letter to the converts that Strang had made in the Philadelphia branch, Appleby obviously issued this circular to counter the Strangite incursion.
Crandall Dunn was born in Phelps, New York, ten miles southeast of Palmyra, August 11, 1817. He converted to Mormonism in Michigan in 1840, moved to Hancock County soon after, and in 1841 began to labor as a missionary in Michigan. In September 1846 he and his wife arrived in the British Isles, where they served for the next four years with Dunn presiding over the Sheffield and Edinburgh conferences. They returned to the United States in 1851 and a year later made the overland trip to Utah, where Dunn lived until his death, December 27, 1898.
In his letter, dated at New York, August 4, 1846, Dunn says that he was the presiding elder in western Michigan when James J. Strang presented his claims to him at Florence, Michigan, August 5, 1844 (see item 303). Strang produced a letter purportedly written by Joseph Smith nine days before his death and mailed from Nauvoo, which, in effect, named Strang his successor. Dunn examined the letter and believed it to be inconsistent with the Doctrine and Covenants. He questioned Strang about the nature of his ordination and found that he had not received one and was not anticipating any. He further accused Strang of forging the Nauvoo postmark since it was printed in a different color ink with a different size type from those on three Nauvoo letters he had in his possession. Convinced Strang was a fraud, Dunn cut him off from the Church and sent a summary of the proceedings to the Twelve at Nauvoo.
Appleby remarks that John C. Bennett was now promoting Strang as Joseph Smith’s successor (see items 156–57). Bennett claimed in his book The History of the Saints; or, an Expose of Joe Smith and Mormonism that he had joined the Mormons only to expose them, Appleby writes, and yet after Joseph Smith’s death, he took up with Sidney Rigdon and presented to the world a private “revelation” supposedly handed to him by Joseph Smith which named Rigdon the heir to the leadership of the Church (see items 240, 242). Despite this “revelation,” Bennett broke with Rigdon and joined Strang. Concludes Appleby, “birds of a feather will flock together.”
John Taylor asserts in his note, dated at Philadelphia, August 29, 1846, that he was with Joseph Smith nearly every moment when he was supposed to have written the letter to Strang, and he knows that Smith wrote no such letter. Following this note, the Star reprints a letter from Strang to Orson Hyde and John Taylor, dated at Philadelphia, August 30, 1846, challenging them to a public debate, together with Hyde’s and Taylor’s curt refusal. It is not clear whether this exchange was included in Appleby’s circular. The letters may have been added in the Star by Hyde and Taylor, who had just arrived in England (see item 312).
[i–ii]–26 pp. 19 cm.
Born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, September 4, 1811, Reuben Miller converted to Mormonism in January 1843, and in October 1844 was called to be the bishop in Norway, La Salle County, Illinois. In the spring of 1845 he moved his family to Nauvoo, and that October Brigham Young asked him to lead a company west. Miller actually made the overland trek to Utah in 1849. Settling in Mill Creek, he served there as the bishop and as county commissioner for more than thirty years, until his death in 1882.
Miller’s association with James J. Strang was brief and tumultuous (see items 303, 310). He first met him on January 6, 1846, at St. Charles, while he was traveling about northeastern Illinois organizing his company to go west. The next day, for four hours, he listened to Strang present his position, and he questioned him in detail about his claim that an angel appeared to him on the day of Joseph Smith’s assassination and charged him as Joseph’s successor. Miller then returned to Nauvoo, and after consulting for a week with the Twelve about their authority to lead the Church, he began to publicly lecture on Strang’s behalf. In February, at Keokuk, he published the first Strangite pamphlet, A Defence of the Claims of James J. Strang to the Authority Now Usurped by the Twelve. Two months later, at the Strangite conference in Voree, Wisconsin, he was appointed the president of the Voree stake. But about two weeks after the conference Miller learned that Strang had written an account of his angelic visitation which appeared to differ from the one he had related in January, and at this point he began to doubt the validity of Strang’s claims. In June he withdrew from the Strangite church, and in September he drafted James J. Strang Weighed in the Balance of Truth. The following month he was rebaptized into the Church at Nauvoo.
The first five pages of James J. Strang Weighed in the Balance of Truth give Miller’s account of his acceptance and subsequent rejection of Strang’s teachings, followed by a long refutation of Strang’s claim to be Joseph Smith’s successor. It asserts that Strang had secretly begun to organize “the kingdom” with 144 officers including himself as “Imperial Primate, Absolute Sovereign” and John C. Bennett as “Primier, Prime Minister, General-in-Chief, and Successor to J. J. Strang.” A note at the end gives Miller’s address at Burlington, Wisconsin, and the price of the pamphlet, “75 cents per Dozen; 10 cents single copy.”
James J. Strang Weighed in the Balance of Truth was undoubtedly printed late in September or early in October. The Chicago Democrat, for example, received a copy by October 9, and the Voree Herald took notice of it in its October issue. The pamphlet mentions John C. Bennett a number of times (see items 156–57), so it is not surprising that Bennett commented upon it in a letter to the editor in Zion’s Reveille of November 1846. Zion’s Reveille ran a long response in its issues of January 14 and February 4, 1847, and replied to it again and to Miller’s second tract (item 323) on March 25. The Gospel Herald discussed it yet again on October 14—a measure of the pamphlet’s impact on the Strangite congregations. On January 12, 1847, for instance, Lester Brooks wrote to James M. Adams, “when I got to New york I found the Branch in most stupid condition they have a pamphlet written by Ruben Miller against Brother St[r]ang they are inclined to think there is something quite wrong.”
Flake 5406. CtY, UPB, US1C.
Broadside 20.5 x 13 cm. On blue paper.
Orson Hyde’s and John Taylor’s Circular is the final piece dealing with the British and American Commercial Joint Stock Company (see items 273, 299). Issued the day they reached Liverpool, it calls for a general conference in Manchester on Saturday, October 17, and it advises the Saints to invest “no more for the present” in the Joint Stock Company, “an Institution wholy independent of the Church.” The Millennial Star for October 15, 1846, reprints the circular, with the change of one word and a number of changes in punctuation and capitalization.
Flake 4165a. UPB, US1C.
8 pp. 22 cm.
Jesse C. Little issued his third, and last, circular to the eastern Saints on November 12, 1846 (see items 304, 306). In it he announces that the plan to sail to San Francisco had been abandoned because of the expense, that the Saints should prepare to move to the west by land next spring, and that he plans to lead a company “over the mountains,” to start in March so they will reach Council Bluffs by the first of May. The running parts of the wagons, he advises, can be gotten in St. Louis, shipped to Council Bluffs, and assembled there, for a cost of $50 to $60, plus shipping costs of $4 to $5. He then inserts “Bill of Particulars for Emigrants leaving this Government Next Spring,” which is a modification of the outfit for a family of five recommended to the Council of Fifty in October 1845 (see item 288). The Twelve, Little continues, will furnish teams for the eastern Saints once they reach Council Bluffs. In the last paragraph he remarks that he expects a company of one to two thousand to be gathered at St. Louis by the first of April, ready to start for Council Bluffs.
Three days after Little drafted his circular, Brigham Young and the Twelve wrote to him to come to the Iowa camps early in the spring and join the pioneer company which would make the overland trip to the Rocky Mountains, and they suggested that he call W. I. Appleby to replace him as the presiding elder in the East (see item 325). Two months later Little called Appleby to succeed him, and on April 19, 1847, he reached Winter Quarters, in time to join the pioneer trek to the Great Salt Lake Valley.
Flake 4954. UPB, US1C.
viii–56 pp. 10.5 cm.
Flake 1870b. Dennis 7. UPB [incomplete].
Broadside? Not located.
The title comes from an excerpt of a journal of Lucius N. Scovil in the “Manuscript History of the British Mission.”
Orson Hyde, John Taylor, and Parley Pratt had come to England in October 1846 to deal with the British and American Commercial Joint Stock Company fiasco (see items 273, 299, 312). Pratt traveled to Sheffield on Friday, November 20, and Taylor arrived there the following evening. Scovil, the presiding elder in Sheffield, had rented the music hall for five guineas and had advertised their visit with handbills which apparently included the text given as the title of item 315. On Sunday, November 22, the three preached in the music hall to about twenty-five hundred, and in the evening Taylor spoke to a large congregation in the town hall.
Scovil was born in Middlebury, Connecticut, March 18, 1806. He joined the Church in 1836 and traveled with the Kirtland Camp to Missouri two years later. In Nauvoo he was senior warden of the Masonic lodge and architect of the hall (see items 140, 179, 206). On August 10, 1846, he arrived at Liverpool for his mission, and at the conference on October 18 was called to preside over the Sheffield Conference. He left Sheffield on June 30, 1847, and sailed for America with Mephibosheth Sirrine and a small company of British Saints six days later. During 1848–49 he was the Mormon emigration agent in New Orleans, and in 1850 he crossed the plains to Utah. He settled in Provo, where he served as postmaster and county clerk. He died in Springville, February 14, 1889.
60 pp. 15 cm. Brown printed wrappers.
Moses Martin embarked on his mission to England in the summer of 1846 and landed at Liverpool on October 14. Four days later he was called to preside over the London Conference. He labored in England until March 9, 1848, when he sailed for America with a company of eighty Mormon immigrants (see item 162).
The London edition of A Treatise was probably published near the end of the year. The Millennial Star of February 1, 1847, advertised the book, at 6d. retail, 4d. wholesale. Accompanying this ad is an endorsement from John Taylor, who urged the Saints to buy Martin’s book so he could provide some support for his destitute family which he had left in Illinois in the care of William Anderson, who subsequently was killed during the skirmishing at Nauvoo. Thomas D. Brown acted as an agent for the book, Martin sold it himself, and during 1847–48 the Millennial Star office also sold about seven hundred copies. So one might guess that this edition of A Treatise was published in two or three thousand copies.
Textually this edition is identical to the first (item 162). Changes occur in two places in the biblical references at the end: the section “Baptism” has been slightly changed and reordered, and “Book of Mormon” has been redone to conform with Daniel Shearer’s Key to the Bible (item 136). Why the 1842 edition departed from Key to the Bible at this point, while the 1846 edition returned to it, is not known. The 1846 edition was issued in brown printed wrappers with the title page reprinted from the same setting on the front and the rest of the wrapper plain.
Flake 5293. CtY, MH, UHi, ULA, UPB, US1C.
Broadside 31x19 cm. Ornamental border, text in two columns.
This broadside contains a poem in twenty-one numbered verses, divided into two parts. The first part speaks of a land of refuge in the West to which the Saints will gather. Its first verse: “There is a pleasant land / In the west, in the west; / There is a pleasant land, / Sought out by God’s command, / For the saints to gather on, / In the west.” The second part tells of the city in this promised land: “The streets are long and wide . . . The temple on the right; The curtains are all white . . . The fields are drest in green, And the ripe grapes are seen.” And it adds an apocalyptic note in the eighteenth and nineteenth verses: “The nations hear the sound, / And crumble to the ground, / And can no more be found, / In that day. . . . And Jesus Christ will come / To the New Jerusalem / In this land.” Who wrote the poem is not known.
Item 317 appears to be a Nauvoo imprint: its border, except for the corner elements, and its typeface match those of item 106. One might guess that it was published as the Mormons were evacuating Nauvoo.
Flake 4764a. US1C.
Broadside 17.5 x 14 cm.
Following the first nine lines given above, this broadside prints an affidavit, dated April 13, 1846, and signed by William Smith, Arthur Millikin—husband of William’s sister Lucy—and Lucy Millikin, certifying that they, the members of the Smith family, were “perfectly satisfied” with the conveyance of Joseph B. Noble’s house and lot to Lucy Mack Smith by the Church and that the Church was thereby “released from all moral and legal obligation to us or either of us.” Its typography suggests it was printed on the Nauvoo press. When it was printed or precisely what prompted it is unclear. But the larger context was William Smith’s alienation from the Twelve.
William was openly at odds with the Twelve in the spring of 1845. He was also the only living son of Joseph, Sr., and Lucy Mack Smith, and on May 24, 1845, the Twelve ordained him presiding patriarch to succeed his brother Hyrum. Immediately he began claiming broad authority. In the Times and Seasons of May 15, W. W. Phelps referred to him as “Patriarch over the whole church,” and John Taylor responded in the paper two weeks later that William was “not patriarch over the whole church; but patriarch to the church.” Near the end of June, Lucy Smith reported having three visions which promoted him as “President over all the Church,” and on the 30th Brigham Young and others met with Mother Smith, who professed a desire for harmony and union with the Twelve. That day William wrote to Brigham Young that he accepted Young’s leadership but insisted upon being patriarch over the whole Church. Young wrote back that everyone in the Church must be subject to the authority of the Twelve. When William continued to press his claims, he was dropped from the Quorum of Twelve and as presiding patriarch at the general conference on October 6. Within a few days he brought out a pamphlet in which he accused the Twelve of wicked and tyrannical behavior and declared that the Smith family must lead the Church. On October 19 he was excommunicated.
Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Bishops Whitney and Miller purchased two lots from Emma Smith on August 2, 1845, and offered one of them to Lucy Mack Smith with the promise of building her a house on it. That October, at the general conference, two days after William Smith was dropped from his offices, Brigham Young publicly pledged to support Mother Smith and provide for her wants. But when the Saints began evacuating Nauvoo in February 1846, it became unfeasible to build her a house. The following month the trustees A. W. Babbitt, J. L. Heywood, and J. S. Fullmer (see item 296) offered her $200 yearly and a rent-free house, for the rest of her life; they declined to give her a house outright because they did not want it to fall into William Smith’s hands. On March 1 William wrote to James J. Strang expressing support of Strang’s claim to be Joseph Smith’s successor, and he attached an endorsement signed by his mother, three sisters, and two of their husbands. Ten days later he again wrote to Strang that the trustees were disinheriting his mother and that all the Smiths would leave Nauvoo. Lucy wrote to the trustees on March 22 that she wanted a house deeded to her and hinted that she might look to others for help. Finally, on April 13, after communicating with Brigham Young, the trustees gave her the deed to Joseph B. Noble’s house on the southeast corner of Kimball and Hyde streets. Apparently the affidavit in To the Public was signed at this time.
During the spring of 1846, William Smith continued to correspond with James J. Strang, and in June Strang ordained him an apostle and the patriarch of the Strangite church. The following summer, however, William broke with Strang, and that September issued the first of four tracts in which he presented his own revelations and declared himself president of the Church. In the spring of 1849, he drew Isaac Sheen to his cause and converted Sheen’s paper, the Aaronic Herald, renamed Melchisedek & Aaronic Herald, into his official organ. A year later he and Sheen acrimoniously parted company over polygamy, and for the next three years William struggled, in vain, to gather a following. Eventually he joined the Reorganization led by his nephew Joseph Smith III.
Flake 8143. US1C.
8 pp. 17 cm. Flake 4458. Dennis 8. US1, US1C, WsN.
8 pp. 17 cm. Flake 4463b. Dennis 10. UPB.
12 pp. 17 cm.
Flake 4464. Dennis 11. UPB, US1C.
Soon after the Brooklyn dropped anchor in San Francisco Bay, July 31, 1846 (see item 297), Sam Brannan set up his press in the second story of Nathan Spear’s mule-powered gristmill on Clay Street between Montgomery and Kearny. During September and October he struck off at least four government documents and An Extra in Advance of the California Star. Before the end of December he moved the shop to a new adobe building southwest of the corner of Washington Street and Brenham Place. About the first of the year he printed another Star Extra, which included his letter dated January 1, 1847, “To the Saints in England and America.” Then on January 9 he issued the first regular number of The California Star—the first newspaper in San Francisco, the second in California.
It seems clear that at the time he left New York Brannan intended to publish the Star in California as a Mormon paper. But California was the land of promise, and its only other newspaper was a hundred miles to the south; so with much to promote, including himself, he brought the Star out as an independent community paper, unassociated with the Latter-day Saints.
No copy of the extra containing Brannan’s “To the Saints in England and America” is known. The text of this letter, signed “S. Brannan, President,” is reprinted in the Millennial Star of October 15, 1847, “From the California Star—Extra.” In it he tells of the sailing of the Brooklyn and the beginning of the Mormon settlement on the San Joaquin River, announces that he will “commence publishing a paper next week,” lists those persons who had been subjected to Church discipline, and remarks that he is anxiously awaiting the arrival of the overland pioneer company and another shipload of immigrants. At the end he urges those immigrating to the “Eldorado of the West” to come by ship.
At this point Brannan hoped that the main body of the Church would settle in California. On April 4 he left San Francisco Bay, traveled east across the mountains, and met Brigham Young and the pioneer company at Green River on June 30. He entered the Salt Lake Valley with the pioneers about July 23 and remained there more than two weeks, during which time he explored the Valley with Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Amasa Lyman. Then on August 9 he started back to San Francisco, having failed to persuade Young to continue on to California. Brannan’s departure from the Valley marked the beginning of his separation from Mormonism. Within three years he would disclaim any connection with the Church.
12 pp. 20 cm.
Reuben Miller continued his attack on James Strang’s claims with a second tract, Truth Shall Prevail, which was prompted by a brief reply to his first (item 311) from John C. Bennett in Zion’s Reveille of November 1846 and a more detailed rebuttal in Zion’s Reveille of January 14, 1847. Bennett responded to Truth Shall Prevail in a piece dated February 1, 1847, in Zion’s Reveille of February 4, so Miller must have published it during the last two weeks in January. Zion’s Reveille again took on Miller’s two tracts in its number for March 25, 1847.
At issue was whether Strang changed his accounts of the angelic visitation and his subsequent ordination (see item 311). Miller claims that he did in James J. Strang Weighed in the Balance of Truth. The rebuttals deny this. In Truth Shall Prevail Miller includes some new affidavits in support of his contentions and continues his earlier arguments. The confusing references to the Strangite paper in the title of Truth Shall Prevail reflect the change of name of the Voree Herald to Zion’s Reveille with the November 1846 issue (vol. 1, no. 11), and the fact that Zion’s Reveille for January 14, 1847, is the first number of the second volume.
Flake 5408. US1C.
When the evacuation of Nauvoo began in February 1846, the Saints lost their only practical location in North America to gather Mormon converts, and that June the Mormon emigration from England was suspended. Four months later Orson Hyde, John Taylor, and Parley Pratt arrived in Liverpool and continued the suspension indefinitely. As an alternative, they proposed this memorial.
In June 1846 the Polk administration had settled the Oregon boundary question with Great Britain, establishing the northern boundary of the United States at the forty-ninth parallel with Vancouver Island under British control. The memorial urged Queen Victoria to alleviate the burden of the poor on the country and provide new opportunities for them by underwriting their immigration to Vancouver Island or that part of Oregon territory belonging to Great Britain. Despite the fact that a printed copy was sent to each member of Parliament, no copy of the memorial is located. Its text is included in the Millennial Star of November 20, 1846, which explains that blank sheets would be sent to the presiding elders in each conference in order to collect signatures. The Star of February 15, 1847, reported that the memorial with thirteen thousand names attached, making a document 168 feet long, had just been delivered to the Queen, and a copy had been sent to each member of Parliament. The next issue includes two letters, one from John Bowring, an M.P., the other from the secretary to John Russell, the prime minister, acknowledging receipt of the memorial. It also prints an exchange of correspondence between Bowring and Thomas D. Brown (see item 326) in which Bowring asserts that there are no funds to underwrite the emigration of the poor. Just before the memorial was given to the Queen, Russell spoke in the House of Commons in opposition to removing British poor to North America. This speech, the shortage of funds, and the fact that the plan was openly sponsored by the Latter-day Saints who hoped for help in moving their own converts to North America, guaranteed that nothing more would come of it.
8 pp. 19.5 cm.
On January 24, 1847, Jesse C. Little appointed William I. Appleby to succeed him as presiding elder in the eastern United States, and about a month later Appleby issued a circular to the eastern branches, continuing the practice of his predecessor (see items 304, 306, 310, 313). Appleby’s circular is dated at the end, February 12, 1847. His journal suggests he had it printed during the first week of March.
In Circular to the Church Appleby refers to the main body of the Church “driven into the wilderness” and asserts that, nevertheless, the work has never been more prosperous. He reports that Little expects to leave for the Mormon camps in Iowa about the first of March (see item 313), that Augustus Farnham will lead a company from Boston, by water, via New Orleans about the same time, and that William H. Miles will take a company by land from New York about the end of that month. And he urges those who can to join one of these. It is unlikely there will be any more companies going by ship to California, he remarks, unless Nauvoo property can be applied against the purchase of a ship. He lists those who are to preside in the local branches, and he includes his letter of appointment from Little at the end of the circular.
Farnham took a company of about fifty men west by land in April. Miles led his company to St. Louis that spring, where all but three members of the company tarried. Appleby presided over the eastern branches until October 28, 1847, when he called Mephibosheth Sirrine to succeed him (see item 343). Two days later he left his Recklesstown home for the Mormon camps in Iowa. He reached Council Bluffs on December 2, stayed there during December, and returned to the east coast in January.
viii–136 pp. 15 cm.
The Millennial Star of January 15, 1847, reported that Thomas D. Brown had obtained the rights from Parley Pratt to publish a new edition of the Voice of Warning, which was then in press. Two months later the Star noted that the book had been printed and was at the binders, and on April 15 it announced that it was “ready for sale” and could be ordered from T D. Brown or the Star office. This ad offered five bindings: embossed cloth at a retail price of 1s. 3d.; embossed cloth with gilt edges at 1s. 4d.; leather at 1s. 4d.; three-quarter leather with paper covered boards at 1s. 8d.; and gilt decorated morocco at 3s. The European Mission financial records indicate that most of the books were in cloth or sheep. Ten weeks later Brown announced in the Star that he was raising the prices of each one penny, except those in morocco. One is tempted to conjecture that, at this point, he had discovered that Mormon book publishing was not always profitable.
Essentially a faithful reprint of the 1841 edition (item 127), the Edinburgh edition includes “Preface to the Second European, or Edinburgh Edition,” signed by Parley Pratt and dated at Manchester, December 4, 1846 (pp. [iii]–iv); T D. Brown’s preface, dated at Liverpool, February 13, 1847 (p. v); and the preface to the 1839 edition (pp. [vi]–viii). Parley’s December 4, 1846, preface is that of the 1841 edition with an added line giving the sizes of the earlier printings; it is included in all subsequent editions of Voice of Warning published by the LDS Church during the nineteenth century. The surviving copies of the Edinburgh edition exist in blue, brown, or green blind stamped cloth with the title in gilt on the backstrip; polished plain green sheep, the title in gilt on the backstrip; and maroon leather with gilt and blind stamped decorative borders on the covers, gilt decorative panels with raised bands on the backstrip, and the edges gilt.
Thomas Dunlop Brown was born in Scotland, December 16, 1807, and was converted to Mormonism by Thomas Ward in June 1844. During the next four years he was prominently involved in the affairs of the Church in Great Britain, including the Brisith and American Commercial Joint Stock Company (see item 273). Early in 1849 he and his family immigrated to Kanesville, and in 1852 he made the overland trip to Utah. For two years he served as the clerk for the Southern Indian Mission, 1854–56. In the mid-1860s he separated from the Church and subsequently became active in the Utah Liberal Party. He died in Salt Lake City, March 20, 1874.
Flake 6632. CtY, NjP, OClWHi, UHi, ULA, UPB, US1C.
4 pp. 17 cm.
Flake 4466. Dennis 6. UPB, US1, US1C, WsS.
8 pp. 17 cm.
Flake 4471. Dennis 12. UPB, US1, US1C.
12 pp. 17 cm.
Flake 4459. Dennis 13. UPB, US1, US1C, WsN.
8 pp. 16 cm.
Flake 4474. Dennis 14. UPB, US1.
Broadside 19.5 x 28 cm.
Samuel W. Richards arrived at Liverpool with his brother Franklin D. Richards, Parley Pratt, and Moses Martin on October 14, 1846. Four days later he was assigned to assist his brother in Scotland. The following January, Franklin was called to be Orson Spencer’s counselor in the presidency of the British Mission, and subsequently Samuel was appointed to preside over the Glasgow Conference. On February 20, 1848, he and Franklin left England to return to America, with a company of 120 emigrating Saints.
For most of his mission, Samuel W. Richards resided in Glasgow. One might infer from item 331 that its publisher hoped Richards would debate Dr. Lee when he visited Edinburgh on June 6, 1847. Whether such a debate took place is not known. Samuel’s diary, the Millennial Star, and the “Manuscript History of the British Mission” are silent on the matter.
Item 331 was probably published by Robert O. Menzies, who had been called to preside over the Edinburgh branch four months before. A native of Edinburgh, Menzies joined the Church in October 1840, when he was nineteen years old. During the early 1850s he presided over the Bradford and Preston conferences, and in February 1854, he sailed for America, settling first in Salt Lake City and then in Utah County.
Flake 1914. US1C.
8 pp. 17 cm.
This is a reprint of the 1840 Manchester edition (item 81). It embodies all of the corrections incorporated in that edition and adds a number of improvements in punctuation and capitalization. Otherwise it is textually the same as the 1839 and 1840 editions—except for the following parenthetical insertion on p. 6:
This work was first published in 1837. We wish a discerning public to judge for themselves how far these predictions have been fulfilled. Since that time thrones have been cast down; much blood has been shed; the seeds have rotted under the clods; pestilence has been, and is still raging in different parts of the world.
A line at the end of the text reads: “For further information apply to the Presiding Elders.—Price one penny.”
Three other tracts were printed at Orford Hill by A. Charlwood or his successor P. Otty, which help date item 332 and show that Orford Hill was in the city of Norwich: Lorenzo Barnes’s Very Important References (Norwich: Printed by A. Charlwood, Orford Hill, 1848); James Dean’s Mormonism not Christianity, as Proved in a Discussion Between a Mormon Elder and a Defender of Evangelical Christianity [Otty, (Late Charlwood,) Printer, Orford Hill, Norwich, 1848?]; and Thomas Smith’s Calumny Refuted and the Truth Defended, Being a Reply to a Tract, Written by W. Frost, Entitled a “Dialogue Between a Latter Day Saint & a Methodist” [P. Otty, Printer, Orford Hill, 1849?].
Thomas Smith seems to have been the first Mormon missionary in Norwich. He came to that area in May 1847, and in the course of a year baptized about 130 and built a chapel in the city. One might guess that he published this edition of A Timely Warning, and the edition of An Epistle of Demetrius listed next, soon after he arrived in Norwich to help him introduce Mormonism there.
Smith was born in Gloucestershire, England, October 11, 1806, and was converted to Mormonism in March 1840. At the time he began proselytizing in Norwich, he was still the president of the Worcestershire Conference. He continued to labor in Norwich and eventually presided over a conference there, until he and his family sailed for America in January 1852. That summer he made the overland trek to Utah. Subsequently he settled in Parowan, where he died, April 3, 1896.
Flake 4174. MH, UPB.
Broadside 37 x 23.5 cm. Text in three columns, ornamental border.
Item 333 is an exact reprint of the Birmingham edition (item 135), including the reference to Birmingham in the first paragraph—except for the deletion of the phrase “for it is only about 10 years old,” which refers to the age of the Church. This deletion suggests that it was printed subsequent to 1841. It seems likely that Thomas Smith published it about the same time as the Norwich edition of A Timely Warning (see the preceding item).
12,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 pp. 21.5 cm.
Orson Spencer labored twelve years in the Baptist ministry before converting to Mormonism in 1841. The following year William Crowell, an acquaintance and the editor of the Baptist Christian Watchman, wrote to him, inquiring about his new religion. Crowell’s letter and Spencer’s response were printed in the Times and Seasons of January 2, 1843, and in the Millennial Star that June and July. At the time he wrote this letter, Spencer later reported, Joseph and Hyrum Smith urged him to “exhibit a full reply and exposition of the faith and doctrines of the Saints, being assured by them that the letter would do more good than a preacher.”
Spencer arrived at Liverpool on January 23, 1847, to assume the presidency of the British Mission. Three numbers of David Candland’s Fireside Visitor (item 308) were still in circulation, and these undoubtedly suggested a format to Spencer for a “full reply and exposition.” In May he began a series of eleven additional letters to Crowell, which he printed in the Star and simultaneously issued in individual tracts. The following January, he published the twelve letters with two others in hardback under the title Letters Exhibiting the Most Prominent Doctrines of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—the first of the major synthetic works and one of Mormonism’s most important books. Before the close of the century, Spencer’s Letters went through six more editions.
The bibliographical details of the tracts are not entirely clear. Spencer printed the first six of his new letters—designated “second letter” through “seventh letter”—in the Star between May 15 and September 1, 1847. And it would seem that he simultaneously published these six letters in six individual pamphlets (item 334). The Star of July 1 carries an ad for “Orson Spencer’s Letters to W. Crowell” at l0d. per dozen, and the European Mission financial records indicate that from June 24 to September 15 the Millennial Star office sent out more than 2,200 tracts. Only the third tract in this series is extant. The surviving copy is in four pages, 21.5 cm. high, its text printed from the typesetting in the Star of June 15: Fourth Letter of Orson Spencer, A.B., to the Rev. William Crowel [sic], A.M., Editor of the Christian Watchman, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. On Water Baptism. [Caption title] [At foot of p. 4:] R. James, Printer, 39, South Castle Street, Liverpool .
Spencer announced in the Star of September 1 that the first series was out of print and he was reprinting “the seven first letters,” including the letter originally published in the Times and Seasons, which apparently was not included in the first series. Between September 15 and November 15 he published five additional letters in the Star, letters 8–12, which he also issued in individual tracts as part of the second series (item 335). Letters 8, 9, and 11 are printed in the tracts from the Star typesettings; letters 10 and 12 are different settings. The European Mission financial records show that letters 1–6 in tract form were sold on September 16; letters 7 and 8 on September 29; letters 9 and 10 on October 28; and letters 11 and 12 on November 23. From September 16 to the end of the year, the office sent out about 25,500 individual tracts—advertised at l0d. per dozen, 9s. for two hundred, and three halfpence for a single copy of letter 1. So one might guess that the first series (item 334) was issued in an edition of a few hundred, and the second series (item 335) in an edition of two or three thousand, with letter 1 in a “few hundred” extra copies.
The first tract in the second series includes Crowell’s letter and Spencer’s initial response. It is in twelve pages and has the caption title Correspondence Between the Rev. W. Crowel [sic], A.M., and O. Spencer, B.A. Each of the eleven other tracts in this series is in four pages, individually paginated, and bears the caption title Letters by Orson Spencer, A.B. in Reply to the Rev. William Crowel [sic], A.M. Editor of the Christian Watchman, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., which is followed by Letter [roman numeral] and a subtitle giving the topic of the letter. All have R. James, Printer, 39, South Castle Street, Liverpool at the foot of the last page.
While Crowell is identified only by his initials in the Times and Seasons of January 2, 1843, and in the Millennial Star of June and July 1843, his full name, misspelled, is used in the subsequent letters both in the Star and in the tracts. Crowell’s letter bears a date in the Times and Seasons and in the Star, as does Spencer’s initial reply, and although Spencer’s subsequent letters are not dated in Star, they are all dated in the pamphlets.
Crowell’s letter, dated at Boston, October 21, 1842, asks Spencer about his new religion, the character, personality, and religious views of Joseph Smith, the nature of Latter-day Saint worship, and the features of Nauvoo. In his response, dated at Nauvoo, November 17, 1842, Spencer talks about his conversion to Mormonism and remarks that John Lloyd Stephens’s Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan influenced his belief in the Book of Mormon. He asserts that the character and conduct of Joseph Smith are misunderstood because prejudice precludes a fair hearing, comments on the persecution of the Saints, and includes a brief outline of basic beliefs. He writes that Joseph Smith is “an upright man,” that he is “eminently scriptural,” and that he claims to be inspired. On the Sabbath, he reports, “some person usually preaches a sermon after prayer and singing, and perhaps reading some scripture.”
Spencer’s second letter, subtitled “Immediate Revelation,” is dated at Liverpool, May 15, 1847. Here he argues that the spirit of revelation, which is the Spirit of God, is requisite for one to partake of the gospel of salvation, and that the Spirit was sent into the world to acquaint mankind with Jesus Christ. His third letter, “On Faith,” dated June 1, 1847, asserts that no man knows God without “the faith of immediate revelation,” that God’s will is revealed to faith, and that the Latter-day Saints “contend for the faith of miracles in [their] own day.” Letter four, “On Water Baptism,” June 14, 1847, centers on John 3:5, “Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.” Water baptism, it argues, is for the remission of sins and necessarily precedes the birth of the Spirit, that is, the gift of the Holy Ghost.
The fifth letter, “The Gift of the Holy Ghost,” is dated in the tract, June 29, 1842 [i.e., 1847]. It describes the Holy Ghost as “an unembodied personage,” the view now held by the Church (D&C 130:22; cf. item 178). The Holy Ghost’s presence as a witness, the letter contends, invariably follows the laying on of hands. The Holy Ghost reveals God’s purposes and enables the believer to work certain miracles such as healing the sick and speaking in new tongues. The theme of letter six, “Apostacy from the Primitive Church,” July 12, 1847, is that modern Christendom “possesses such a faint resemblance to that system of faith established by Jesus Christ and his apostles, that it cannot be called a likeness, or a copy, or even an imitation.” Letter seven, “The Re-establishment of an Apostolic Church,” August 28, 1847, maintains that the scriptures predict that Christ’s true church would be re-established by the visitation of an angel to a young man and would involve a book, which the letter contends is the Book of Mormon.
Letter eight, “The True and Living God,” September 13, 1847, argues that God is a corporeal, anthropomorphic being, whose “holy dwelling place, is literal, local[,] real and to its occupants, it is visible and tangible.” Spencer’s ninth letter, “The Priesthood,” September 30, 1847, defines the priesthood to be “that order of author[it]ative intelligences by which God regulates, controls, enlightens, blesses or curses, saves or condemns all beings,” and maintains that by it God establishes his divine government upon the earth. The central ideas in letter ten, “On Gathering,” October 13, 1847, are: “Before there can be anything like a true, godlike, peaceful millennium, a separation must take place between the righteous and disobedient”; and “The righteous are being withdrawn apart in order that the Almighty may stretch out his chastening hand, and inflict his sore judgment upon rebellious nations.” Spencer’s eleventh letter, “The Latter-day Judgments,” October 28, 1847, declares that “the gospel must first be preached, and then the judgments will follow in quick succession”; that because Joseph and Hyrum Smith were slain at Carthage, “the sword shall waste the blood of the nation”; that religions which are not based on immediate revelation “will not, cannot, and shall not stand.” The twelfth letter, “On the Restitution of All Things,” November 14, 1847, asserts that at the time of restitution the earth “will undergo an important change” and “all things that are now wrong shall be set right,” and death will cease. The righteous, it continues, will be reinstated on earth, will “multiply upon it, and build cities and temples,” while the wicked “lie unnoticed” for a thousand years until the final judgment.
Item 334: Flake 8322a. UPB[Letter 4]. Item 335: Flake 8322. MH, NN, UPB, US1C.
12 pp. 17.5 cm.
Flake 4478b. Dennis 15. WsN.
[i–ii][l 1–102 pp. 17 cm.
Flake 3830. Dennis 16. MH, UPB, US1, US1C, WsN.
Broadside 19x12 cm.
Thomas Smith of Leamington (see item 138), not to be confused with Thomas Smith of Norwich (see item 332), was the president of the Warwickshire Conference, which included the branch at Rugby over which Thomas Day presided. Born near Wolverhampton, Staffordshire, September 2, 1814, Day converted to Mormonism in September 1842 and immediately devoted himself to missionary work. About three years after his conversion, he settled in Rugby, where he lived until he immigrated to America. In 1850 he led a company of Latter-day Saints across the Atlantic, and in 1852 he made the trek to Utah. Four years later he joined the Salmon River Indian mission and subsequently settled in southern Utah. Eventually he moved to Circleville, where he died, January 6, 1893.
Broadside 19 x 12.5 cm.
The text of this broadside is printed in the Millennial Star of July 1, 1847, together with the following note:
Invitation.—Having long felt the necessity of having some uniform card of invitation to be distributed throughout England, so far as practicable, we have inserted the “Invitation” as a form, and intend to print 20,000 copies, price not to exceed seven shillings per 1000. If the several conferences approve of the plan, let the Elders seek places for preaching, either in open air or otherwise, and fill the blank parts of the card accordingly, and put on the harness for preaching on the subjects named in the card, varying the order of given subjects if they think proper.
While the only located copy of the broadside is undated, the text in the Star is dated June 18, 1847. The two versions are the same, except for changes of two words—one in the salutation which reads Dear Sir in the Star and Dear Friend in the broadside.
The Star of July 15 noted that the Invitation was ready to order. Six weeks later it reported that “in one month” sixteen thousand had been sent out and commented, “at this rate we shall leave an explicit warning Invitation, in a hundred thousand families in six months.” On December 1 it announced that the price thereafter would be 3s. per thousand, 25s. per ten thousand, and 45s. per twenty thousand, and that for large orders, the blank spaces might be filled in by “the printer, at Liverpool.”
Indeed the European Mission financial records show that between July 7 and August 24 the office sent out 12,850 Invitations to the various branches, and before December 1 it had sent out 26,700 more. During the next seven months, it filled orders for an additional 172,000. It seems likely that in the course of the year more than one edition of the broadside was struck off, and that the only located copy, without a date, is a later printing.
Invitation lists seven topics “to be illustrated and proved to the entire satisfaction of every honest mind, at such time and place as shall hereinafter be named”: (1) the literal appearance of the angel of God; (2) the doctrine of immediate revelation; (3) the faith of miracles and immediate revelation, the only true faith; (4) repentance of past unbelief, ignorance, and false and discordant religions together with baptism for remission of sins, invariably followed with the gift of the Holy Ghost; (5) the reinstatement of the church of Christ on the earth; (6) the literal gathering together, in one place and portion of the earth, by the servants of God and by the angels of God, all such as shall be accounted worthy to escape the latter-day plagues and vials of wrath; and (7) also lectures on various subjects: baptism for the dead, resurrection and eternal judgment, restitution of all things with a millennial reign of a thousand years, new heavens and new earth. At the end are blank spaces for the times and locations of the local meetings.
Flake 8325. MH.
352 pp. 10 cm.
The Millennial Star of April 1, 1847, noted that the hymnbook was out of print and promised its readers a new edition “as soon as circumstances and means will permit.” A month later Orson Spencer reported that he had arranged for the new edition with a printer who bid the job too low and subsequently had to be released from the contract, and that he was then negotiating with another—the tried and true Richard James. On August 15 the Star announced that the hymnal was out of press and on its way to the binder, that it would sell for Is. 3d. wholesale and 1s. 6d. retail, and that a few copies would be available in better bindings. Two weeks later it advertised the new book as “ready to order.” Like the third edition four and a half years before (item 172), this one was printed in 2,000 copies.
The 1847 hymnal adds eleven songs to those of the fourth edition (item 252). Thus it contains 283 numbered hymn texts (pp. –342), preceded by the preface to the first edition (p. ) and the preface to the fifth (p. ), signed by Orson Spencer and Franklin D. Richards. An index of first lines is at the end (pp. –352). Pages –322 are essentially a line-for-line reprint of the fourth edition. The imprint Liverpool: Printed by R. James, 39, South Castle Street appears on the verso of the title page. The Salt Lake Public Library copy is in a wallet edged binding of black sheep, with wide gilt ornamental borders on the covers, an owner’s name in gilt on the front cover, gilt ornamental panels and the title in gilt on the backstrip, and all edges gilt. The Duke University copy is bound in dark brown sheep, with wide gilt ornamental borders on the covers, an owner’s name in gilt on the front, gilt ornamental panels between raised bands and the title in gilt on the backstrip, and all edges gilt.
All of the eleven added songs are of Mormon authorship, including five by W. W. Phelps, two by Eliza R. Snow, and one each by Joel H. Johnson, Charles W. Wandell, and John Taylor. Among these are Phelps’s “Praise to the Man,” “Come to Me,” and “Wake O Wake the World From Sleeping” (see items 289, 244, 102), Taylor’s “The Seer” (item 243), and Johnson’s “The Glorious Gospel Light Has Shown” (see item 186).
Flake 1764. NcD, US1.
40 pp. 17 cm. Blue printed wrappers.
Flake 4456. Dennis 17. UPB, US1, US1C, WsCS, WsS, WsSW.
Broadside 30.5 x 23 cm. Text in two columns.
Mephibosheth Sirrine was born on October 27, 1811, in Phillipstown, New York. He converted to Mormonism sometime before his twenty-seventh birthday, and from that point on his life was one of continuous missionary service. After the October 1845 conference in Nauvoo, he was named the captain of the twenty-third company of one hundred (see item 284), and the following April he was called to a mission in Great Britain. Upon arriving in England in September 1846, he was immediately called to preside over the Manchester Conference. In August 1847 he returned to the United States. While he was in England, Sirrine contracted a severe cold from which he never recovered, and on April 29, 1848, he died of consumption aboard a steamboat at the mouth of the Ohio River. Three weeks later he was interred at Winter Quarters.
William I. Appleby called Sirrine to succeed him as the presiding elder in the “East and Middle States” on October 28, 1847. And like his two predecessors, Sirrine issued a circular to the Latter-day Saints under his charge (items 304, 306, 313, 325). His circular asserts that “the work of God was never more prosperous,” refers to “false aspiring men” and instructs the Saints not to receive any elders without the proper recommend, and urges the Saints to prepare to gather at Council Bluffs by the next spring. It reports that Leonard Hardy would continue as a counselor in the presidency of the Church in the eastern states and that “Elder Burnett” would preside in New York City, replacing Elder Rogers, who had been excommunicated (see item 193). Sirrine’s address in Brooklyn is included at the end of the main text, followed by Appleby’s letter of appointment to him, dated October 28, 1847.
Flake 7735b. US1C.
Broadside 34 x 21 cm. Text in two columns, ornamental border.
This broadside gives the texts of two songs. The first, in 9 four-line verses rhyming in couplets, appears to recount a few of Westwood’s experiences as a missionary. Spoken narratives are inserted after the second, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and ninth verses, and a two-line chorus accompanies each verse. The first chorus: “For I’m a Mormon, a Mormon, a poor despised Mormon; / was on the road to fame until became a Mormon.” The second song, occupying the last half of the second column, is “The Tea! A Song composed by the same Author, and dedicated to all habitual drinkers of that article. Sung by Mr. J. Halliday, at the Bath, Bristol, & Birmingham Soirees; Christmas, 1847.” In 3 twelve-line verses rhyming in couplets, it was to be sung to the tune “The Sea,” after which it was patterned (see item 243). Its first two lines: “The tea! the tea! the smoking tea! / The green, the black, the souchong tea.”
Philip M. Westwood was born in Worcestershire, England, September 1, 1824, and joined the Church in February 1842. In April 1845 he volunteered to serve full time as a missionary, and during the next three and a half years labored in the vicinity of Bath and Bristol. He crossed the plains to Utah in 1853 and settled in Springville, where he formed a local dramatic company and wrote songs for public occasions. About 1858 he moved to California. He died in Virginia City, Nevada, in June 1868.
Flake 971 l.MH.
94[i]–ii pp. 13.5 cm.
This hymnal was published by Lyman Wight’s Texas colony before Wight formally broke with the Twelve, and therefore it is entered here. No copy is now located, but a photocopy in the Brigham Young University Lee Library allows a description of the book.
Wight was called into the Quorum of the Twelve on April 8, 1841. During the winter and spring of 1844, he was in the Wisconsin pineries getting out lumber for the Nauvoo Temple, and that February he and George Miller wrote to Joseph Smith and suggested that the Church consider locating a colony in the Southwest. On March 11 Joseph Smith organized the Council of Fifty and charged it to examine Wight’s and Miller’s proposal (see items 201, 239, 275). A month later Wight was taken into the Council of Fifty, and, according to his account, about this time Joseph Smith directed him and Miller to take a company to Texas. After Smith’s assassination Wight persisted in this idea, and in August 1844 Brigham Young and the other members of the Twelve acquiesced. That month Wight left for the pineries. At the end of March 1845, despite Brigham Young’s counsel that he remain with the main body of the Church, Wight started down the Mississippi with a company of one hundred and fifty Wisconsin Saints, and in November they reached the Texas frontier. At the general conference in Nauvoo that October, the Twelve debated about what to do with him but kept him in the quorum. The following spring he established his colony on the Colorado River about five miles above Austin. A year later, some of the colonists moved to the Pedernales River, about seventy miles to the west of Austin, the rest settling there in the spring of 1848. That spring Wight published An Address by Way of an Abridged Account and Journal of My Life from February 1844 up to April J848, with an Appeal to the Latter Day Saints, which formalized his alienation from Brigham Young and the rest of the Twelve. On December 3, 1848, they excommunicated him. The settlement on the Pedernales, named Zodiac by Lyman Wight, survived four years, until the floods of 1850 forced him and his followers to move again in 1851. For seven more years he directed the Texas colony, until his death in 1858, at age sixty-one.
The Wight hymnal includes sixty-three numbered hymn texts (pp. –87) and an unnumbered sixty-fourth song, “Adieu to Honor, Wealth and Fame” (pp. 87–89). These are followed by Eliza R. Snow’s “The Assassination of Gens. Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith” (item 249) (pp. 90–94), and an index of first lines (pp. [i]–ii). Fifty-three of the songs are in the 1841 Nauvoo hymnal (item 103), of which thirty-four are also in the 1840 Manchester hymnal (item 78). Six others are from the 1840 hymnal. Of the remaining five songs, “Adieu to Honor, Wealth, and Fame” and W. W. Phelps’s “Praise to the Man” are in Adams’s book (item 289); Austin Cowles’s “But Hark, and Hear the Joyful Sound” is in Hardy’s (item 186). John Taylor’s “The Seer” (item 243) probably came from the Times and Seasons of January 1, 1845, and William Clayton’s “With Darkness Long We’ve Been O’erwhelm’d” (items 106, 245) likely came from Journal of Heber C. Kimball (item 93).
 “Journal History,” 28 September (pp. 1–3), 11 November (pp. 1–2) 1846; 1 April 1847 (p. 3).
 The RLDS Church published a new edition of the Doctrine and Covenants in Cincinnati in 1864.
 “Journal of Thomas Bullock,” 61. “Biographical Sketch and Diary of Isaac Chauncy Haight 1813–1862,” 28, typescript, UPB. “Diary of Samuel Whitney Richards 1824–1909,” 5–6, typescript, UPB. Messenger and Advocate (Rigdonite), 480.
 A Defence of the Claims of James J. Strang to the Authority Now Usurped by the Twelve; And Shewing Him to be the True Successor of Joseph Smith, as First President of the High Priesthood (Keokuk, Iowa, 1846). Dale Morgan, A Bibliography of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints [Strangite] (Salt Lake City, 1951), 39–40.
 “Diary of Samuel Whitney Richards,” 3–5.
 John J. Hajicek, ed., Chronicles of Voree J844–1849 (Burlington, Wise, 1992), 1–14. Millennial Star 8:93–94; 13:237–38. Times and Seasons 5:631. Morgan, A Bibliography of the Church I Strangite], 32–33. Milo M. Quaife, The Kingdom of Saint James (New Haven, Ct., 1930). Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. “Strang, James Jesse.”
 Brigham Young to Jesse C. Little, 26 January 1846, in Circular. To the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Scattered Abroad Through the Eastern and Middle States, 5–6.
 “Diary of David Candland,” 5–6, typescript, UPB. Millennial Star 9:139.
 “Diary of David Candland.” Millennial Star 7:132–33, 138–14, 165–66, 170–73, 182–85, 187, 189, 196–98; 8:8–10, 22–25, 37–40; 9:139. “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register,” 4. Deseret Evening News, 12 March 1902, 2. Ancestral File, UPB.
 “Journal History,” 6 July 1846, 2–7.
 Thomas Leiper Kane (1822–83) was the son of Judge John K. Kane, of Philadelphia, and the brother of Elisha Kent Kane, the arctic explorer. This meeting with Little began a life-long association with the Mormons. In 1850 he published The Mormons, and in 1874 his wife Elizabeth D. Wood Kane published Twelve Mormon Homes Visited in Succession on a Journey Through Utah to Arizona. Leonard J. Arrington, ‘“In Honorable Remembrance’: Thomas L. Kane’s Services to the Mormons,” BYU Studies 21 (1981): 389–402. Albert L. Zobell, Jr., Sentinel in the East: A Biography of Thomas L. Kane (Salt Lake City, 1965). Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. “Kane, Thomas Leiper.”
 Little’s detailed report of his stay in Washington is in “Journal History,” 6 July 1846, 2–13. Polk’s account of his meetings with Little, which differs at certain points from Little’s version, is in Milo M. Quaife, ed., The Diary of James K. Polk During His Presidency, 1845 to J849 (Chicago, 1910), 1:443–46, 449–50. William L. Marcy to Stephen W. Kearny, 3 June 1846, in 30th Cong., 1 st sess., 1848, H. Doc. 60, 153–55. S. W. Kearny to James Allen, 19 June 1846, in “Journal History,” 1 July 1846. For histories of the Mormon Battalion see John F. Yurtinus, “A Ram in the Thicket: The Mormon Battalion in the Mexican War” (Ph.D. diss., Brigham Young University, 1975); Frank A. Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion (New York, 1928); Daniel Tyler, A Concise History of the Mormon Battalion in the Mexican War, 1846–1847 (N.p., 1881).
 “Journal History,” 6–21 July 1846. Wilford Woodruff’s Journal 3:54–62. Smith, An Intimate Chronicle, 283–85. Brooks, On the Mormon Frontier, 1:171–72, 174–79. Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 139, 142. Tyler, A Concise History of the Mormon Battalion, 131. Leonard J. Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom (Cambridge, Mass., 1958), 21.
 “European Mission Financial Records,” vol. 6 (1846–49), US1C.
 Millennial Star 8:64; 9:208.
 Appleby was called to preside over the Philadelphia branch and assist Jesse C. Little on May 14, 1846. “Biography and Journal of William I. Appleby,” 163.
 “Early Church Information File.” “Journal History,” 27 December 1898, 3. Millennial Star 8:78; 9:256; 10:252; 12:15,207,325,345; 13:24.
 Bennett’s “revelation” was rushed into print by Rigdon’s supporters as a Messenger and Advocate extra and reprinted in The Prophet of May 10, 1845, with suitable comments. No copy of the extra is known, but the text in The Prophet seems unmistakably the work of Bennett. The Prophet so branded it as did Orson Hyde in his Speech Before the High Priests’ Quorum (items 263–64). Subsequently the Rigdonites must have realized the questionable nature of the “revelation,” for it is not mentioned again in the Messenger and Advocate. Dale Morgan, A Bibliography of the Churches of the Dispersion (Salt Lake City, 1953), 127–28.
 “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register,” 13. Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 3:166–67. Miller, James J. Strang, Weighed in the Balance of Truth, 1. Deseret Evening News, 22 July (p. 3), 26 July (p. 2) 1882.
 Miller, James J. Strang, Weighed in the Balance of Truth, 1–5. Hajicek, Chronicles ofVoree, 52–54, 62–70, 76–80, 131–32. “Journal History,” 4 November 1846, 1. Morgan, A Bibliography of the Church [Strangitej, 39–40, 98–99. Richard L. Anderson, “Reuben Miller, Recorder of Oliver Cowdery’s Reaffirmations,” BYU Studies 8 (1968): 277–88.
 Weekly Chicago Democrat, 13 October 1846.
 Strang’s official newspaper was named Voree Herald for the first ten numbers, Zion ‘s Reveille for the next twenty-eight numbers, and the Gospel Herald thereafter.
 Quaife, The Kingdom of Saint James, 243–45.
 “Journal History,” 15 November 1846, 4; see also 26 February 1847, 3–5.
 W. 1. Appleby, Circular to the Church of Christ (Philadelphia, 1847), 8. “Journal History,” 15 April (p. 1), 19 April (p. 1) 1847.
 Extract dated 20 November 1846 from a journal of Lucius N. Scovil in “Manuscript History of the British Mission,” US1C. Both the “Manuscript History of the British Mission” and the “Journal History” include detailed excerpts from “a private journal of Lucius N. Scovil” during the period of his English mission and his trip home. This journal, however, is clearly different from four small diaries now in the LDS Church Historical Department, which have only a few scattered entries for Scovil’s English mission. One might guess that Andrew Jenson borrowed the “private journal,” now unlocated, from a family member and copied it into the “Manuscript History of the British Mission” and the “Journal History.”
 “Manuscript History of the British Mission,” 20–22 November 1846.
 “Early Church Information File.” “Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register,” 10. History of the Church 3:93, 135; 5:386; 6:390; 7:547. “Lucius N. Scovil’s Journal,” vol. 1, US1C. Millennial Star 8:56, 121; 9:215, 276–77. “Manuscript History of the British Mission,” 30 June, 6 July 1847. “Journal History,” 3 October 1847 (pp. 2–8); 26 January (p. 1), 9 February (p. 1) 1848; 12 April 1849 (p. 4); 31 December 1850 (sup. p. 13). Deseret Evening News, 23 February 1889, 2. J. Marinus Jensen, History ofProvo, Utah (Provo, Utah, 1924), 61,74, 173.
 Andrew Jenson, Church Chronology (Salt Lake City, 1914), 31, 35. Millennial Star 8:121.
 Jenson, Church Chronology, 31. Millennial Star 9:48.
 “European Mission Financial Records,” vol. 6.
 Lucy Mack Smith was born in Gilsum, New Hampshire, July 8, 1775, married Joseph Smith, Sr., in January 1796, and bore him eleven children of whom Hyrum, Joseph, William and Lucy were the third, fifth, eighth, and eleventh, respectively. In 1845 she dictated her memoirs, which Orson Pratt published in Liverpool in 1853 with the title Biographical Sketches of Joseph Smith, the Prophet. After the Mormons evacuated Illinois, she stayed in Nauvoo and died there on May 14, 1856. Biographical Sketches, 36, 40–41. Mary Audentia Smith Anderson, Ancestry and Posterity of Joseph Smith and Emma Hale (Independence, Mo., 1929), 66–67, 72, 74–75, 166. Buddy Youngreen, “The Death Date of Lucy Mack Smith,” BYU Studies 12 (1971): 318. I am grateful to Richard L. Anderson for pointing out to me that even though Biographical Sketches gives the year of Lucy’s birth as 1776, the town records give 1775; and further that Biographical Sketches and Ancestry and Posterity do not list the first child of Lucy and Joseph, Sr., a son, who died in infancy.
Lucy Smith Millikin was born at Palmyra, New York, July 18, 1821, and married Arthur Millikin at Nauvoo in 1840, by whom she had nine children. Arthur was born in Saco, Maine, May 9, 1817, joined the Latter-day Saints about 1835, and was wounded at the battle of Crooked River. Lucy and Arthur cared for Mother Smith several years prior to her death. Eventually they joined the RLDS Church. Arthur died in Colchester, Illinois, April 23, 1882; Lucy died there on December 9 of the same year. Biographical Sketches, 41. Ancestry and Posterity, 75. Saints’ Herald 29:180; 30:23.
 At the October 1844 general conference Brigham Young argued that it was William Smith’s right to succeed his brother Hyrum. History of the Church 7:301.
 John Taylor wrote his response on June 23, 1845, making it clear that the Times and Seasons was then running about a month late. Jessee, “The John Taylor Nauvoo Journal,” 54.
 Lucy Mack Smith’s visions and the exchange between Brigham Young and William Smith are recorded in Jessee, “The John Taylor Nauvoo Journal,” 63–68.
 “Journal History,” 23–24, 29 May; 1, 28, 30 June; 9 July; 6–8, 19 October 1845. Jessee, “The John Taylor Nauvoo Journal,” 77, 83–84. Smith, An Intimate Chronicle, 166, 169–70, 172, 184, 187. Orson Hyde to William Smith, 28 October 1845; and William Smith to Orson Hyde, 12 November 1845; in Messenger and Advocate (Rigdonite), 413–16. No copy of William Smith’s pamphlet is located, but what seems to be the complete text is reprinted in Warsaw Signal, 29 October 1845.
 “Journal History,” 2 August, 6–9 October 1845; 27 March (pp. 4–5), 13 April 1846. Smith, An Intimate Chronicle, 176. William Smith to James J. Strang, 17 March 1846; A. W. Babbitt, J. L. Heywood, and J. S. Fullmer to Lucy Smith, March? 1846; Lucy Smith to Babbitt, Heywood, and Fullmer, 22 March 1846; CtY Voree Herald, April (p. 7), July (p. 3), August (p. 3), 1846.
The endorsement attached to William Smith’s letter of March 1, 1846, is called into question by his sister Katharine’s denial that she signed it. Linda K. Newell and Valeen T. Avery, Mormon Enigma: Emma Hale Smith (Garden City, N.Y, 1984), 232.
For biographical sketches of Babbitt and Heywood, see Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:284–86,646–47; for Fullmer, see Esshom, Pioneers and Prominent Men of Utah, 881, and Kate B. Carter, Our Pioneer Heritage (Salt Lake City, 1975), 18:131 -32.
 William Smith to James J. Strang, 17 March 1846; John C. Bennett to Strang, 2 April 1846; W. Smith to Strang, 7 December 1846; W. Smith to Strang, 14 December 1846; W. Smith to Strang, 25 December 1846; CtY. Voree Herald, June 1846. Gospel Herald, 30 May 1850, 87. Hajicek, Chronicles of Voree, 82, 152, 157. Morgan, A Bibliography of the Churches of the Dispersion, 111–12, 131–38. D. Michael Quinn, “The Mormon Succession Crisis of 1844,” BYV Studies 16 (1976): 201–6.
 California Historical Society, The Kemhle Occasional, April 1976, 2. Edward Kemble, A History of California Newspapers 1846–1858 (Los Gatos, Calif., 1962), 9–12, 67–90. Fred B. Rogers, “Introduction,” The California Star. . . A Reproduction in Facsimile (Berkeley, Calif., 1965), v-ix.
 The prospectus in the first four numbers states that the California Star “will eschew with the greatest caution every thing that tends to the propagation of sectarian dogmas. The STAR will be an independent paper uninfluenced by those in power or the fear of the abuse of power, or of patronage or favor.” See also “The Mormon Press,” California Star, 4 September 1847.
 William Clayton’s Journal (Salt Lake City, 1921), 280–81,286,324, 342. Millennial Star 12:161.
 “Journal History,” 23 July 1850, 1.
 Bennett’s response to Miller’s first tract in Zion’s Reveille of November 1846 is dated December 12, 1846, showing that this issue of Zion’s Reveille did not come out until late in December.
 James Linforth and Frederick Piercy, Route from Liverpool to Great Salt Lake Valley (Liverpool, England, 1855), 2. Millennial Star 9:59.
 Millennial Star 9:1 A.
 Linforth and Piercy, Route from Liverpool, 5.
 Appleby, Circular to the Church of Christ, 8. “Biography and Journal of William I. Appleby,” 165–66.
 “Biography and Journal of William I. Appleby,” 168.
 Millennial Star 9:211.
 “Biography and Journal of William I. Appleby,” 191, 202, 211–17.
 See, e.g., “European Mission Financial Records,” vol. 6, 105, 107, 132.
 Juanita Brooks, ed., Journal of the Southern Indian Mission: Diary of Thomas D. Brown (Logan, Utah, 1972), xii-xvii, 139–40. “Early Church Information File.” Salt Lake Daily Tribune, 24 March 1874, 1.
 Jenson, Church Chronology, 31, 35. Millennial Star 8:121; 9:32–35, 80, 159, 344_46, 352, 356–57, 362, 368; 10:68–70, 74. “Manuscript History of the British Mission,” 14 October 1846; 20 February 1848, 4. “Diary of Samuel W. Richards,” 2:42, typescript, UPB.
 Millennial Star 9:34, 173–74, 344–46; 10:68–69, 197–98, 293, 311–12; 12:345; 13:207; 14:15, 177,319,666; 15:42,79, 144,511,761,842; 16:78–79, 140. “Early Church Information File.” “Register of Ordinations in the Edin. Branch Revised in 1847,” 2; “Abstract Record of Casual Events Edinburgh Branch,” 5; and “Register of the Edinburgh Branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Revised by Elder George Peden Waugh in 1847,” 11; microfilm 104,151, UPB. Deseret News, 15 February 1855 (p. 2), 6 February 1856 (p. 384), 4 March 1857 (p. 416).
 From its inception, the Millennial Star reported on various wars and natural disasters, which it viewed as “signs of the times,” and in 1847 it gave particular coverage to the Mexican War. See, e.g., Millennial Star 1:46–47, 134, 208–9; 2:28, 136; 3:43, 111, 200, 202; 4:78–80, 95; 5:159, 198–200; 6:15–16, 30–32, 45–46, 62, 77–78, 86–88, 95–96, 142–44; 7:61–63; 8:63; 9:1–4, 113–15,129–32, 151–52, 185–87, 193–99,209–10,226,241, 257, 289–91, 295, 337–40, 360.
 Millennial Star 9:172, 262–63; 10:7, 124, 171–72,252–54.
 Millennial Star 5:167, 169–70, 172; 7:186, 192–96; 9:80, 172, 262–63, 315–16; 10:7, 171–72,252–54,299; 12:207; 13:207,335; 14:41; 15:716–18. “European Emigration Card Index 1849–1925,” microfilm, UPB. Family Group Record of Thomas Price Smith, microfilm 547,684, UPB. “Early Church Information File.” Deseret Weekly 52:542.
This Thomas Smith should not be confused with the Thomas Smith who presided over the Warwickshire Conference, sailed to America in 1851, and died en route to Utah, May 28, 1852 (see items 138,338).
 William Crowell (not Crowel) was born in Middlefield, Massachusetts, September 22, 1806. He studied at Brown and Newton, and entered the Baptist ministry while he was a student. In 1838 he took charge of the Christian Watchman, the principal Baptist paper in New England, editing it for ten years. Then for another ten years he edited the St. Louis Western Watchman, and during the Civil War he labored as a Baptist pastor in Illinois. The author of a number of books, he was awarded a D.D. by Rochester University in 1857. He died in Flanders, New Jersey, August 19, 1871. “Dr. Crowell was one of the most talented and cultured men in the Baptist denomination, his piety was all-pervading.” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, s.v. “Crowell, William.” William Cathcart, ed., The Baptist Encyclopaedia (Philadelphia, 1881), 1296–98.
 Millennial Star 9:265.
 Earlier that month, Orson Hyde had called Franklin D. Richards to lead the British Mission when it was erroneously reported that Spencer had died. When Spencer arrived, Richards was released to serve as Spencer’s counsellor. Millennial Star 9:13, 25–26,42–43, 59.
 Millennial Star 9:208. “European Mission Financial Records,” vol. 6.
 “European Mission Financial Records,” vol. 6. Millennial Star 9:265. O. Spencer, Letters (Liverpool, England, 1848), vii.
 “Early Church Information File.” “Utah Immigration Card Index,” microfilm, UPB. Millennial Star 5:172; 10:149–50; 12:75, 185, 189–90. “Family Record and Journal and Reminiscences of Thomas Day,” microfilm, US1C. Deseret Evening News, 17 January 1893, 3. Kate B. Carter, Our Pioneer Heritage (Salt Lake City, 1964), 7:177–82.
 “European Mission Financial Records,” vol. 6, 114–312.
 Millennial Star 9:105–6, 138, 250, 265; 13:249.
 I am indebted to J. Samuel Hammond, Rare Book Librarian, Special Collections Library, Duke University, for this description of the Duke copy.
 Helen Hanks Macare, “The Singing Saints: A Study of the Mormon Hymnal, 1835–1950” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1961), and the accompanying “A Comprehensive List of Hymns Appearing in Official Hymnals of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1835–1950.”
 “Journal History,” 29 April 1848. Times and Seasons 1:73–74; 3:838–39; 4:111, 299–300; 5:445–46, 628; 6:819. Millennial Star 8:78, 121; 9:70–72, 80, 216–18, 276–77, 326, 372, 379; 10:202, 204. Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 3:713–14. History of the Church 7:481–82. Rachel Sirrine to Dear Mother, 4 July 1848, US1C.
 “Early Church Information File.” Millennial Star 5:172; 7:74; 8:26; 9:174, 188; 10:167–68, 294–96, 327. “Journal History,” 19 August 1853 (p. 2); 5 February 1854; 31 March, 24 July (p. 2) 1855; 24 July 1856 (pp. 7–8). Don Carlos Johnson, A Brief History of Springville, Utah (Springville, Utah, 1900), 24–25, 38, 49. Family Group Records (2) of Philip Moss Westwood, microfilm 261,672, UPB. Richard E. Westwood, Jr., ed., Westwood Family History (Provo, Utah, 1973), 1, 208, 217–18.
 The height of the book is taken from the entry in Chad Flake’s A Mormon Bibliography, which locates a single copy, at Graceland College, now lost. I am grateful to Ellen Cobley for bringing the Brigham Young University photocopy—undoubtedly made from the Graceland copy—to my attention.
 History of the Church 4:341; 6:254–61; 7:249, 392, 400–1, 459–60. Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 458–59. Smith, An Intimate Chronicle, 126–27, 129–31, 153–54. MillennialI Star 26:328. Jenson, Church Chronology, 19, 36, 60. Times and Seasons 6:870, 1009. Lyman Wight, An Address by Way of an Abridged Account and Journal of My Life from February 1844 up to April 1848, with an Appeal to the Latter Day Saints (Austin, Tx.? 1848). Orson Hyde, To the Saints Scattered Abroad—Greeting (N.p., 1848). Morgan, A Bibliography of the Churches of the Dispersion, 112, 138–39. B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City, 1930), 2:435–36. C. Stanley Banks, “The Mormon Migration into Texas,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 49 (1945): 233–14. Davis Bitton, ed., The Reminiscences and Civil War Letters of Levi Lamoni Wight (Salt Lake City, 1970).