Moses 7: Enoch’s Vision of the Earth, the Savior, and Zion's Return


In the last chapter, we identified how Enoch had begun to see through the eyes of the Lord. His sorrow for the sins of the world had brought him to tears. However, his visions of the ministry and life of Jesus Christ had begun to bring him comfort. The Lord revealed to Enoch that through the atonement of Christ there was eternal hope. The record of Enoch’s vision of “the day of the coming of the Son of Man, even in the flesh,” began in Moses 7:47 and continues in verses 48–61, the focus of this chapter. Enoch’s subsequent experience was filled with visions of the future, including apocalyptic scenes that would bring peace in the final outcome and cause Enoch to rejoice at seeing the Savior’s mortal advent: “And his soul rejoiced, saying: The Righteous is lifted up, and the Lamb is slain from the foundation of the world; and through faith I am in the bosom of the Father, and behold, Zion is with me” (v. 47).[1] While it might seem counterintuitive that Enoch rejoiced that Christ was “lifted up”—an idiom for crucifixion[2]—and that “the Lamb is slain from the foundation of the world,” through these concepts Enoch came to understand the glorious reality of what the Savior’s atoning sacrifice would mean for himself, for Zion, and for all people.[3]

Significantly, in revealing to Enoch the big picture—the plan of salvation in its most important details—and giving him the comfort he so desperately sought, God not only showed Enoch the Savior’s crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension into heaven, but he also revealed to Enoch a unique vision of the earth in which he heard it crying out for cleansing and deliverance from human wickedness.[4] The foregoing revelations laid the groundwork for the revelation of the building up and deliverance of Zion and New Jerusalem from beneath, the coming down of Zion and the New Jerusalem from above, and the subsequent millennial transformation of the earth (see Moses 7:62–67). This vision linking the present and future consoled Enoch with assurance that the earth will eventually be saved from the wickedness of her inhabitants.[5] Here, too, it is difficult to overestimate the impact that Enoch’s visions of Zion had on shaping Joseph Smith’s understanding of how to build Zion and the New Jerusalem in his day.[6] These glimpses of what would transpire at the Savior’s second coming and how the earth would eventually be sanctified and rest were themes Joseph had been learning since the First Vision and conversations with the angel Moroni.[7]

The Mother of Men: The History and Destiny of the Earth

As part of his vision, Enoch heard the earth mourn in audible words.[8] These words express the idea that human wickedness has a direct impact on the well-being of the earth.

48 And it came to pass that Enoch looked upon the earth; and he heard a voice from the bowels thereof, saying: Wo, wo is me, the mother of men; I am pained, I am weary, because of the wickedness of my children. When shall I rest, and be cleansed from the filthiness which is gone forth out of me? When will my Creator sanctify me, that I may rest, and righteousness for a season abide upon my face?

The earth is portrayed as identifying herself as the “mother of men,” a description consonant with the theme that humanity/Adam (Hebrew hāʾādām) was taken from “the ground” (hāʾădāmâ, “the earth, arable ground”; compare Genesis 2:5–7; 3:18–19, 23; etc.).[9] The earth is the habitation of God’s children and will become a future habitation for God and his glorified children.[10] Enoch saw the earth lamenting the filthiness upon her and yearning to be sanctified.[11] Before the Lord showed Enoch the earth’s healing and sanctification, Enoch had to understand that this, too, came through the atonement of Jesus Christ. Enoch would witness the completion of that atonement in vision in the verses that follow. The subsequent revelations would provide the answers to the major issues that arise from the earth’s questions—namely, (1) the earth will be cleansed via the Flood; (2) the earth will be sanctified at the Lord’s second coming; and (3) righteousness will abide upon the earth for a season (the Millennium). Orson Pratt described the concept as follows:

The first ordinance instituted for the cleansing of the earth, was that of immersion in water; it was buried in the liquid element, and all things sinful upon the face of it were washed away. As it came forth from the ocean flood, like the new-born child, it was innocent, it arose to newness of life; it was its second birth from the womb of mighty waters—a new world issuing from the ruins of the old, clothed with all the innocency of its first creation.[12]

It was the vision of this larger picture that brought Enoch hope and put into perspective God’s overarching work of salvation for his children.

Images of the Defilement and Sanctification of the Earth

In important ways, these verses began to highlight components of God’s work of salvation through the images and experiences of the earth. For example, the corruption and cleansing of the earth came in phases and in events that typified or symbolized saving ordinances experienced by humans.[13] The Apostle Peter himself established the typological comparison between baptism and the cleansing of the earth when he described the “preach[ing]” of the gospel “unto the spirits in prison . . . when the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water. The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us . . . by the resurrection of Jesus Christ” (1 Peter 3:19–21). Thus, when the earth was corrupted, it would be cleansed by water.[14] When it required sanctification, Christ’s coming to consume the earth with fire became an image of sanctification through the Holy Ghost. Christ’s residence on a sanctified earth constituted a celestial sphere to be inhabited by celestial beings, made such through Christ’s atonement.[15] This is not to say that the water purification and sanctification of the earth by fire function in the exact same way that baptism and reception of the Holy Ghost function as ordinances of salvation for humankind,[16] but the symbolic resemblances and congruence between the cleansing of the earth by water and its sanctification with the baptisms of water and fire as ordinances stand firm.

Elder Mark E. Petersen articulated this symbolism as follows: “How are men cleansed of their sins? By baptism, and not only by water, but also by fire and the Holy Ghost. . . . Should not the earth—a living thing—be similarly sanctified? It was baptized with water in the flood. Eventually it will be baptized with fire, thus becoming cleansed and sanctified, to be made into a celestial sphere as the eternal home for the righteous.”[17] President Brigham Young had reached a similar conclusion: “The earth, in its present condition and situation, is not a fit habitation for the sanctified; but it abides the law of its creation, has been baptized with water, will be baptized by fire and the Holy Ghost, and by-and-by will be prepared for the faithful to dwell upon.”[18] Through these typological experiences, the Lord taught Enoch how all things worked in the grand scheme of God’s efforts to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of his children, and this would bring Enoch joy.

In this light, what Moses and Joseph Smith may have gleaned from Enoch’s visions recorded in Moses 7 has recently been examined in terms of temple parallels and experiences relating to atonement.[19] These views and insights help us see the interrelationship between the earth, its creation, its existence, and its final state as the eternal residence of God’s righteous children, and also how the temporal progress and eternal destinies of the earth and the human family are thoroughly intertwined.[20] Temple ritual, under Moses for example, emphasized “holiness”—an attribute of Deity experienced by Enoch—as essential to the development of divine character and thus as the overall objective of immortality and eternal life.[21] Both humankind and the earth would have to become “sanctified” or “holy” to eternally abide God’s presence.

The symbolism and images of the temple vividly illustrated this truth and even ritualized it. Indeed, the ancient Israelite temple ritual and sacrifices, as revealed to Moses, envisioned the sanctification and healing of the entirety of creation.[22] One illustration of this was that as a part of the Day of Atonement ritual, the high priest applied blood to various parts of the tabernacle/temple (see, e.g., Leviticus 16:15–20a; 33) and the people, “thereby restoring both as fit receptacles for and agents of God’s holy presence in the world.”[23] We can see this as symbolic of Christ’s sanctification and healing of God’s children, together with the creation upon which they would, if worthy, eternally reside. Margaret Barker explains the temple’s scale representation of the cosmos in microcosm and its relationship to the perfection of God and the imperfection of humans in this way: “If the temple represented, [or in other words]‘was’, the creation, then when any offence was committed, the cosmic covenant was breached and the people were exposed to danger. It was not simply the case that the temple was polluted by sinners, as they themselves would not have been allowed into those parts of the temple complex which their sins had damaged. It was the land or the creation which had been polluted, and the temple ‘was’ the creation.”[24]

Dale Allison Jr. also explains the corporate nature of ritual in ancient Israel as visualizing the interrelationship between God’s children (especially his people), the creation that they inhabit, and holiness: “In the world constructed by the priests, the sanctuary is a ‘spiritual barometer’ that measures not only the community’s faithfulness but also the fidelity of the entire cosmos to God’s creational plan.”[25] The earth’s lament of the wickedness upon it, as witnessed by Enoch in his vision in Moses 7, perhaps provides the conceptual backdrop for the later rituals of the Day of Atonement under Moses (who saw what Enoch saw) with their atonement function: rectifying the sinful state of the people and the defilement of the earth.[26] It is further possible that the Prophet Joseph Smith’s own encounters with what Enoch saw accelerated his efforts to get a temple built from a very early stage (compare the language of Doctrine and Covenants 36:8 and Moses 7:62, two early revelations that were received around December 9, 1830, and relate to temples).

Barker further comments on how Mosaic temple ritual symbolized the Lord’s atoning work: “The damage was restored by ritual in the temple. ‘Life’, i.e. blood, was applied to the damaged parts and the impurity was absorbed, ‘borne’ by the priest who performed the kpr. It was the ritual of restoration and healing.”[27] These are themes we find throughout Moses 6–7. For example, we recall that when Enoch saw “the families of the earth”—i.e., the human family living in a sinful state upon the polluted creation—he exclaimed: “When shall the day of the Lord come? When shall the blood of the Righteous be shed, that all they that mourn may be sanctified and have eternal life?” (Moses 7:45).

In atoning for creation in Mosaic temple ritual, the Israelite high priest represented the Lord, who is the Great High Priest. Barker notes that “for the great atonement a greater ritual was demanded. The high priest took blood into the holy of holies and when he emerged, he smeared and sprinkled it on various parts of the temple. Then he placed both his hands on the scapegoat, loaded the animal with the sins of the people, and sent it into the desert.”[28] Moses 6–7 is filled with allusions to the blood and atonement of Christ. Enoch himself had taught what the Lord had revealed to Adam, namely, “inasmuch as they [your children] were born into the world by the fall, which bringeth death by water, and blood, and the spirit, which I have made, and so became of dust a living soul, even so ye must be born again, of water, and of the Spirit, and be cleansed by blood, even the blood of mine Only Begotten into the mysteries of the kingdom of Heaven; that ye might be sanctified from all sin, and enjoy the words of eternal life in this world, and eternal life in the world to come, even immortal glory. For by the water ye keep the commandment; by the Spirit ye are justified, and by the blood ye are sanctified” (Moses 6:59–60, OT1; emphasis added). In the tabernacle/temple under Mosaic “law” (tôrâ, tôrat = “teaching,” “instruction”), the function of the whole system of the atonement rites was to “point” (Hebrew yry/yrh, “teach,” by pointing the finger) ancient Israel to the one who atoned for them (see Jacob 4:5).[29] As Amulek taught the Zoramites, “this is the whole meaning of the law [compare Hebrew tôrâ], every whit pointing [compare Hebrew yry/yrh] to that great and last sacrifice . . . the Son of God, yea, infinite and eternal” (Alma 34:14).[30] For those ancient Israelites who participated in these atonement rites with their whole hearts, the end result was holiness and communion with God.

Importantly, regarding this concept of ritual and atonement under the Levitical law, Dale Allison Jr. also notes that “finally, Aaron presents burnt offerings, the fat of which is ‘turned into smoke’ (v. 25) which symbolizes the transformation the ritual has effected: places and persons once unfit for communion with a holy God now have been ‘turned into’ an offering that is acceptable and pleasing to God.”[31] For Moses, the sacrifices and performance of atonement ritual would have been greatly enlightened by the teachings and discourses of Enoch.

In a summation that can be applied to the teachings of Enoch, Margaret Barker offers her interpretation of what this all means in terms of the scapegoat ritual[32]: “The Lord emerged from heaven carrying life, which was given to all parts of the created order as the effects of sin were absorbed and wounds healed. The Lord then transferred the sins of the people, which he had been carrying, onto the goat, which was then driven away carrying the sins.”[33] This one ritual of atonement helps illustrate principles highlighted in the visions of Enoch (e.g., Moses 7:39, 45, 47–48; compare v. 67). It also symbolizes the salvific effect that Christ would have over all of creation as well as how his atonement would eternally affect each of his creations, just as Enoch had described.[34] These teachings and visions of Enoch thus seem to have had a profound effect on Moses and his understanding of the development of temple ritual in his day.[35]

In one of the great latter-day revelations on the temple, the Lord revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith that the atoning and sanctifying of the earth would eventually mean the earth’s “death” and “resurrection”—restoration or re-creation—as it would for every human soul:

And the resurrection from the dead is the redemption of the soul. And the redemption of the soul is through him that quickeneth all things, in whose bosom it is decreed that the poor and the meek of the earth shall inherit it. Therefore, it must needs be sanctified from all unrighteousness, that it may be prepared for the celestial glory; for after it hath filled the measure of its creation, it shall be crowned with glory, even with the presence of God the Father; that bodies who are of the celestial kingdom may possess it forever and ever; for, for this intent was it made and created, and for this intent are they sanctified. And again, verily I say unto you, the earth abideth the law of a celestial kingdom, for it filleth the measure of its creation, and transgresseth not the law—wherefore, it shall be sanctified; yea, notwithstanding it shall die, it shall be quickened again, and shall abide the power by which it is quickened, and the righteous shall inherit it. (Doctrine and Covenants 88:16–20, 25–26)[36]

These revelations would have a far-reaching effect on Latter-day Saint understanding of God’s purposes for the earth and its inhabitants. They highlight the themes of atonement, temple ritual, and ultimately how holiness codes prepared people for the ordinances that would develop their personal and communal holiness in preparation for communion with God.

The Lord’s Covenant with Enoch: Noah and His Descendants

Enoch’s response to the earth’s weeping continued to reflect his changed nature. Just as he wept for the perishing souls on the earth (see Moses 7:41, 44), he now wept for the earth itself and petitioned the Lord to “have compassion upon the earth” and the children of Noah:

49 And when Enoch heard the earth mourn, he wept, and cried unto the Lord, saying: O Lord, wilt thou not have compassion upon the earth?[37] Wilt thou not bless the children of Noah?

50 And it came to pass that Enoch continued his cry unto the Lord, saying: I ask thee, O Lord, in the name of thine Only Begotten, even Jesus Christ, that thou wilt have mercy upon Noah and his seed, that the earth might never more be covered by the floods.[38]

51 And the Lord could not withhold; and he covenanted with Enoch,[39] and sware unto him with an oath, that he would stay the floods; that he would call upon the children of Noah;

52 And he sent forth an unalterable decree, that a remnant of his seed should always be found among all nations, while the earth should stand.

As Enoch mourned over the earth, the Lord covenanted to protect Noah and his children. Part of that promise included never again sending a flood of water to cover the earth. As Orson Pratt explained, “Among the things revealed to Enoch was the knowledge of the flood, which was to take place. And the Lord made a covenant with Enoch, that He would set His bow in the clouds—just as it afterwards was given to Noah—not as a mere token alone that the Lord would no more drown the world, but as a token of the new and everlasting covenant that the Lord made with Enoch.”[40] It is Enoch’s perspective of this everlasting covenant, and God’s renewal of it, that makes his visions so impactful. What God was doing was saving through the covenant that had been well established since Adam and Eve. The term remnant in Moses 7:52 connects the Lord’s covenant with Enoch to later covenants, including the Noahic covenant (i.e., the covenant that God made with Noah and his sons in Genesis 9:1–17) and the Abrahamic covenant, and the remnant theology evident throughout the Hebrew Bible (i.e., the concept of divine judgment followed by the preservation and redemption of a faithful remnant), especially in Isaiah (see Isaiah 1:9; 10:20–22; 11:11, 16; 37:31–32). Thus, the covenant to withhold another flood was only part of the covenant.[41] As Joseph Smith was engaging in the New Translation of the Bible, we find the revelation in the Joseph Smith Translation of Genesis 9:15 making a clear connection between the Enochic and Noahic covenants and succeeding covenants: “And God spake unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, And I, behold, I will establish my covenant with you, which I made unto your father Enoch, concerning your seed after you” (Genesis 9:9, footnote a).[42]

Joseph Smith Translation of Genesis 9:15 helps us see the vital connection between the covenants that God made with Adam and Eve, Seth’s posterity, Enoch and his people, and later Noah and his sons, on down to the Abrahamic covenant. “Although the everlasting covenant has been administered in different ways and the specific commands associated with it have varied throughout history, the covenant itself remains the same in its essentials.”[43] Enoch has come to understand this eternal connection. The Lord then leaves a blessing on Enoch and (implicitly) on his successors as those through whose seed the Messiah would come, a blessing in which the Lord identified himself by several unique divine titles.

Son of Man: I Am Messiah, the King of Zion, the Rock of Heaven

“Son of Man” as a messianic title first occurs in the Book of Moses and the story of Enoch in Moses 6:57, where Enoch taught regarding the Father and the Son, “In the language of Adam, Man of Holiness is his name, and the name of his Only Begotten is the Son of Man, even Jesus Christ, a righteous Judge, who shall come in the meridian of time.”[44] In Semitic languages the expression “son of man” (Hebrew ben ʾādām; Aramaic bar ʾĕnāš; compare Ugaritic bnš) emphasizes humanness (as Satan tried to do to Moses in Moses 1:12 versus what God himself had just taught Moses about his relationship to him), but here and later in Enoch’s visions, this collocation also emphasizes divine sonship.[45]

This title resurfaces again in Moses 7:24, which records that Enoch saw a vision of the destinies of the righteous and the wicked, including Zion’s assumption into heaven (“and Enoch was high and lifted up, even in the bosom of the Father, and of the Son of Man”). In Moses 7:47 the title “Son of Man” marks the beginning of Enoch’s vision of the coming of Christ in the flesh. “Son of Man” next occurs in the passage that follows below and will be used a total of six times in the vision (see vv. 47, 54–56, 59, 65), for a total of eight times in the Book of Moses.[46] The concentrated repetition of “Son of Man” is significant not only for how it links Enoch’s vision to the prophecy of “one like the Son of man” in Daniel 7:13–14 and Jesus’s identification of himself by that title in the New Testament Gospels, but also for how it links Enoch’s vision to the body of Jewish Enochic literature, where the title “Son of Man” prominently occurs[47] (e.g., the Book of Parables).[48] In Moses 7:53–56 the Lord links this title to several other emotive divine titles:

53 And the Lord said: Blessed is he through whose seed Messiah shall come; for he saith—I am Messiah, the King of Zion, the Rock of Heaven,[49] which is broad as eternity; whoso cometh in at the gate and climbeth up by me shall never fall; wherefore, blessed are they of whom I have spoken, for they shall come forth with songs of everlasting joy.[50]

54 And it came to pass that Enoch cried unto the Lord, saying: When the Son of Man cometh in the flesh, shall the earth rest? I pray thee, show me these things.

55 And the Lord said unto Enoch: Look, and he looked and beheld the Son of Man lifted up on the cross, after the manner of men;

56 And he heard a loud voice; and the heavens were veiled;[51] and all the creations of God mourned; and the earth groaned; and the rocks were rent; and the saints arose, and were crowned at the right hand of the Son of Man, with crowns of glory.

These passages are filled with divine titles that refer to aspects of Christ’s redemptive mission, defining all that he would do as Messiah and King. There is also a description of him being lifted up upon the cross. Thus Enoch learned of redemption, kingship, and crowns.

First, the Lord identified himself as the Messiah (from Hebrew māšîaḥ, “anointed one,” a term associated with priests and kings), and in so doing he implicitly promised Enoch that he himself would come into the world through Enoch’s and Noah’s seed as the one set apart and anointed to do so. Explaining the relevance of Christ as the Messiah, Sidney Rigdon was reported to have said in an 1834 discourse that “on two points hang all the revelations which have ever been given, which are the two advents of the Messiah. The first one is past, and the second one is now just before us, and consequently those who desire a part in this era which the angels desired to look into, have to be assembled with the saints.”[52]

Second, the Lord claimed the title “the King of Zion.”[53] The Lord’s enthronement in Mount Zion is mentioned in Psalm 9:11, Joel 3:11, and Isaiah 8:18 (2 Nephi 18:18). Elder D. Todd Christofferson connected the title “King of Zion” here in Moses 7:53 with Christ’s millennial reign as described in Moses 7:64: “Later, Jerusalem and its temple were called Mount Zion, and the scriptures prophesy of a future New Jerusalem where Christ shall reign as ‘King of Zion,’ when ‘for the space of a thousand years the earth shall rest’ (Moses 7:53, 64).”[54]

The third name-title that the Lord used of himself in the aforementioned verses was “the Rock of Heaven,” described as “broad as eternity.” The description of the Lord as a “Rock” occurs with great frequency throughout the Hebrew Bible,[55] particularly in the Psalms.[56] We encounter a form of this name-title that even more nearly approaches the Lord’s self-description in Isaiah 26:4: “Trust ye in the Lord for ever: for in the Lord JEHOVAH is everlasting strength [ṣûr ʿôlāmîm].” The King James translation “everlasting strength” obscures the meaning of Hebrew ṣûr ʿôlāmîm, which would be better rendered “Rock of Ages,” or even more literally “Rock of Eternity” or “Rock of the Eternities.”[57] This expression is the source behind the popular Christian hymn “Rock of Ages,” written by Augustus M. Toplady:

1. Rock of Ages, cleft for me,

Let me hide myself in thee;

Let the water and the blood,

From thy wounded side which flowed,

Be of sin the double cure,

Save from wrath and make me pure.


2. Not the labors of my hands

Can fill all thy law’s demands;

Could my zeal no respite know,

Could my tears forever flow,

All for sin could not atone;

Thou must save, and thou alone.


3. While I draw this fleeting breath,

When mine eyes shall close in death,

When I rise to worlds unknown

And behold thee on thy throne,

Rock of Ages, cleft for me,

Let me hide myself in thee.[58]

Enoch and Zion found their protection in the Lord, the King of Zion, the Rock of Heaven. Conceivably, the images of Zion as a place of protection associated with a high, protective rock have their source here, or at least reflect the concept of God as the anointed protector and king over his domain. Enoch was beginning to gain a clearer picture of Christ in all these roles, albeit Christ as king and resurrected conqueror is beyond description.[59] What Enoch comprehended was that Christ had the power to overcome death on behalf of all and that he would crown the righteous in kingly fashion with crowns of glory.[60] Enoch would next see Christ liberating those souls who would be lost in the Flood.

Spirits in Prison Came Forth—My People Will I Preserve

Even as the Lord revealed to Enoch the fate of those who would physically perish in the Flood, he was raising Enoch’s sights to see the eventual redemption of those souls and the redemption of all the dead:

57 And as many of the spirits as were in prison came forth, and stood on the right hand of God; and the remainder were reserved in chains of darkness[61] until the judgment of the great day.

58 And again Enoch wept and cried unto the Lord, saying: When shall the earth rest?

59 And Enoch beheld the Son of Man ascend up unto the Father; and he called unto the Lord, saying: Wilt thou not come again upon the earth? Forasmuch as thou art God, and I know thee, and thou hast sworn unto me, and commanded me that I should ask in the name of thine Only Begotten; thou hast made me, and given unto me a right to thy throne,[62] and not of myself, but through thine own grace; wherefore, I ask thee if thou wilt not come again on the earth.

60 And the Lord said unto Enoch: As I live, even so will I come in the last days, in the days of wickedness and vengeance, to fulfil the oath which I have made unto you concerning the children of Noah;

61 And the day shall come that the earth shall rest, but before that day the heavens shall be darkened, and a veil of darkness shall cover the earth; and the heavens shall shake, and also the earth; and great tribulations shall be among the children of men, but my people will I preserve.

In Moses 7:57, Enoch saw the coming forth of some of the spirits from the “prison” mentioned in verse 38: “And as many of the spirits as were in prison came forth, and stood on the right hand of God; and the remainder were reserved in chains of darkness until the judgment of the great day.”[63] These revelations given to Enoch are remarkable and lay the groundwork for work on behalf of the dead that would later develop in the New Testament period,[64] as well as in the Restoration in the revelations given to the Prophet Joseph Smith. Enoch learned what prophets in the New Testament and Joseph Smith would learn in relation to this aspect of God’s work of salvation: “The Order & Ordinances of the Kingdom were instituted by the Priesthood in the council of Heaven before the world was The words, Prison Paradise & Hell are different translations of the Greek Hades which answers to the Hebrew Shaole the true translation of which is ‘The world of spirits where the righteous & the wicked dwell together.[’]”[65] Numerous dispensations would learn the truths of God’s redemptive work and that there was hope for any who were lost (in Enoch’s case, his concerns over the oncoming flood).[66]

Enoch had come to trust the Lord and his promises. With all the uncertainty and wickedness Enoch had seen in the visions, the Lord uttered a sacred oath that reassured him concerning the future: “As I live, even so will I come in the last days, in the days of wickedness and vengeance, to fulfil the oath which I have made unto you concerning the children of Noah.” The force of this oath is unmistakable: in guaranteeing Enoch by his own life and godhood that there would be a second coming, the Lord showed Enoch “the hour of . . . redemption” and he “received a fulness of joy” (Moses 7:67). As Enoch had called upon God with confidence (“Forasmuch as thou art God, and I know thee . . . ,” v. 59), he had gained that of greatest worth and value. As described by President Boyd K. Packer:

If you are reverent and prayerful and obedient, the day will come when there will be revealed to you why the God of heaven has commanded us to address him as Father, and the Lord of the Universe as Son. Then you will have discovered the Pearl of Great Price spoken of in the scriptures and willingly go and sell all that you have that you might obtain it.”[67]

Enoch knew God, and God knew Enoch. Enoch’s experiences inspire confidence in God and help us to discover this pearl of greatest price for ourselves.

From Righteousness out of Heaven to Rest: There Shall Be Mine Abode

Enoch now learned some things that would happen prior to the Lord’s fulfilling his covenant to return. He knew the outcome was certain, and that outcome would be joyful beyond description as heaven and earth met in a joyous reunion with Christ. The Lord told Enoch:

62 And righteousness will I send down out of heaven; and truth will I send forth out of the earth, to bear testimony of mine Only Begotten; his resurrection from the dead; yea, and also the resurrection of all men; and righteousness and truth will I cause to sweep the earth as with a flood,[68] to gather out mine elect from the four quarters of the earth, unto a place which I shall prepare, an Holy City, that my people may gird up their loins, and be looking forth for the time of my coming; for there shall be my tabernacle,[69] and it shall be called Zion, a New Jerusalem.[70]

63 And the Lord said unto Enoch: Then shalt thou and all thy city meet them there, and we will receive[71] them into our bosom,[72] and they shall see us; and we will fall upon their necks, and they shall fall upon our necks, and we will kiss each other;[73]

64 And there shall be mine abode, and it shall be Zion, which shall come forth out of all the creations which I have made; and for the space of a thousand years the earth shall rest.[74]

The September 1832 revelation that is now Doctrine and Covenants 84, a revelation on the Melchizedek Priesthood that speaks of seeing the face of God through sacred ordinances (see vv. 19–22), describes in a song the glorious reunion of Zion above and Zion below, expounding upon the visons of Enoch in Moses 7:

The Lord hath brought again Zion; / The Lord hath redeemed his people, Israel, / According to the election of grace, / Which was brought to pass by the faith / And covenant of their fathers. / The Lord hath redeemed his people; / And Satan is bound and time is no longer. / The Lord hath gathered all things in one. / The Lord hath brought down Zion from above. / The Lord hath brought up Zion from beneath. / The earth hath travailed and brought forth her strength; / And truth is established in her bowels; / And the heavens have smiled upon her; / And she is clothed with the glory of her God; / For he stands in the midst of his people. / Glory, and honor, and power, and might, / Be ascribed to our God; for he is full of mercy, / Justice, grace and truth, and peace, / Forever and ever, Amen. (vv. 99–102)

Enoch saw his fate with the Zion of old and its reunification with the Zion of the New Jerusalem, and Joseph Smith sought to understand this connection. In analyzing Moses 7:62, Joseph explained:

Now I understand by this quotation, that God clearly manifested to Enoch, the redemption which he prepared, by offering the Messiah as a Lamb slain from before the foundation of the world: by virtue of the same, the glorious resurrection of the Savior, and the resurrection of all the human family,—even a resurrection of their corporeal bodies: and also righteousness and truth to sweep the earth as with a flood. Now I ask how righteousness and truth are agoing to sweep the earth as with a flood? I will answer:—Men and angels are to be co-workers in bringing to pass this great work: and a Zion is to be prepared; even a New Jerusalem, for the elect that are to be gathered from the four quarters of the earth, and to be established an holy city: for the tabernacle of the Lord shall be with them.[75]

For the Prophet Joseph Smith, Enoch’s revelations clarified an important principle: “The heavenly priesthood will unite with the earthly, to bring about those great purposes; and whilst we are thus united in the one common cause to roll forth the kingdom of God, the Heavenly Priesthood are not idle spectators; the spirit of God will be showered down from above, it will dwell in our midst.”[76] Orson Pratt also explained:

The Latter-day Zion will resemble, in most particulars, the Zion of Enoch: it will be established upon the same celestial laws—be built upon the same gospel, and be guided by continued revelation. Its inhabitants, like those of the antediluvian Zion, will be the righteous gathered out from all nations: the glory of God will be seen upon it; and His power will be manifested there, even as in the Zion of old. All the blessings and grand characteristics which were exhibited in ancient Zion, will be shown forth in the Latter-day Zion.[77]

These teachings would bring Enoch joy, and perhaps the Prophet Joseph Smith captured the essence of the messages these revelations convey in a poem he composed in 1843 to W. W. Phelps:

32. The myst’ry of Godliness truly is great;—

The past, and the present, and what is to be;

And this is the gospel—glad tidings to all,

Which the voice from the heavens bore record to me:


33. That he came to the world in the middle of time,

To lay down his life for his friends and his foes,

And bear away sin as a mission of love;

And sanctify earth for a blessed repose.


34. ’Tis decreed, that he’ll save all the work of his hands,

And sanctify them by his own precious blood;

And purify earth for the Sabbath of rest,

By the agent of fire, as it was by the flood.[78]

These poetic stanzas seem to reflect the impact that the vision of Enoch in Moses 7 had on the Prophet Joseph Smith and his doctrinal understanding of that vision.

Enoch Sees the Savior’s Second Coming

The Lord granted Enoch a vision of what he had sworn with an oath he would do in the last days, and now Enoch was privileged to behold these glorious events:

65 And it came to pass that Enoch saw the day of the coming of the Son of Man, in the last days, to dwell on the earth in righteousness for the space of a thousand years;

66 But before that day he saw great tribulations among the wicked; and he also saw the sea, that it was troubled, and men’s hearts failing them,[79] looking forth with fear for the judgments of the Almighty God, which should come upon the wicked.

67 And the Lord showed Enoch all things, even unto the end of the world;[80] and he saw the day of the righteous, the hour of their redemption, and received a fulness of joy.

Enoch finally received his comfort and a fulness of joy. It sometimes required agonizing, soul-stretching revelations from heaven and seeing through the eyes of God, but eventually that vision came. Enoch transitioned from weeping to rejoicing. The events that originally led to tears remained reality, but his ability to cope with that reality was improved and magnified as he saw those events through the perspective of heaven. The “bitterness of soul” (Moses 7:44 ) that Enoch had experienced enlarged his capacity for eternal, incomprehensible joy—even a fullness of joy, like what the Savior experiences (see 3 Nephi 17:20). Elder Neal A. Maxwell stated, “If it is also true (in some way we don’t understand) that the cavity which suffering carves into our souls will one day also be the receptacle of joy, how infinitely greater Jesus’ capacity for joy, when he said, after his resurrection, ‘Behold, my joy is full.’ How very, very full, indeed, his joy must have been!”[81] Enoch, in his own sphere, became like “Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God” (Hebrews 12:2). This expanded vision was summarized by Elder Maxwell:

Yes, there will be wrenching polarization on this planet, but also the remarkable reunion with our colleagues in Christ from the City of Enoch. Yes, nation after nation will become a house divided, but more and more unifying Houses of the Lord will grace this planet. Yes, Armageddon lies ahead. But so does Adam-ondi-Ahman![82]

“Zion Is Fled”: Zion’s Removal from the Earth

Enoch had seen Zion’s removal from the earth and its ascension into heaven in vision before it happened (see Moses 7:21), and Moses 7:68–69 reports the completion of the apparently lengthy process:

68 And all the days of Zion, in the days of Enoch, were three hundred and sixty-five years.

69 And Enoch and all his people walked with God, and he dwelt in the midst of Zion; and it came to pass that Zion was not, for God received[83] it up into his own bosom; and from thence went forth the saying, Zion is Fled.[84]

Enoch’s vision included seeing not only the destiny of his own people but also the special role they would fill as translated beings in the salvation history of the earth.[85] Zion was thus “fled,” and the next chapter addresses the coming of the Flood. The translation of the city of Enoch would precipitate this, and Joseph Smith explained that God “selected Enoch, whom he directed, and gave his law unto, and to the people who were with him; and when the world in general would not obey the commands of God, after walking with God, he translated Enoch and his church, and the priesthood or government of heaven, was taken away.”[86] The story of Enoch offers good news to all of us: “If Enoch was righteous enough to come into the presence of God, and walk with him, he must have become so by keeping his commandments, and so of every righteous person.”[87]


[1] “RIGHTEOUSNESS (Heb. sadîq, saddîq, Gr. dikaiosynē). The Lord God always acts in righteousness (Ps 89:4; Jer 9:24). That is, he always has a right relationship with people, and his action is to maintain that relationship. As regards Israel, God’s righteousness involved treating the people according to the terms of the covenant that he had graciously made with them. This involved acting both in judgment (chastisement) and in deliverance (Ps 68; 103:6; Lam 1:18). The latter activity is often therefore equated with salvation (see Isa 46:12–13; 51:5).” Douglas and Tenney, New International Bible Dictionary, s.v. “righteousness.” “Because God’s righteousness and the proper human response are located in the context of covenantal relations, the notion of righteousness frequently has strong covenantal, and thus relational, overtones.” G. P. Anderson, “Righteousness,” in Mangum et al., Lexham Theological Wordbook. “In the Hebrew Bible, righteousness is often attributed to key figures for their upright and just behavior.” M. F. Bird, “Righteousness,” in Barry et al., Lexham Bible Dictionary. In Malachi 4:2, “Sun of righteousness” (שֶׁ֣מֶשׁ צְדָקָ֔ה) occurs as a reference to God. A form of δίκαιος (“righteous”) is used once in Acts 7:52 as title of God (the Righteous One). See Liddell and Scott, Greek-English Lexicon, 429. The use of the words Righteous, the Lamb, and Zion in this verse reflects covenantal terminology and themes of redemption.

[2] “CRUCIFIXION (σταυρόω, stauroō, ‘put up posts’; cruci affigare, ‘bind to a cross’; תלה, tlh, ‘hang’; צלב, tslb, ‘hang.’ . . . Though the Persians are often attributed as having invented the practice of crucifixion, ancient sources indicate that several other cultures and peoples employed it as well, including the Assyrians, the people of India, the Scythians, the Taurians, the Thracians, the Celts, the Germans, the Britons, the Numidians, and the Carthaginians. The Greeks and Macedonians evidently learned the practice from the Persians.” D. A. Fiensy, “Crucifixion,” in Barry et al., Lexham Bible Dictionary. Through revelation, Enoch got an early glimpse into the mode by which “the Righteous is lifted up, and the Lamb is slain.” In a March 7, 1831, revelation given to the Prophet Joseph Smith, the Lord spoke in the first person (explaining himself as a fulfillment of Zechariah 13:6): “I am he that was lifted up I am Jesus which was crusified I am the Son of God.” Revelation, circa 7 March 1831 [D&C 45], p. 75, The Joseph Smith Papers. Orson Pratt would further elaborate, “We believe, that through the sufferings, death, and atonement of Jesus Christ, all mankind, without one exception, are to be completely, and fully redeemed, both body and spirit, from the endless banishment and curse, to which they were consigned, by Adam’s transgression. . . . This is the reason that all men are redeemed from their first banishment, and restored into the presence of God, and this is the reason that the Saviour said, John xii. 32, “If I be lifted up from the earth I will draw all men unto me.” Appendix: Orson Pratt, A[n] Interesting Account of Several Remarkable Visions, 1840, p. 25, The Joseph Smith Papers. “For Old Testament prophecies concerning the crucifixion of Jesus, see Ps 22:16–18; none of Jesus Christ’s bones will be broken: Ex 12:46; Nu 9:12; Ps 34:20; Jn 19:36; Ps 22:1,7–8; 69:21; 109:25; Isa 50:6; 53:5,9; Am 8:9–10; Zec 12:10; 13:6–7.” Manser et al., Dictionary of Bible Themes, s.v. “Crucifixion.”

[3] For a similar concept, see Isaiah 53:10: “Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.” See also discussion in Schade and Bowen, “To Whom Is the Arm of the Lord Revealed?,” 100–101.

[4] In the apocryphal book of 1 Enoch, 7:6 and 9:2 depict the earth bringing forth accusations against lawless ones and crying out to the gates of heaven. The Dead Sea Scrolls also speak of the earth complaining and raising accusations to the heavens against the people of the earth who had corrupted it. See Draper, Brown, and Rhodes, Pearl of Great Price, 140. For a discussion on 1 Enoch and the earth’s cries, see Stokes, “Flood Stories in 1 Enoch,” 235.

[5] See Ludlow, “Enoch in the Old Testament,” 100–102.

[6] See Ludlow, “Where Did Enoch Go After Genesis?” See also discussion in chapter 20 herein.

[7] In his 1832 account of the First Vision, Joseph Smith described how the Lord explained the reality of his second coming: “a piller of fire light above the brightness of the sun at noon day come down from above and rested upon me and I was filled with the spirit of god and the <Lord> opened the heavens upon me and I saw the Lord and he spake unto me saying Joseph <my son> thy sins are forgiven thee. go thy <way> walk in my statutes and keep my commandments behold I am the Lord of glory I was crucifyed for the world that all those who believe on my name may have Eternal life <behold> the world lieth in sin . . . and mine anger is kindling against the inhabitants of the earth to visit them acording to thir ungodliness and to bring to pass that which <hath> been spoken by the mouth of the prophets and Ap[o]stles behold and lo I come quickly as it [is?] written of me in the cloud <clothed> in the glory of my Father and my soul was filled with love and for many days I could rejoice with great Joy and the Lord was with me.” History, circa Summer 1832, p. 3, The Joseph Smith Papers. Moroni had also emphasized the Second Coming as a reality and point of focus in building the Lord’s church: “This messenger proclaimed himself to be an angel of God sent to bring the joyful tidings, that the covenant which God made with ancient Israel was at hand to be fulfilled, that the preparatory work for the second coming of the Messiah was speedily to commence; that the time was at hand for the gospel, in all its fulness to be preached in power, unto all nations that a people might be prepared for the millennial reign.” “Church History,” 1 March 1842, p. 707, The Joseph Smith Papers.

[8] “The mother-earth figure may not be commonly presented in Latter-day Saint theology, but it is a common feature in many ancient religions. Not surprisingly, she appears in other Enochic literature where she cries out for the wickedness upon her (see 1 Enoch 7:4–6; 8:4; 9:2, 10; 4QEnGiants 8, lines 3–4, 6–12).” Ludlow, “Enoch in the Old Testament,” 101. In Semitic languages, earth is feminine (“mother of men”). For this and other comparisons with apocryphal sources and the Book of Moses, see discussion in Skinner, “Joseph Smith Vindicated Again,” 365–81. “The earth is a living thing. Is there not great significance in the scriptural references to the earth? While Enoch and the Lord discussed the wickedness of men, ‘it came to pass that Enoch looked upon the earth; and he heard a voice from the bowels thereof, saying: Wo, wo is me. . . . When will my Creator sanctify me, that I may rest, and righteousness for a season abide upon my face?’” Petersen, Noah and the Flood, 62–63. See also Woodruff, in Journal of Discourses, 13:163. “The Lord here informs us that the earth on which we dwell is a living thing, and that the time must come when it will be sanctified from all unrighteousness. In the Pearl of Great Price, when Enoch is conversing with the Lord, he hears the earth crying for deliverance from the iniquity upon her face. . . . It is not the fault of the earth that wickedness prevails upon her face, for she has been true to the law which she received and that law is the celestial law. Therefore the Lord says that the earth shall be sanctified from all unrighteousness.” Smith, Church History and Modern Revelation, 2:131.

[9] See Stamm, Köhler, and Baumgartner, Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon, 15.

[10] “And the redemption of the soul is through him that quickeneth all things, in whose bosom it is decreed that the poor and the meek of the earth shall inherit it. Therefore, it must needs be sanctified from all unrighteousness, that it may be prepared for the celestial glory; for after it hath filled the measure of its creation, it shall be crowned with glory, even with the presence of God the Father” (Doctrine and Covenants 88:17–19; see 63:21; 77:1; 84:101; 88:20; 130:7, 9).

[11] Doctrine and Covenants 123:7 describes the suffering that Church members experienced as a result of wickedness and states that “the whole earth groans under the weight of its iniquity.” See History, 1838–1856, volume C-1 [2 November 1838–31 July 1842], p. 910, The Joseph Smith Papers.

[12] Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 1:331. See Smith, Answers to Gospel Questions, 4:20.

[13] In Moses 7 the earth undergoes typological experiences of baptism of water and fire, symbolizing the ordinances of baptism and sanctification by fire that are required of humans. There are, however, important differences between baptism as an ordinance of salvation for humankind and baptism of the earth with the Flood. Through the Flood, neither the earth nor the people on it were receiving a remission of sins. Just because something is “a living thing” does not mean that it needs to be baptized, and such ordinances are not required of animals and other living things. The template in Moses 7 of baptism through a flood refers to the people on the earth, rather than necessitating that the earth was a sinner and required baptism, and the comparisons and symbols between the earth and people form an archetypal paradigm of progression. See discussion in Schade, “Flood Story,” 136. By 1835 some Church publications began to reflect the Flood in terms of the baptism of the earth. See W. W. Phelps, “Letter No. 9,” Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate, July 1835, 146. “Here Phelps mentions both a baptism and a cleansing of the earth from ‘her sins.’ While these may have been merely rhetorical moves, Phelps can also be seen as introducing, however preliminarily and unintentionally, an ambiguity into the discussion that still besets Mormon discourse. That is, though by ‘her sins’ he likely referred to sins committed by mortals living on the earth, subsequent developments make his usage notable because it can be read as positing a sentient earth. This ambiguity, it turns out, would continue throughout the twentieth century in much of the Latter-day Saint discourse about the Flood.” Hoskisson and Smoot, “Was Noah’s Flood the Baptism of the Earth?,” 166. While some of these statements implied a sentient earth, others simply made the connection between the Flood and the concept of baptism: “The destruction of the Antediluvian world, by water, was typical of receiving remission of sins through baptism. The earth had become clothed with sin as with a garment; the righteous were brought out and saved from the world of sin, even by water; the like figure, even baptism, doth now save us, says Peter (1 Peter iii. 21). . . . Noah and family were removed, and disconnected from sins and pollutions, by means of water; so baptism, the like figure, doth now remove our souls from sins and pollutions, through faith on the great atonement made upon Calvary.” Snow, Only Way to Be Saved, 3–4. See Schade, “Flood Story,” 133–36.

[14] By the nineteenth century, Protestant groups viewed the Flood story through of lens of baptism. “C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, two highly influential German Protestant scholars of the second half of the nineteenth century, in a sophisticated analysis of 1 Peter 3, opined that the Flood of Noah contained dual symbolism. On the one hand, according to Keil and Delitzsch, the Flood represented ‘a judgment of such universality and violence as will only be seen again in the judgment at the end of the world,’ yet on the other, the Flood was also ‘an act of mercy which made the flood itself a flood of grace, and in that respect a type of baptism (1 Pet. iii. 21), and of life rising out of death.’ . . . As would be expected, there is considerable overlap between nineteenth-century Latter-day Saint and Protestant understandings of the Flood as a cleansing of the earth of wickedness and therefore a symbolic prefiguring of Christian baptism. Yet Latter-day Saints seemed much more invested than Protestants in interpreting the Flood as a literal ordinance, perhaps because the Restoration presents stronger forms of sacramentalism than Protestantism does.” Hoskisson and Smoot, “Was Noah’s Flood the Baptism of the Earth?,” 164–65.

[15] The earth was cleansed from its sinners and will eventually be prepared to become an abode for the righteous. See Hoskisson and Smoot, “Was Noah’s Flood the Baptism of the Earth?,” 180–82.

[16] See the discussion in Hoskisson and Smoot, “Was Noah’s Flood the Baptism of the Earth?,” 165–82.

[17] Petersen, Noah and the Flood, 62–63. See Woodruff, in Journal of Discourses, 13:163.

[18] Quoted in Smith, Answers to Gospel Questions, 4:20.

[19] See Bradshaw, “LDS Story of Enoch,” 39–73; and Book of Mormon Central staff and Bradshaw, “Heavenly Ascent.”

[20] Keeping in mind that the revelations explained the final state of the earth as a sanctified, glorified residence of God and celestial beings, we see how the development of temple ritual in the Restoration becomes significant and tied to major themes found in Moses 7. See chapter 22 herein. Samuel Brown has described the concept as follows: “[Joseph] Smith’s new rites took initiates from the earth’s creation on the cosmic stage and the first family in the Garden of Eden to their postmortal exaltations in the celestial kingdom.” Brown, In Heaven as It Is on Earth, 183–84. Moses 7 appears to highlight some significant events in that process.

[21] “Holiness—A quality that characterizes deity and at times humans and/or objects. . . . The English terms ‘holy’ and ‘holiness’ translate the biblical Hebrew word group קדשׁ (qdsh). . . . The Septuagint usually translates the Hebrew terms for ‘holy’ with some form of the ἅγ (hag)-root. Thus, wherever the Hebrew Bible uses the קדשׁ (qdsh) word group, the Septuagint uses Greek terms like ‘holy’ (ἅγιος, hagios) or ‘to be holy’ (ἁγιάζειν, hagiazein). The New Testament also uses the ἅγ (hag)-root to communicate the concept of holiness, especially when referencing the Old Testament background. Since the New Testament depends on the language of holiness in the Old Testament, most holiness scholarship has primarily focused on the Old Testament. . . . Some scholars have suggested that the ancient conception of holiness as ‘membership or belonging to the divine’ is also depicted in the Bible via the קדשׁ (qdsh) and ἃγ (hag)-word groups in the Old Testament and New Testament.” M. C. Lyons, “Holiness,” in Barry et al., Lexham Bible Dictionary. “What became increasingly evident in the OT is overwhelmingly explicit in the NT: that holiness means the pure, loving nature of God, separate from evil, aggressively seeking to universalize itself; that this character is inherent in places, times, and institutions intimately associated with worship; and that holiness is to characterize human beings who have entered into personal relationship with God.” Douglas and Tenney, New International Bible Dictionary, s.v. “holiness.” Ritual and ordinances would have been a component of accomplishing holiness. Doctrine and Covenants 84:19–21 begins to highlight the related concepts of holiness in preparation for ordinances.

[22] See Barker, “Atonement: The Rite of Healing,” in Great High Priest, 42–55. On the “healing” dimension in Jesus’s atoning sacrifice as expressed in scriptural passages such as Isaiah 53:5, Mark 2:17, and 1 Peter 2:24, see Reichenbach, “Healing View,” in Beilby and Eddy, Nature of the Atonement, 117–56; see also Reichenbach, “Healing Response,” in Beilby and Eddy, Nature of the Atonement, 106–9.

[23] Dale C. Allison Jr., “Day of Atonement,” in Sakenfeld et al., New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, 2:42. “The OT describes atonement primarily as a ritual activity (see especially the occurrences of the words for atonement in Leviticus). More specifically, the notion of atonement assumes that the relationship between human beings and God is fractured, but can be temporarily restored by religious rituals. The verb כָּפַר (kāpar) literally means “to cover”; atonement is envisioned as covering over sin and thus cleaning it up. The atonement rituals focus chiefly on animal sacrifices that are mediated by priests and take place in the tabernacle or temple. The main outcomes of the ritual of atonement include expiation and purification; these suggest that the rupture in relationship between God and human beings is caused by human iniquity or sin, which contaminates life and causes a negative divine reaction (God’s wrath). Thus, atonement or removal of iniquity produces purification on the human side and appeasement or propitiation on the divine side. The concepts behind the atonement ritual underlie the broader meaning of atonement as forgiveness. In other words, the ritual of atonement shows what it means to say that human sins are covered or forgiven by God.” A. M. Rodrigues, “Atonement,” in Mangum et al., Lexham Theological Wordbook. This is a major theme throughout Enoch’s discourses in Moses 6–7.

[24] Barker, Great High Priest, 49. “The Day of Atonement was the central atoning rite for the entire nation.” T. C. Butler, “Day of Atonement,” in Barry et al., Lexham Bible Dictionary. It was the ordinances that helped symbolize and enact the restoration between sinner and the divine. Michael D. Coogan writes, “The Ritual serves to purify the priest, the sanctuary and the people. . . . It is called a ‘sabbath of sabbaths’ ([Lev.] 16.31; NRSV: ‘sabbath of complete rest’); in addition to refraining from work, the Israelites are also to ‘deny themselves (16.29), which is later understood to mean a complete fast.” Coogan, Old Testament, 150. In other words, it became the most important day on the Israelite calendar in terms of rectifying the relationship between God, the community, and the creation. These are all themes Enoch addressed to the people. For Jesus’s role and the symbolism of what encapsulates Jesus within the Day of Atonement rituals, see, e.g., “Jesus Christ entered the Most Holy Place Heb 9:24. See also Heb 6:19–20; 9:11–12; Jesus Christ’s blood was offered in sacrifice Heb 9:12. See also Ro 3:25; Jesus Christ’s sacrifice was outside the city gates Heb 13:11–12; Jesus Christ’s sacrifice was once for all Heb 9:25–26. See also Heb 10:12; Jesus Christ’s sacrifice gives inner rather than ritual cleansing Heb 9:13–14. See also Heb 9:9–10; Jesus Christ’s sacrifice gives access to God Heb 10:19–20. On the Day of Atonement no one else was allowed to be in the Tent of Meeting, let alone in the Most Holy Place. Access into the intimate presence of God is now the right of all believers. See also Lev 16:17; Mt 27:51; Eph 2:18; 3:12.” Manser et al., Dictionary of Bible Themes, s.v. “Day of Atonement.”

[25] Dale C. Allison Jr., “Day of Atonement,” in Sakenfeld et al., New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, 2:43. The Day of Atonement ensured “that the sanctuary and people were regularly purified and restored to their holy condition.” T. C. Butler, “Day of Atonement,” in Barry et al., Lexham Bible Dictionary.

[26] Barker, in Great High Priest, 49, cites Isaiah 24:5 as illustrating the damage that human sin causes the earth and creation: “The earth lies defiled under its inhabitants; for they have transgressed the laws, violated the statutes, broken the everlasting covenant.” Although describing conditions of apostasy during Isaiah’s own time, his words also read as a very fitting description of the conditions of apostasy that prevailed during Enoch’s life and times (see, e.g., Moses 6). The reparation and healing of the earth “defiled” under its inhabitants—the “filthiness which had gone forth out of [her]”—also required the Savior’s atoning intervention.

[27] Barker, Great High Priest, 49. Douglas, in “Atonement in Leviticus,” 117–18, clarifies the meaning of “to cover” in relation to atonement: “According to the illustrative cases from Leviticus, to atone means to cover, or recover, cover again, to repair a hole, cure a sickness, mend a rift, make good a torn or broken covering. As a noun, what is translated as atonement, expiation or purgation means integument made good; conversely, the examples in the book indicate that defilement means integument torn. Atonement does not mean covering a sin so as to hide it from the sight of God; it means making good an outer layer which has rotted or been pierced.”

[28] Barker, Great High Priest, 49–50. Carmichael, in “Origin of the Scapegoat Ritual,” 167–82, connects the scapegoat ritual with Joseph’s brothers selling him into Egypt in Genesis 37:27–28 and the killing of the kid goat in Genesis 37:31. Both these stories may present a Christological typology.

[29] See Bowen, “‘Pointing Our Souls to Him,’” 164–71, especially the discussion on p. 166.

[30] Bowen, “‘Pointing Our Souls to Him,’” 167–168.

[31] Allison Jr., “Day of Atonement,” 43.

[32] Michael Coogan explains the “scapegoat” ritual thus: “On the Day of Atonement, in addition to sacrificing a bull as a sin offering for Aaron, two goats are also provided, and lots are cast for them. One is designated as a sin offering ‘for Yahweh’; the other is designated ‘for Azazel,’ an obscure term probably referring to some sort of demon, often translated as the ‘scapegoat.’ The sins of the community are symbolically transferred to this goat, which is then released in the wilderness.” Coogan, Old Testament, 150. “The fact that Yahweh, owner of the goat slain as a purification offering (16:9, 15), is supernatural suggests that Azazel, owner of the live goat, is also some kind of supernatural being. Because transporting a load of Israelite toxic waste, consisting of moral faults, to Azazel in the wilderness and abandoning it there by the command of Yahweh (16:10, 22; cf. Zech 5:5–11) is a singularly unfriendly gesture, it appears that Azazel is Yahweh’s enemy. Therefore, Azazel is most likely some kind of demon (so Jewish tradition recorded in 1 En. 10:4–5), who dwells in an uninhabited region (cf. Lev. 17:7; Isa. 13:21; 34:14; Luke 11:24; Rev. 18:2). The biblical ritual expels moral faults to Azazel, who is apparently the ultimate source of their sins (cf. Gen. 3; Rev. 12:9).” Gane and Cole, Leviticus and Numbers, 306. The stories presented in Moses 6–7 highlight the conflict and polarization between good and evil, or God and the devil, found in other traditions associated with Enoch. Interestingly, some Enochian literature equates the scapegoat with “a demon of the wilderness or a fallen angel who seduces people to evil (as in the Book of Enoch), or an epithet applied to the devil.” Douglas and Tenney, New International Bible Dictionary, s.v. “Scapegoat.” Moses 6–7 does not present this specific ritual, but similar themes are encountered therein.

[33] Barker, Great High Priest, 50.

[34] Deuteronomy 32:43 appears to describe that in the sanctification of the Lord’s “earth” or “land,” he “will be merciful [wĕkipper, make an atonement] unto his land [ʾadmātô, his earth or ground], and to his people.” Barker, in Great High Priest, 50, suggests that “the one who performs the kpr of the land here in this text is the Lord”—i.e., in his capacity as High Priest (see Hebrews 4:14–16 for Jesus as the great high priest and Hebrews 9:22–24 for the shedding of the blood of Jesus, and the pattern of things in heaven as Christ entered the holy place not made with hands). Barker, in Great High Priest, 51, concludes that the Hebrew verb kpr, which is elsewhere translated “make an atonement” (or some variation thereon) in the King James Version of the OT—i.e., “atone”—“has to mean restore, recreate or heal.” See Douglas, “Atonement in Leviticus,” 117–19. On how this understanding fits in with roles and responsibilities of “Melchizedek Priests,” see also Michael J. H. Godfrey, Entertaining Angels, 110–11. When the Lord showed Enoch that “for the space of a thousand years the earth shall rest” and “all things, even unto the end of the world” (Moses 7:64, 67), he revealed to him how the Savior’s atoning sacrifice would fundamentally achieve the earth’s restoration or healing.

[35] See discussion in chapter 22 herein.

[36] See Revelation, 3 January 1833 [D&C 88:127–137], p. 48, The Joseph Smith Papers.

[37] Of the earth’s eventual purification, President John Taylor stated: “This earth, after wading through all the corruptions of men, being cursed for his sake, and not permitted to send forth its full lustre and glory, must yet take its proper place in God’s creations; be purified from that corruption under which it has groaned for ages, and become a fit place for redeemed men, angels, and God to dwell upon.” Taylor, Government of God, 82. Enoch wept for the earth and what it was enduring, and the rest of Moses 7 fleshes out the details leading to its sanctification. Most importantly, that will include the atonement and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

[38] This plea is an important component of the overall story of salvation, for Enoch’s sorrow will be turned to eventual joy as the Lord covenants not to send the floodwaters again. The story of the Flood is one of mercy and salvation. See discussion on Moses 8 in chapter 21 herein.

[39] OT1 has the Lord covenanting with Noah, and OT2, in the handwriting of Sidney Rigdon, has Enoch as the recipient of the covenant. See Faulring, Jackson, and Matthews, Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible, 108, 620. The covenant with Enoch prior to Noah is significant: “First is the revisiting of the covenant with Noah. In the biblical account, God appears to be making a covenant with Noah that has no precedent. . . . God tells Noah he is merely reaffirming the ‘everlasting covenant’ already established with Enoch (among others, it turns out). And that covenant, rooted in antiquity, anticipates the future merging of the celestial city (the general assembly of the church of the firstborn) with the earthly Zion—later developed into the concept of an eternal heavenly family bound together by temple covenants and priesthood powers of sealing.” Givens and Hauglid, Pearl of Greatest Price, 75–76.

[40] Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 16:49. For the bow (rainbow) as a token of the covenant in the Flood story, see Schade, “Flood Story,” 139–49.

[41] Restoration scripture and prophetic commentary inform us that the rainbow became a token of the same covenant that can be traced back to Adam through Enoch and, on the flip side, from Noah to the present. See discussion in Schade, “Flood Story,” 131. For the covenant linked throughout the Hebrew Bible, see Keel and Schroer, Creation: Biblical Theologies, 154–55; Arnold, Genesis, 100–101; and Sailhamer, Genesis, loc. 4430. In the Joseph Smith Translation of Genesis 13:13 (in Genesis 13:14, footnote a), the Lord declared to Abraham, “And remember the covenant which I make with thee; for it shall be an everlasting covenant; and thou shalt remember the days of Enoch thy father.”

[42] “The Joseph Smith Translation of Genesis 9:15 explicitly identifies the Lord’s blessing to Enoch as being ‘my covenant.’” Muhlestein, Sears, and Shannon, “Gospel Covenants in History,” 24.

[43] Muhlestein, Sears, and Shannon, “Gospel Covenants in History,” 26.

[44] On the use of “Son of Man” in Moses 6:57, see Book of Mormon Central staff, Bradshaw, and Bowen, “Son of Man.”

[45] In addition to its use in Moses 6:57, the title “Man of Holiness” occurs in Moses 7:31 together with the related expression “Man of Counsel.”

[46] This total includes Moses 6:57 and 7:24 (in addition to the six in 7:47, 54–56, 59, 65) but excludes Satan’s idiomatic use of it as a put-down to Moses in in Moses 1:12.

[47] See Nibley, “Return of the Book of Enoch.”

[48] See Book of Mormon Central staff, Bradshaw, and Bowen, “‘Son of Man.’”

[49] The title “Rock” is subsequently linked in Deuteronomy with the concept of “righteousness” encountered earlier: “The Rock, his work is perfect (תָּמִים, tāmîm), for all his ways are just (מִשְׁפָּט, mišpāṭ); he is a faithful (אֱמוּנָה, ʾĕmûnâe) God, and without injustice; righteous (צַדִּיק, ṣaddîq) and upright (יָשָׁר, yāšār) is he (Deut 32:4).” G. P. Anderson, “Righteousness,” in Mangum et al., Lexham Theological Wordbook.

[50] Some see the language here as a reference to temple worship. See Draper, Brown, and Rhodes, Pearl of Great Price, 143; and Bradshaw and Larsen, In God’s Image, 2:156.

[51] Some have attempted to equate the language here with temple experience. See Bradshaw and Larsen, In God’s Image, 2:156. The temple veil, of course, symbolizes the boundary between heaven and earth—the boundary between the most holy place (or places) and places of lesser holiness. When, at the death of Jesus Christ, “the veil of the [Jerusalem] temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom” (Mark 15:38; Matthew 27:51), it constituted a divine sign that the Savior had permeated the boundary between this world and the spirit world (paradise; see Luke 23:43) and that he would, in due course, ascend to the Father (see John 20:17) and enter heaven having overcome death and hell and having “prepare[0] a way” of return for the human family (see 2 Nephi 9:10–11, 41–42). The language may present some typological resemblances.

[52] Minutes and Discourse, 21 April 1834, p. 44, The Joseph Smith Papers. These words highlight the other titles used in these passages.

[53] The title “King of Zion” does not occur in the Old Testament. It does, however, have some interesting parallels in discussions on priesthood and the priestly comparisons between Jesus and Melchizedek: “The superiority of Jesus’ priesthood to the Levitical one is presented in Hebrews 7 on the basis of the two scriptural evidences (Gen. 14:18–20; Ps. 110:4). Both texts describe Melchizedek as the high priest of Zion. The three characteristics are derived from the two texts in order to depict the superior nature of Jesus’ priesthood to the Levitical one: Jesus as the heavenly high priest, the kingly high priest, and installed by God’s oath.” Son, Zion Symbolism in Hebrews, 167. This title may reflect both political and priestly duties of Jesus. Interestingly, the Joseph Smith Translation of Genesis 14:25–40 describes that Melchizedek and his people sought to emulate the society of Enoch and the “order of God” and “were translated and taken to heaven.” Melchizedek is referred to as a Prince of Peace and is referred to by his people as “the king of heaven” or “the King of peace” (Joseph Smith Translation, Genesis 14:36). In the February 1832 revelation now known as Doctrine and Covenants 76, those inheriting the celestial kingdom of God are described as priests and kings after the order of Melchizedek, “which [is] after the order of Enoch, which [is] after the order of the Only Begotten Son.” In the March 1835 revelation known as Doctrine and Covenants 107, the Lord revealed that “out of respect or reverence to the name of the Supreme Being, to avoid the too frequent repetition of his name, they, the church, in ancient days, called the priesthood after Melchizedek, or the Melchizedek Priesthood” (v. 4). Before that it was referred to as “the Holy Priesthood, after the Order of the Son of God” (v. 3; emphasis added). These data and revelations underscore Christ as the Great High Priest and King of Kings and associate God’s children and their potential to become like him with the functions and ordinances of the priesthood—becoming a kingdom of priests and kings.

[54] Christofferson, “Come to Zion.” The prophet Isaiah prophesied that the Lord would take up his reign in Zion: “How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace; that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation; that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth! Thy watchmen shall lift up the voice; with the voice together shall they sing: for they shall see eye to eye, when the Lord shall bring again Zion” (Isaiah 52:7–8). The prophets of the Book of Mormon, beginning with Nephi (see 1 Nephi 13:37), appear to have understood this prophecy in a millennial context (see Mosiah 15:29). The Savior himself interpreted it this way in 3 Nephi 16:18.

[55] “God, the Rock: An OT title for God and a Messianic title signifying that God’s people can rely on him for absolute protection and salvation. Rock as a title for Israel’s God: Ps 78:35 See also Ge 49:24; Dt 32:15,18,30; 2Sa 23:3; Ps 42:9; Isa 30:29; Hab 1:12; God the Rock is unique: 2Sa 22:32 pp Ps 18:31 See also 1Sa 2:2; Isa 44:8; The Rock is superior to other gods: Dt 32:31 See also Dt 32:37; The Rock is worthy to be praised: Ps 144:1 See also Dt 32:4; Ps 92:15; God the Rock and his people—God the Rock is a refuge for his people: Ps 62:7 See also Ps 28:1; 31:1–3; 61:2; 71:3; Isa 26:4; God the Rock is his people’s fortress: Ps 94:22 See also Ps 28:8; 46:7,11; 48:3; 59:9,16–17; 91:2; 144:2; Jer 16:19; God the Rock is his people’s security: 2Sa 22:3 pp Ps 18:2 See also Ps 9:9; 27:1; 37:39; 43:2; 52:7; Joel 3:16; God the Rock saves and delivers his people: Ps 95:1 See also 2Sa 22:47 pp Ps 18:46; Ps 19:14; 62:2; 89:26; Isa 17:10; Rock as a Messianic title—The Messiah is the rock/stone on which God’s living temple stands: Isa 8:14; 28:16 See also Ps 118:22; Mt 21:42 pp Mk 12:10 pp Lk 20:17; Ac 4:11; 1Pe 2:6–7; The Messiah’s kingdom is eternal and immovable like a rock: Da 2:34–35 See also Da 2:44–45; Consequences of rejecting the rock/stone: Mt 21:44; Lk 20:18; Ro 9:32–33; 1Pe 2:4–8.” Manser et al., Dictionary of Bible Themes, s.v. “God, the Rock.”

[56] See, e.g., Psalms 18:2; 28:1; 31:3; 42:9; 62:2, 6–7; 71:3; 89:26; 92:15; 94:22; 95:1.

[57] In the preparations for receiving spiritual endowments in the School of the Prophets, and in association with later preparations for the dedication of the Kirtland Temple, the Prophet Joseph Smith poignantly recorded the following in his journal, and using language reminiscent of the temple: “O God let the residue of my fathers house ever come up in remembrance before thee that thou mayest save them from the hand of the oppressor and establish their feet upon the rock of ages that they may have place in thy house and be saved in thy Kingdom.” Journal, 1832–1834, p. 41, The Joseph Smith Papers; emphasis added. Similar language was used in a blessing given to Don Carlos Smith, emphasizing the intimate nature that the phrase “Rock of Ages” developed: “O God, let the residue of my father’s house, with the residue of those whom thou hast blessed, ever come up in remembrance before thee and stand virtuous and pure in thy presence, that thou mayest save them from the hand of the oppressor, and establish their feet upon the rock of ages, that they may have place in thy house and be saved in thy kingdom, even where God and Christ is: and let all these things be as I have said, for Christ’s sake. Amen.” Appendix 5, Document 5. Blessing to Don Carlos Smith, 1 October 1835, p. 11, The Joseph Smith Papers; emphasis added.

[58] Toplady and Hastings, “Rock of Ages,” in Hymns, no. 111.

[59] “The doctrine of the Resurrection is the single most fundamental and crucial doctrine in the Christian religion. It cannot be overemphasized, nor can it be disregarded. Without the Resurrection, the gospel of Jesus Christ becomes a litany of wise sayings and seemingly unexplainable miracles—but sayings and miracles with no ultimate triumph. No, the ultimate triumph is in the ultimate miracle: for the first time in the history of mankind, one who was dead raised himself into living immortality. He was the Son of God, the Son of our immortal Father in Heaven, and his triumph over physical and spiritual death is the good news.” Hunter, “Apostle’s Witness of the Resurrection,” 18.

[60] In the Messianic exultations offered in the Kirtland dedicatory prayer, the Prophet Joseph Smith rejoiced, “That when the trump shall sound for the dead, we shall be caught up in the cloud to meet thee, that we may ever be with the Lord, that our garments may be pure, that we may be clothed upon with robes of righteousness, with palms in their our hands, and crowns of glory upon our heads and reap eternal joy for all our sufferings. O, Lord, God Almighty, hear us in these our petitions, and answer us from heaven, thy holy habitation, where thou sittest enthroned, with glory, honor, power, majesty, might, dominion, truth, justice, judgment, mercy, and an infinity of fulness, from everlasting to everlasting.” History, 1838–1856, volume B-1 [1 September 1834–2 November 1838], p. 722, The Joseph Smith Papers; emphasis added. See also Prayer of Dedication, 27 March 1836 [D&C 109], p. 2, The Joseph Smith Papers. The language additionally echoes the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem, with all its royal and messianic themes of kingship (compare Matthew 21:1–9).

[61] Similarity in phraseology is used by the Lord in revelations received in proximity to Moses 7. For example, Doctrine and Covenants 38, received on January 2, 1831, has the Lord explaining: “I am the same which hath taken the Zion of Enoch into mine own bosom & verily I say even as many as have believed on my name for I am Christ & in mine own name by the Virtue of the blood which I have spilt have I pled before the Father for them but Behold the residue of the wicked have I kept in Chains of darkness untill the Judgement of the great day which shall come at the end of the Earth & even so will I cause the wicked that will not hear my voice but harden their hearts & wo, wo, is their doom But Behold Verily Verily I say unto you that mine eyes are upon you I am in your midst & ye cannot see me but the day soon cometh that ye shall see me & know that I am for the chains <vails> of vails of darkness shall soon be rent.” Revelation, 2 January 1831 [D&C 38], pp. 49–50, The Joseph Smith Papers; emphasis added.

[62] Bradshaw, in Temple Themes in the Oath and Covenant of the Priesthood, 55, 69, sees references to the temple in this passage. The vision of Enoch at many points hints at eternal progression, apotheosis, or deification. We see the progression of Enoch in his ability to speak forth the divine word from the time of his prophetic call and commission in Moses 6 to his ability to command the elements in Moses 7:13. We also see Enoch’s progression in terms of being able to see, sense, and feel what God sees, senses, and feels—and even suffers. Moses 7:59 mentions that God had given him “a right to [his] throne.” In other words, Enoch had become a “son of God” like Adam and his other righteous descendants (see Moses 6), who, like Jesus Christ himself, stood to inherit all that the Father has. Enoch articulates a doctrine expressed elsewhere in the scriptures: “To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne” (Revelation 3:21). See Facsimile 3 in the Book of Abraham and also Doctrine and Covenants 132:32. A revelation given to the Prophet Joseph Smith on priesthood in September 1832 affirmed what the vision of Enoch pointed toward: “And he that receiveth my Father receiveth my Father’s kingdom; therefore all that my Father hath shall be given unto him” (Doctrine and Covenants 84:38).

[63] This represents a further intimation of the redemption of the dead, of whom Alma spoke to Corianton: “These are they that are redeemed of the Lord; yea, these are they that are taken out, that are delivered from that endless night of darkness” (Alma 41:7)—i.e., from what a revelation given to the Prophet Joseph Smith later described as “the dark and benighted dominion of Sheol” (Doctrine and Covenants 121:4). As we have noted previously, later revelations would expound upon these concepts. For a discussion on Enoch’s glimpses into the work of salvation on behalf of the dead, see Schade, “Flood Story,” 149–52.

[64] Themes of redeeming the dead appear to be referenced in Luke 16:20–31 in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus. First Peter 3:18–20 and 4:6 also describe the development of work on behalf of the dead and provide it within the framework of the Flood, similar to that which Enoch was beholding. These passages have been described as follows: “Jesus preached to the dead. The apostle Peter taught this in his day, saying that after the death of the Savior, and while his body lay in the tomb, the Lord, as a Spirit, went to the realm of the dead and there preached to the spirits of the people who previously had lived on the earth. (1 Pet. 3:18–20.) Then he gives us the reason for this preaching: ‘For this cause was the gospel preached also to them that are dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit.’ (1 Pet. 4:6.) Having heard the gospel, they might accept it or reject it and thus be ‘judged according to men in the flesh.’ As they did accept it, they could then ‘live according to God in the spirit’ just as the scripture indicated.” Petersen, Noah and the Flood, 62–63. See also Wilford Woodruff, in Journal of Discourses, 13:163. For other revelations on work for the dead, see, e.g., Doctrine and Covenants 138:29–30, 57–59; 1 Corinthians 15:29; and Doctrine and Covenants 124.

[65] Discourse, 11 June 1843–A, as Reported by Franklin D. Richards, p. [21], The Joseph Smith Papers.

[66] This type of language may underlie the keys of the priesthood that are promised to Peter in Matthew 16. With those keys, Peter was told the “gates of hell” (Greek Hades used here as a holding tank for departed spirits) would not prevail against the Lord’s church and that with those “keys of the kingdom of heaven,” “whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven” (vv. 18–19). The language seems to imply that Peter would exercise those keys on behalf of those departed spirits and set up work on their behalf, as described in 1 Peter 3–4. “The gates of hell would have prevailed against the Lord’s work if there hadn’t been given the ordinances pertaining to the salvation of those who are dead. During those periods when the priesthood to perform the saving ordinances of the gospel was not upon the earth, there were millions who lived, many of whom were faithful souls. If there hadn’t been a way by which the saving ordinances of the gospel could be performed for those who thus died without the knowledge of the gospel, the gates of hell would have prevailed against our Father’s plan of salvation.” Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Harold B. Lee, 104.

[67] Packer, “‘Shield of Faith,’” 9.

[68] “Noah’s flood brought destruction, whereas this flood will bring salvation. The OT1 manuscript reads ‘as with the flood,’ while OT2 reads ‘as the flood,’ making clear parallels with the flood of Noah. The current wording of this phrase in scripture (‘as with a flood’) is based on a correction to OT2 made by an undetermined scribe, probably

sometime after 1866.” Bradshaw and Larsen, In God’s Image, 2:158. The point is that truth will cover the entire earth.

[69] According to the Apostle John’s testimony in Revelation, the Savior revealed to him important details of a “New Jerusalem.” The Savior directly connected the concept of a New Jerusalem with the temple and its ordinances: “Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name” (Revelation 3:12). Although this statement declares “New Jerusalem” will come down out of heaven, no scripture gives us insight into how such a city came to be in heaven until the account in Moses 7. Later on, in the book of Revelation, John sees the New Jerusalem descend out of heaven: “And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God” (Revelation 21:2–3). John’s testimony of seeing the “tabernacle of God . . . with men” and his “dwell[ing] with them” mirrors Enoch’s Zion and what Enoch saw regarding the New Jerusalem that would be established in the last days and would be prepared to receive Enoch’s Zion, or the Jerusalem from above.

[70] Of the physical importance of the New Jerusalem in comparison with the Jerusalem of old, the Prophet Joseph Smith explained: “Now we learn from the book of Mormon, the very identical continent and spot of land upon which the New Jerusalem is to stand, and it must be caught up according to the vision of John upon the isle of Patmos. Now many will be disposed to say, that this New Jerusalem spoken of, is the Jerusalem that was built by the Jews on the eastern continent: but you will see from Revelations, 21:2, there was a New Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven, adorned as a bride for her husband. That after this the Revelator was caught away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and saw the great and holy city descending out of heaven from God. Now there are two cities spoken of here, and as every thing cannot be had in so narrow a compass as a letter, I shall say with brevity, that there is a New Jerusalem to be established on this continent.— And also the Jerusalem shall be rebuilt on the eastern continent. See book of Mormon, page 566. Behold, Ether saw the days of Christ, and he spake also concerning the house of Israel, and the Jerusalem from whence Lehi should come: after it should be destroyed it should be built up again, a holy city unto the Lord: wherefore, it could not be a New Jerusalem, for it had been in a time of old.” Letter to the Elders of the Church, 16 November 1835, p. 210, The Joseph Smith Papers.

[71] Receiving into the “bosom” may have connotations of a divine embrace. This image occurs at least six times in the vision of Enoch, bosom being a keyword in this chapter (see Moses 7:24, 30–31, 47, 62–64, 69). As Hugh Nibley has noted, a ritual embrace from heaven consummated the final escape from death in Egyptian religious rituals: “This is the hpet, the ritual embrace that consummates the final escape from death in the Egyptian funerary texts and reliefs, where the son Horus is received into the arms of his father Osirus.” Nibley, Approaching Zion, 559.

[72] The Prophet Joseph Smith described an intimate scene of reunion and embrace in the Resurrection that he had beheld in vision: “Those who have died in Jesus Christ, may expect to enter into all that fruition of joy when they come forth, which they have possessed <or anticipated> here. So plain was the vision, that I actually saw men, before they had ascended from <the> Tomb, as though they were getting up slowly, they took each other by the hand and said to each other ‘My Father, my Son; my mother, my daughter; my brother, my sister;’ and when the voice calls for the dead to arise, suppose I am laid by the side of my Father, what would be the first joy of my heart? To meet my Father, my Mother, my Brother, my Sister, and when they are by my side, I embrace them, and they me.” History, 1838–1856, volume D-1 [1 August 1842–1 July 1843], p. 1534, The Joseph Smith Papers.

[73] Psalm 85, a temple hymn, exults, “Mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed each other. Truth shall spring out of the earth; and righteousness shall look down from heaven” (Psalm 85:10–11; emphasis added). President John Taylor explained these verses in Moses 7: “And then when the time comes that these calamities we read of, shall overtake the earth, those that are prepared will have the power of translation, as they had in former times, and the city will be translated. And Zion that is on the earth will rise, and the Zion above will descend, as we are told, and we will meet and fall on each other’s necks and embrace and kiss each other. And thus the purposes of God to a certain extent will then be fulfilled. But there are a great many things to be brought about before that time. And we are here in an organized capacity trying to prepare ourselves for all the providences of the Almighty.” Taylor, in Journal of Discourses, 21:253; see Taylor in 10:147.

[74] “The Millennium is dawning upon the world, we are at the end of the six thousand years, and the great day of rest, the Millennium of which the Lord has spoken, will soon dawn, and the Savior will come in the clouds of heaven to reign over his people on the earth one thousand years.” Discourses of Wilford Woodruff, 252.

[75] Letter to the Elders of the Church, 16 November 1835, p. 209, The Joseph Smith Papers. Elder Franklin D. Richards addressed this concept of beings mingling with each other as coworkers between heaven and earth in reference to the three translated Nephites: “They wanted to tarry until Jesus came, and that they might He took them into the heavens and endowed them with the power of translation, probably in one of Enoch’s temples, and brought them back to the earth. Thus they received power to live until the coming of the Son of Man. I believe He took them to Enoch’s city and gave them their endowments there. I expect that in the city of Enoch there are temples; and when Enoch and his people come back, they will come back with their city, their temples, blessings and powers.” In Journal of Discourses, 25:236–37. President Ezra Taft Benson explained these passages in more detail: “The Lord promised, therefore, that righteousness would come from heaven and truth out of the earth. We have seen the marvelous fulfillment of that prophecy in our generation. The Book of Mormon has come forth out of the earth, filled with truth, serving as the very ‘keystone of our religion’ (see Introduction to the Book of Mormon). God has also sent down righteousness from heaven. The Father Himself appeared with His Son to the Prophet Joseph Smith. The angel Moroni, John the Baptist, Peter, James, and numerous other angels were directed by heaven to restore the necessary powers to the kingdom. Further, the Prophet Joseph Smith received revelation after revelation from the heavens during those first critical years of the Church’s growth. These revelations have been preserved for us in the Doctrine and Covenants.” “The Gift of Modern Revelation,” Ensign, November 1986, 79–80.

[76] Times and Seasons, 2 May 1842, p. 776, The Joseph Smith Papers. Elder James E. Talmage expounded upon the concept: “The government of individuals, communities and nations throughout this Millennium is to be that of a perfect theocracy, with Jesus the Christ as Lord and King, . . . and during the period Satan shall be bound. . . . The righteous dead shall have come forth from their graves. . . . Men yet in the flesh shall mingle with immortalized beings; children shall grow to maturity and then die in peace or be changed to immortality ‘in the twinkling of an eye’. There shall be surcease of enmity between man and beast.” Talmage, Jesus the Christ, 790.

[77] Pratt, “Latter-day Zion,” 265.

[78] Poem to William W. Phelps, between circa 1 and circa 15 February 1843, p. 83, The Joseph Smith Papers.

[79] This description is consonant with the Savior’s eschatological prophecy as reported by Luke that “men’s hearts [would be] failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken” (Luke 21:26). Moses 7:66 and Luke 21:26 (along with other New Testament texts) employ similar language found in two additional canonized revelations in the Doctrine and Covenants pertaining to the building of the New Jerusalem and the latter-day temple (see Doctrine and Covenants 45:26; 88:91).

[80] In Moses 7:67 we learn that the Lord did not just show Enoch major events pertaining to the last days, but that he gave him a panoramic vision of the world from beginning to end: “And the Lord showed Enoch all things, even unto the end of the world.” Enoch’s vision was similar in content to panoramic visions seen by Moses (see Moses 1:27–28) and the brother of Jared (see Ether 3:25–28; compare Isaiah 29:11; 2 Nephi 27:10).

[81] Neal A. Maxwell, “But for a Small Moment” (Brigham Young University devotional), September 1, 1974,

[82] Neal A. Maxwell, “O, Divine Redeemer,” Ensign, November 1981, 10. See Maxwell, “‘God Will Yet Reveal,’” Ensign, November 1986, 59.

[83] This represents the same image found throughout Moses 7 of the Lord “taking” (vv. 21, 23, 31) or “receiving” Zion to himself (vv. 63, 69). Both take and receive are typically rendered by the same Hebrew verb lqḥ. This is the verb that is used to describe Enoch’s translation in Genesis 5:24. It is also a primary idiom for marriage—“to take a wife,” as in Genesis 4:19; 25:1. We see the Lord using similar images to describe the future unification of earthly Zion with heavenly Zion (Enoch’s Zion) in Moses 7:62–64.

[84] Doctrine and Covenants 107:48–49 reveals that “Enoch was twenty-five years old when he was ordained under the hand of Adam; and he was sixty-five and Adam blessed him. And he saw the Lord, and he walked with him, and was before his face continually; and he walked with God three hundred and sixty-five years, making him four hundred and thirty years old when he was translated.”

[85] Enoch’s people continued to minister on behalf of God’s work. Commenting on this role up to the time of the Savior’s resurrection, Elder Bruce R. McConkie explained: “Enoch and his whole city were translated, taken up bodily into heaven without tasting death. There they served and labored with bodies of flesh and bones, bodies quickened by the power of the Spirit, until that blessed day when they were with Christ in his resurrection. Then, in the twinkling of an eye, they were changed and became immortal in the full sense of the word.” McConkie, Mortal Messiah, 3:52. See Discourses of Brigham Young, 179. President Joseph Fielding Smith taught the following regarding the nature of translated beings generally, including the people of Enoch: “Translated beings are still mortal and will have to pass through the experience of death, or the separation of the spirit and the body, although this will be instantaneous, for the people of the City of Enoch, Elijah, and others who received this great blessing in ancient times, before the coming of our Lord, could not have received the resurrection, or the change from mortality to immortality, because our Lord had not paid the debt which frees us from mortality and grants to us the resurrection and immortal life.” Smith, Answers to Gospel Questions, 1:165. The foregoing statement is consistent with what the Prophet Joseph Smith taught regarding translated beings and the nature of their ministrations: “Many may have supposed that the— doctrine of translation was a doctrine whereby men were taken immediately into the presence of God and into an Eternal fulness but this is a mistaken idea. There place of habitation is that of the terrestrial order and a place prepared for such characters, he held in reserve to be ministring Angels Unto many planets, and who as yet have not entered into so great a fulness as those who are resurrected from the dead.” Instruction on Priesthood, circa 5 October 1840, pp. 6–7, The Joseph Smith Papers.

[86] Times and Seasons, 15 July 1842, p. 857, The Joseph Smith Papers.

[87] Times and Seasons, 1 September 1842, p. 905, The Joseph Smith Papers.