Judd, Frank F. Jr., “Melchizedek: Seeing After the Zion of Enoch” in Sperry Symposium Classics: The Old Testament, ed. Paul Y. Hoskisson (Provo and Salt Lake City: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, and Deseret Book 2005), 69–82.
Melchizedek: Seeking After the Zion of Enoch
Frank F. Judd Jr.
Frank F. Judd Jr. is an assistant professor of ancient scripture at BrighamYoung University.
The shadowy figure of Melchizedek entices the student of the scriptures. Next to Enoch, Melchizedek is perhaps the most enigmatic figure in the Bible. His life and mission are covered in only a few brief verses in the Bible, yet of all God’s holy high priests, “none were greater” (Alma 13:19). What made Melchizedek such a great high priest? The debates are endless about the few verses in Genesis that speak of him. Many scholars come to erroneous conclusions about Melchizedek, king of Salem. For example, some believe that Melchizedek worshipped not Jehovah but a different god named El Elyon, or Most High God. This and other false conclusions result from a lack of adequate sources and information.
Latter-day Saints, however, are blessed with scriptural insights provided through the Prophet Joseph Smith. For instance, in the Book of Mormon, Alma the Younger delivered a masterful discourse devoted in part to the life and ministry of Melchizedek. Several sections of the Doctrine and Covenants discuss important biographical facts relating to Melchizedek. The Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible (JST) provides valuable knowledge not found in the Old and the New Testament concerning the role of the priesthood in Melchizedek’s life. Modern prophets also supply pertinent doctrines relative to Melchizedek and the priesthood. As we study the Bible in light of these Restoration scriptures, a significant pattern emerges. Just as we seek to emulate our Savior by following the examples of righteous leaders today, those who lived anciently also sought to emulate their promised Messiah by following the patterns set by their righteous predecessors and peers. It is possible that Melchizedek used the pattern set by Enoch and his people as a pattern for seeking after the Lord and establishing a Zion society. On that subject, Elder Bruce R. McConkie said: “Enoch built Zion, a City of Holiness, and Melchizedek, reigning as king and ministering as priest of the Most High God, sought to make Jerusalem [Salem], his capital city, into another Zion. As we have seen, Melchizedek himself was called by his people the Prince of peace, the King of peace, and the King of heaven, for Jerusalem [Salem] had become a heaven to them.”
Joseph Smith’s translation of Genesis states that Melchizedek was ordained after the same order of the priesthood as Enoch and that “every one being ordained after this order” (JST, Genesis 14:30) had the power to do the things that Enoch did (see JST, Genesis 14:27). Thus, Elder McConkie observed, “Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob sought an inheritance in the City of Zion, as had all the righteous saints from Enoch to Melchizedek.” As Melchizedek and his people “sought for the city of Enoch which God had before taken” (JST, Genesis 14:34), Melchizedek was privileged to lead a life remarkably similar to Enoch’s. Both of these great men held the same priesthood authority, performed similar miracles, received temple blessings, established Zion communities, and were, along with their people, eventually translated and taken up to heaven.
The Order of the Priesthood
Melchizedek and Enoch were both ordained after the order of the greater priesthood. In addition, Melchizedek and his priesthood authority have a closer tie to Enoch than may be seen at first glance. The Doctrine and Covenants states that “Abraham received the priesthood from Melchizedek, who received it through the lineage of his fathers, even till Noah; and from Noah till Enoch, through the lineage of their fathers” (D&C 84:14–15; emphasis added). This greater priesthood was originally called “the Holy Priesthood, after the Order of the Son of God” (D&C 107:3; emphasis in original). To avoid disrespect for the Lord by too frequent repetition of his holy name, this priesthood, in the days of the king of Salem, was “called the Melchizedek Priesthood . . . because Melchizedek was such a great high priest” (D&C 107:2; see also v. 4).
But that is not the only time the Lord has called this order of the priesthood after a mortal high priest. Melchizedek “was ordained an high priest after the order of the covenant which God made with Enoch” (JST, Genesis 14:27). According to the Doctrine and Covenants, the high priesthood was called “after the order of Melchizedek, which was after the order of Enoch, which was after the order of the Only Begotten Son” (D&C 76:57). This high priesthood provides the means whereby the righteous may “commune with the general assembly and church of the Firstborn” (D&C 107:19). More specifically, those who receive and keep sacred covenants relating to the priesthood of Melchizedek become part of “the general assembly and church of Enoch, and of the Firstborn” (D&C 76:67). Thus, the king of Salem and the greater priesthood, which currently bears his name, have a very close connection with Enoch that may go unnoticed.
Power from on High
The higher priesthood gave Melchizedek the power to perform many of the same types of miracles Enoch had performed. The Lord, in promising this power to Enoch, had said, “the mountains shall flee before you, and the rivers shall turn from their course” (Moses 6:34). Consequently, Enoch became a mighty man of miracles. According to the restored scriptural account, he “spake the word of the Lord, and the earth trembled, and the mountains fled, even according to his command; and the rivers of water were turned out of their course; and the roar of the lions was heard out of the wilderness; and all nations feared greatly, so powerful was the word of Enoch, and so great was the power of the language which God had given him” (Moses 7:13).
The Lord had previously made a covenant with Enoch that not only he but “every one” (JST, Genesis 14:30) who received the greater priesthood would have power—if he was faithful—to perform miracles; namely, “to break mountains, to divide the seas, to dry up waters, to turn them out of their course; to put at defiance the armies of nations, to divide the earth, to break every band, to stand in the presence of God; to do all things according to his will, according to his command, subdue principalities and powers; and this by the will of the Son of God which was from before the foundation of the world” (JST, Genesis 14:30–31).
When Melchizedek was but a child, he “stopped the mouths of lions, and quenched the violence of fire” (JST, Genesis 14:26). Moreover, because “Melchizedek was a priest of this order” (v. 33), meaning the order of Enoch, he had the ability to perform the same types of miraculous deeds Enoch had while Melchizedek and his people “sought for the city of Enoch” (v. 34).
Life and Ministry of Peace
The lives and ministries of Melchizedek and Enoch were very similar. Enoch’s mortal father, Jared, taught him “in all the ways of God” (Moses 6:21; see also v. 41). The principle of faith was an important concept that Jared, a preacher of righteousness, taught his son (see Moses 6:23). The scriptures say that “so great was the faith of Enoch that he led the people of God” (Moses 7:13). As their leader, Enoch was able to establish peace among his people. First, he preached repentance. The Lord had specifically told Enoch to “prophesy unto this people, and say unto them—Repent” (Moses 6:27; see also 7:10). So Enoch did. He exhorted the people to change their ways and come unto the Lord (see Moses 6:37; 7:12). A few people hearkened, and they created a small righteous society under the peaceful leadership of Enoch. As President Ezra Taft Benson observed: “Small numbers do not insure peace; only righteousness does. . . . The whole city of Enoch was peaceful; and it was taken into heaven because it was made up of righteous people.”
The second means whereby Enoch established peace was righteous military defense. Because of Enoch’s faithfulness:
He led the people of God, and their enemies came to battle against them; and he spake the word of the Lord, . . . and all nations feared greatly, so powerful was the word of Enoch, and so great was the power of the language which God had given him.
There also came up a land out of the depth of the sea, and so great was the fear of the enemies of the people of God, that they fled and stood afar off and went upon the land which came up out of the depth of the sea.
And the giants of the land, also, stood afar off; and there went forth a curse upon all people that fought against God;
And from that time forth there were wars and bloodshed among them; but the Lord came and dwelt with his people, and they dwelt in righteousness. (Moses 7:13–16)
Melchizedek’s ministry was strikingly parallel to Enoch’s. Alma said that Melchizedek, as king of Salem, “did reign under his father” (Alma 13:18). It is probable that Melchizedek’s father also taught him to have faith in the Lord. This righteous parental instruction possibly assisted Melchizedek in gaining approval from God even as a young child (see JST, Genesis 14:26–27), because, like all of us, Melchizedek needed to learn obedience to the commandments of God. The author of Hebrews said that “though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered” (Hebrews 5:8). A note on the manuscript of Joseph Smith’s translation of this verse makes clear that this is a reference to Melchizedek (see Hebrews 5:7a). Both the Book of Mormon and Joseph Smith’s translation of Genesis state that Melchizedek was a man of great faith (see JST, Genesis 14:26; Alma 13:18). According to Alma, Melchizedek used this faith to bring about peace among his people and in his land.
Just as Enoch had done, Melchizedek established peace among his people in two ways. First, because the people of the land of Salem were terribly wicked, Melchizedek went on the spiritual offensive. “Melchizedek was a king over the land of Salem; and his people had waxed strong in iniquity and abomination; yea, they had all gone astray; they were full of all manner of wickedness; but Melchizedek having exercised mighty faith, and received the office of the high priesthood according to the holy order of God, did preach repentance unto his people” (Alma 13:17–18).
This preaching affected the people of Salem as it had the people of Enoch—they repented of their evil ways and humbled themselves before the Lord (see Alma 13:14, 18). Thus, in this way “Melchizedek did establish peace in the land in his days; therefore he was called the prince of peace” (Alma 13:18).
The other method by which Melchizedek established peace was defending his people, just as Enoch had done. The Lord’s covenant with Enoch—that “every one” ordained after this order of the priesthood would be able “to put at defiance the armies of nations . . . [and to] subdue principalities and powers” (JST, Genesis 14:30–31)—applied to Melchizedek. The author of Hebrews spoke of biblical prophets “who through faith subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, [and] turned to flight the armies of the aliens” (Hebrews 11:33–34). Elder McConkie said of these verses, “This language is, of course, a paraphrase, a quotation, and a summary of what Genesis once contained relative to Melchizedek.” It seems evident that the life and ministry of Melchizedek were very similar to those of Enoch. Both of these prophets were able to establish peace by means of preaching repentance and by means of righteous military defense.
Temple Blessings in Zion
The scriptures indicate that Melchizedek and Enoch received temple blessings during the process of establishing Zion. When Enoch climbed Mount Simeon, he was “clothed upon with glory” (Moses 7:3) and was privileged to see and converse with the Lord face to face (see Moses 7:4). Following that sacred experience in the presence of God, Enoch and the people of God “were blessed upon the mountains, and upon the high places, and did flourish” (Moses 7:17). In the ancient world, mountains were associated with sacred space, specifically with temple experiences. President Brigham Young believed that there were temples in the city of Enoch. He said, “I will not say but what Enoch had Temples and officiated therein, but we have no account of it.” Similarly, concerning the possibility of temples in the city of Enoch, Elder Franklin D. Richards said, “I expect that in the city of Enoch there are temples; and when Enoch and his people come back, they will come back with their city, their temples, blessings and powers.” Initially, only Enoch walked before God, but eventually “Enoch and all his people walked with God, and he dwelt in the midst of Zion” (Moses 7:69). President Benson said of the temple experiences of Enoch and his people:Adam and his descendants entered into the priesthood order of God. Today we would say they went to the House of the Lord and received their blessings. The order of priesthood spoken of in the scriptures is sometimes referred to as the patriarchal order because it came down from father to son. But this order is otherwise described in modern revelation as an order of family government where a man and woman enter into a covenant with God—just as did Adam and Eve—to be sealed for eternity, to have posterity, and to do the will and work of God throughout their mortality. If a couple are true to their covenants, they are entitled to the blessings of the highest degree of the celestial kingdom. These covenants today can only be entered into by going to the House of the Lord. Adam followed this order and brought his posterity into the presence of God. He is the greatest example for us to follow. Enoch followed this pattern and brought the Saints of his day into the presence of God.
This evidence indicates that Enoch and his Zion society did indeed enjoy temple blessings, such that the Son of God revealed Himself and thereby dwelt with His people in Zion.
As Melchizedek and his people established their city of Zion, it seems that they, too, enjoyed temple blessings. Josephus, a Jewish historian who lived in the first century after Christ, knew of a tradition that Melchizedek, not Solomon, was the first person to build a temple of the Lord in Palestine. “Its [Salem’s] original founder was a Canaanite chief, called in the native tongue ‘Righteous King’ [or Melchizedek]; for such indeed he was. In virtue thereof he was the first to officiate as priest of God and, being the first to build the temple, gave the city, previously called Solyma [or Salem], the name of Jerusalem.”
There are also modern references to Melchizedek and temple blessings. From Joseph Smith’s translation of Genesis, it seems that Melchizedek received his priesthood blessings when he was “ordained an high priest after the order of the covenant which God made with Enoch, it being after the order of the Son of God; which order came, not by man, nor the will of man; neither by father nor mother; neither by beginning of days nor end of years; but of God” (JST, Genesis 14:27–28; emphasis added).
But what does entering into this order of the priesthood have to do with receiving temple blessings? President Benson explained what it means to enter into the order of the Son of God:
Adam and his posterity were commanded by God to be baptized, to receive the Holy Ghost, and to enter into the order of the Son of God. To enter into the order of the Son of God is the equivalent today of entering into the fullness of the Melchizedek Priesthood, which is only received in the house of the Lord. Because Adam and Eve had complied with these requirements, God said to them, “Thou art after the order of him who was without beginning of days or end of years, from all eternity to all eternity” (Moses 6:67).
This order of the priesthood authorized Melchizedek “to stand in the presence of God” (JST, Genesis 14:31). According to the Doctrine and Covenants, that is the reason temples are built; namely, “that the Son of Man might have a place to manifest himself to his people” (D&C 109:5). Therefore, it seems that the society of Melchizedek, like the society of Enoch, enjoyed priesthood blessings associated with the temple of the Lord.
The Translation of Zion into Heaven
The last point of similarity between the lives of Melchizedek and Enoch is their establishment of their Zion community and eventual translation into heaven. One scriptural description of Zion is “the pure in heart” (D&C 97:21). Most of our information about Zion societies comes from the scriptures that describe the experience of Enoch and his people. The society of Enoch was called Zion “because they were of one heart and one mind, and dwelt in righteousness; and there was no poor among them” (Moses 7:18).
But Zion is not only righteous people; Zion is also a place. As Enoch and his people continued in righteousness, they “built a city that was called the City of Holiness, even Zion” (Moses 7:19). Stephen E. Robinson has commented on the use of the term Zion to designate a people and a place: “Zion is wherever the pure in heart dwell. . . . Zion is a spiritual category, which may in different contexts mean Salt Lake City, Far West, Jerusalem, or the city of Enoch.” After the Lord came and dwelt with His Zion people in the city of Zion, they, “in process of time, [were] taken up into heaven” (Moses 7:21), that is, they were translated (see Moses 7:23). Later, the scripture states, “Zion was not, for God received it up into his own bosom; and from thence went forth the saying, ZION IS FLED” (Moses 7:69). Therefore, after Enoch established a community that was pure in heart and dwelt with the Lord on earth, the entire society, including the people and the city itself, was received up into heaven.
Enoch’s people were not the only ones who were granted such a sacred privilege. The scriptures state that after Enoch was translated, “the Holy Ghost fell on many, and they were caught up by the powers of heaven into Zion” (Moses 7:27). In other words, those who achieved purity in their hearts were received into the city of Enoch to enjoy fellowship with those righteous people. Elder Bruce R. McConkie said that “righteous men, after the flood, not only sought an inheritance in Enoch’s Zion, but also began the process of building their own City of Holiness in earth.” Melchizedek and his people were among those righteous people who actively “sought for the city of Enoch which God had before taken, separating it from the earth” (JST, Genesis 14:34). As Melchizedek did so, and because of priesthood power and mighty faith, he performed miracles, preached righteousness, and established Zion, as Enoch had done before him.
In the Zion society of Melchizedek, the storehouse was not to provide for him but “for the poor” (JST, Genesis 14:38). By that means they were able to live as had the people of Enoch, who had “no poor among them” (Moses 7:18). Melchizedek and his people were blessed greatly for their diligence and righteousness, for they “obtained heaven” (JST, Genesis 14:34). Elder McConkie declared:
That this process of translating the righteous saints and taking them to heaven was still going on after the flood among the people of Melchizedek is apparent from the account in the Inspired Version of the Bible. . . . As far as we know, instances of translation since the day of Melchizedek and his people have been few and far between. After recording that Enoch was translated, Paul says that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their seed after them (they obviously knowing what had taken place as pertaining to the people of Melchizedek and others) “looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God” (Heb. 11:5–10), that is, they “sought for the city of Enoch which God had before taken.” (Inspired Version, Genesis 14:34.)
Elder John Taylor interpreted those verses in the same manner: “The fact of Enoch’s translation was generally known by the people who lived immediately after the flood. It had occurred so short a time before, that it was almost a matter of personal recollection with the sons of Noah. They must also have been acquainted with the fact that others were caught up by the power of heaven into Zion, and it would appear strongly probable that Melchizedec and many of his people were also translated. Revelation does not state this in so many words, but the inference to be drawn from what is said, points clearly in that direction.”
The author of Hebrews said that Melchizedek “offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him [God] that was able to save him [Melchizedek] from death, and was heard” (Hebrews 5:7). A note on the manuscript of the Joseph Smith Translation indicates that this verse indeed refers to Melchizedek (see Hebrews 5:7a). The statement “to save him from death” could refer to salvation from spiritual death by means of the Atonement or to salvation from physical death by means of translation. The author of Hebrews may have had both interpretations in mind. Melchizedek and his people wanted to enjoy the same blessings Enoch’s society had received. As a result, Melchizedek sought after the Zion of Enoch, and eventually Melchizedek and his society were also translated and received into the heavenly Zion.
Enoch and Melchizedek as Types of Christ
Melchizedek followed the pattern of righteous living set by his noble ancestor Enoch. The scriptures indicate that Melchizedek and his people sought after the Zion of Enoch and actually achieved it. It is possible that much of the information about the ministries of Melchizedek and Enoch was among the plain and precious parts taken from the Bible (see 1 Nephi 13:23–29) or lost before it was compiled.  Concerning these parts of the Bible, the Lord said to Moses, “And in a day when the children of men shall esteem my words as naught and take many of them from the book which thou shalt write, behold, I will raise up another like unto thee; and they shall be had again among the children of men—among as many as shall believe” (Moses 1:41). This man “like unto [Moses]” was the Prophet Joseph Smith, who brought forth the restoration of these words through the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, the Pearl of Great Price, and his inspired revision of the Bible.
The Prophet Joseph Smith said, “The building up of Zion is a cause that has interested the people of God in every age; it is a theme upon which prophets, priests and kings have dwelt with peculiar delight.” Elder McConkie taught that establishing Zion is a goal for which many righteous people have sought: “Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob sought an inheritance in the City of Zion, as had all the righteous saints from Enoch to Melchizedek—an inheritance which would have been but prelude to gaining exaltation in the Celestial Zion where God and Christ are the judge of all. Since it is no longer the general order for the saints to be translated—their labors in the next sphere now being to preach the gospel to the spirits in prison, rather than to act as ministering servants in other fields—today’s saints seek a heavenly country and a celestial city in the sense of striving for an inheritance in the Celestial City of exalted beings.”
The Prophet Joseph Smith also directly applied this principle to us when he taught that “we ought to have the building up of Zion as our greatest object.” Elder Orson Pratt summarized one of the reasons: “The Latter-Day Zion will resemble, in most particulars, the Zion of Enoch: it will be established upon the same celestial laws—be built upon the same gospel, and be guided by continued revelation. Its inhabitants, like those of the antediluvian Zion, will be the righteous gathered out from all nations: the glory of God will be seen upon it; and His power will be manifested there, even as in the Zion of old. All the blessings and grand characteristics which were exhibited in ancient Zion will be shown forth in the Latter-Day Zion.”
As the Prophet Joseph said, it is important for us to do as the ancient patriarchs did. Brigham Young taught the Saints: “If we obtain the glory that Abraham obtained, we must do so by the same means that he did. If we are ever prepared to enjoy the society of Enoch, Noah, Melchizedek, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, or of their faithful children, and of the faithful Prophets and Apostles, we must pass through the same experience, and gain the knowledge, intelligence, and endowments that will prepare us to enter into the celestial kingdom of our Father and God.”
We also must strive to build up Zion, as they did. Revelation through modern prophets teaches us how the ancient Saints sought after and obtained Zion. If we pattern our lives after theirs, just as Melchizedek did with Enoch’s, we too can reach the same goals. If we are to go where the prophets are going, we must follow their righteous examples.
During one of his sermons of which we have record, Enoch wrote that the Lord said, “And behold, all things have their likeness, and all things are created and made to bear record of me, both things which are temporal, and things which are spiritual; . . . all things bear record of me” (Moses 6:63). Similarly, Nephi said that “all things which have been given of God from the beginning of the world, unto man, are the typifying of [Christ]” (2 Nephi 11:4). It seems that not only things but also people are types of the true Messiah. Elder McConkie taught that all prophets are types of Christ: “All the ancient prophets and all righteous men who preceded our Lord in birth were, in one sense or another, patterns for him. . . . Many of them lived in special situations or did particular things that singled them out as types and patterns and shadows of that which was to be in the life of him who is our Lord.”
Both of the great patriarchs Enoch and Melchizedek were thus types of the coming Savior. Elder John Taylor taught: “There is yet another source from which the ancients obtained their ideas of the life and mission of the Son of God. It is to be found in the translation of Enoch and his city.” In addition, the author of Hebrews referred to the Lord Himself as coming “after the similitude of Melchisedec” (Hebrews 7:15).
All of the similarities we have identified between Enoch and Melchizedek are important aspects of the mission of Jesus Christ. Enoch and Melchizedek were ordained after the same order of the priesthood, and they were types of the Savior, who, as Paul wrote, was the “High Priest of our profession” (Hebrews 3:1). As the patriarchs Enoch and Melchizedek were great miracle workers, so the true and living Miracle Worker was the One of whom King Benjamin prophesied: “For behold, the time cometh, and is not far distant, that with power, the Lord Omnipotent who reigneth, who was, and is from all eternity to all eternity, shall come down from heaven among the children of men, and shall dwell in a tabernacle of clay, and shall go forth amongst men, working mighty miracles, such as healing the sick, raising the dead, causing the lame to walk, the blind to receive their sight, and the deaf to hear, and curing all manner of diseases. And he shall cast out devils, or the evil spirits which dwell in the hearts of the children of men” (Mosiah 3:5–6). Those two patriarchs even established peace in their respective societies, but the real “Prince of Peace” (Isaiah 9:6) gave unto us the ultimate peace that we, through Him, might “overcome the world” (John 16:33; see also 14:27).
Lastly, Enoch and Melchizedek sought for and obtained Zion and were translated into heaven. But even they anticipated then, as we do now, that wonderful day when the Savior would come in power and glory and the righteous Saints would be “caught up in the cloud to meet [the Lord], that we may ever be with the Lord” (D&C 109:75).
It is even more fitting that we follow those ancient patriarchs because they were types of Jesus Christ. Elder McConkie summarized our duty when he explained that all righteous Saints “should be a type of Christ. Those who lived before he came were types and shadows and witnesses of his coming. Those who have lived since he came are witnesses of such coming and are types and shadows of what he was.” Truly there is no better example, for as our perfect Master said, “Therefore, what manner of men ought ye to be? Verily I say unto you, even as I am” (3 Nephi 27:27).
 For different views of Melchizedek, see Michael C. Astour, “Melchizedek,” in Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed. David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 1992), 4:684–86.
 Bruce R. McConkie, The Mortal Messiah: From Bethlehem to Calvary (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1979), 1:86.
 Bruce R. McConkie, Doctrinal New Testament Commentary (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1973), 3:205.
 Ezra Taft Benson, in Conference Report, April 1969, 12.
 McConkie, Mortal Messiah, 1:271.
 John M. Lundquist, “The Common Temple Ideology of the Ancient Near East,” in The Temple in Antiquity, ed. Truman G. Madsen (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1984), 56, 59–60.
 Brigham Young, in Journal of Discourses (London: Latter-day Saints’ Book Depot, 1854–86), 18:303.
 Franklin D. Richards, in Journal of Discourses, 25:237.
 Ezra Taft Benson, “What I Hope You Will Teach Your Children about the Temple,” Ensign, August 1985, 9.
 Josephus, The Jewish War 6.10.1, trans. H. St. J. Thackeray (London: Cambridge University Press, 1928), 3:501, 503.
 Benson, “What I Hope You Will Teach,” 8.
 Stephen E. Robinson, “Early Christianity and 1 Nephi 13–14,” in The Book of Mormon: First Nephi, the Doctrinal Foundation (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1988), 183.
 McConkie, Mortal Messiah, 1:85.
 McConkie, Doctrinal New Testament Commentary, 3:202–3.
 John Taylor, The Mediation and Atonement (Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1882; reprint, 1975), 203.
 Joseph Smith, Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, comp. Joseph Fielding Smith (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1938), 9–10.
 Young, in Journal of Discourses, 7:289–90.
 Smith, Teachings, 231.
 McConkie, Doctrinal New Testament Commentary, 3:205.
 Smith, Teachings, 160.
 Orson Pratt, The Seer, May 1854, 265.
 Brigham Young, in Journal of Discourses, 8:150.
 Bruce R. McConkie, The Promised Messiah: The First Coming of Christ (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1978), 448.
 Taylor, Mediation and Atonement, 203.
 McConkie, Promised Messiah, 451.