“This Splendid Outpouring of Welcome”: Salt Lake City and the 1909 National Encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic

By Ardis E. Parshall

Ardis E. Parshall, "'This Splendid Outpouring of Welcome': Salt Lake City and the 1909 National Encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic," in Civil War Saints, ed. Kenneth L. Alford (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center; Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2012), 341–63.

“This Splendid Outpouring of Welcome”: Salt Lake City and the 1909 National Encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic

Ardis E. Parshall

Ardis E. Parshall is an independent historian and researcher.

Thirty-eight men and seven women left Salt Lake City in August 1908 with a mission: to capture an army and bring it back to Utah. Their targets were the quarter million members of the Grand Army of the Republic, meeting in national encampment at Toledo, Ohio, and their mission was to convince that army to hold its 1909 convention in Salt Lake City. The ranks of that association of Union veterans of the Civil War were thinning by the passing of aged veterans, but the Grand Army was still a formidable political and social power. Its national encampments—1909 would be its forty-third such annual gathering—were prizes eagerly sought by cities that competed with promises of unsurpassed hospitality.[1]

Salt Lake City may have seemed an unlikely host for an encampment: Utah had played a negligible role in the Civil War, and twenty years earlier Mormons were refused Grand Army membership even though they may have given honorable military service years before religious conversion. Utah’s Grand Army enrollment was barely 350, nearly all of whom had moved to Utah after service elsewhere. Yet Salt Lake held undeniable attractions for the largely eastern organization: the romance of the Wild West was in full flower in those years before the First World War. The natural wonders of the Great Salt Lake and curiosity about Mormons were almost irresistible draws. And finally, the timing was right: most surviving veterans were past seventy years of age and conscious that if they did not visit the West at this invitation, they might never have another opportunity. Utah boosters played off that sentiment by repeating the story of the Grand Army man who was turned away from the gates of heaven because he had never visited Salt Lake. “You had your chance at paradise,” Saint Peter told him, “and you let it get away.”[2]

George B. Squires, a Massachusetts native who had served with a Connecticut unit at Gettysburg before moving to Salt Lake, extended the formal invitation at Toledo: “There will be no trouble that we are not willing to go to, there will be no obstacle which we will not overcome; we will take care of you, and we will make you think you have had the time of your lives before you get out of Utah.” New Yorker James Tanner, national GAR commander in 1905–6, stood on the wooden prostheses that replaced the legs he had lost at the Second Battle of Bull Run, and endorsed the bid. His emotional speech recalled an earlier trip west, when a group of gaunt and weathered miners, learning that Civil War veterans were on the train, lined the tracks near a nameless desert water stop, bared their heads, and gave “three cheers for the boys what did.”[3]

Salt Lake City won the encampment by a vote of 461 to 104 over Washington, DC, its only competitor. Within hours of Salt Lake’s selection as host city and his own election as commander in chief, Henry M. Nevius of New Jersey, who had lost his left arm defending Washington, DC, in July 1864, made plans to visit Salt Lake. To minimize expenses, only four of his staff living west of Chicago were appointed to accompany him. Before their tickets were bought, however, they received an invitation from Fisher Harris, secretary of the Salt Lake Commercial Club, enclosing an unsolicited check to cover travel expenses of Commander Nevius and his entire staff. With that first action, Salt Lake gave proof of its pledge to take care of the old soldiers as no city had ever done before.[4]

Something under one year—from the September 1 award to the opening of the encampment on August 9—was all the time given to Salt Lake to prepare. Most of the work would be organized by the Commercial Club, which was also responsible for raising the sixty-thousand-dollar cost of the encampment from government, business, and private subscriptions. Overall supervision belonged to the one-armed Commander Nevius. Realizing the plans of the executive committee fell to Salt Lake citizens—mostly volunteers, largely members of the Women’s Citizens Committee, who promptly organized subcommittees on accommodations, music, decorations, medical care, entertainment, security, and every other needful thing.[5]

Time may have been short, but Salt Lake used it to advantage and by the first days of August was ready to welcome the Grand Army and all their accompanying organizations: the Ladies of the GAR, the Woman’s Relief Corps, the Sons of Veterans, the Daughters of Veterans, and the Associations of Army Nurses, Ex-Union Prisoners of War, Naval Veterans, and Civil War Musicians—an estimated sixty thousand in all.[6]

Yet, as short as the interval of time was between winning the encampment and hosting the veterans, it proved too long for some. Amanda Ross Ramsey, a Salt Lake member of the GAR auxiliaries Woman’s Relief Corps and Ladies of the GAR, had been a nurse during the Civil War while her husband served with the 130th Illinois Volunteers. Mrs. Ross served on the citizens’ committee preparing entertainments for women visitors, but died on April 28. Her daughter Emma Ramsey Morris stepped in to fill her mother’s assignments, as well as singing at numerous events during the encampment itself: her solo performances of “The Flag Without a Stain” and “The Star-Spangled Banner” became signature features of the August campfires and church services.[7]

Then on August 4, just as the veterans began to arrive in Salt Lake, Frank Hoffman died. Hoffman, a veteran of the 29th Ohio Infantry, was a member of Salt Lake’s McKean post of the GAR and a past commander of the Utah Department. A Utah resident and lawyer since 1869, Hoffman had planned to greet his comrades as a member of the official welcoming committee; instead, thousands of early arriving veterans stood at attention in the streets or marched in a funeral procession for Hoffman on August 8, with music provided by the visiting Ladies’ GAR. band, as he was laid to rest at Mount Olivet.[8]

The first veteran arrived unexpectedly, coming not over the Denver & Rio Grande but down Emigration Canyon. Corporal John W. DeHaas and his wife had set out from Oklahoma in April by horse and buggy, camping along the road. The unorthodox appearance of the old “Bucktail,” former member of the 149th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry who had fought at Gettysburg, delighted Salt Lake, and the couple were welcomed as guests in a private home.[9]

Among the tens of thousands attending the encampment were a number who had close ties to Utah residents or who were of more than usual interest to local people. Among these were Gilbert H. Pulver of Villisca, Iowa, originally of New York, who saw Civil War service at Shiloh, Vicksburg, and Corinth with the Third Iowa Volunteers. Pulver, who still carried a bullet in his right shoulder as a souvenir of Shiloh, stayed with his son Charles S. Pulver in Salt Lake’s Avenues district. Another visitor of interest to Salt Lake residents was DeLos Robinson, a veteran of the 129th Illinois Infantry, visiting from Sheridan, Illinois. Robinson was a grandson of John Young, the oldest brother of Brigham Young; he had spent part of his childhood with the Mormons in Kirtland and had known or had ties by blood and marriage to many Utahns. This was his first visit to Utah. A prominent returning visitor was the Reverend Thomas C. Iliff, former pastor of Salt Lake City’s Methodist Church and past chaplain of both the Utah Department of the GAR and of the national organization. Iliff had enlisted in the Ninth Ohio Cavalry when he was only 15, serving throughout the war, and had been with Sherman in Georgia. He had attended the Toledo encampment in 1908, speaking on behalf of Utah’s bid to host the 1909 event, and would speak at several of the campfires and in church services while in Salt Lake.[10]

The bulk of the visitors, of course, arrived via railroad. What began as a corporal’s guard on Saturday, August 7, became battalions on Monday, August 9, as train after train—some scheduled but mostly specials—stacked up at the railroad terminals. Every train was greeted by a brass band, at first either the Ladies, GAR Band or John Held’s official encampment band. Along with military marches and patriotic songs, the bands all played the official GAR March composed by Salt Lake resident Harry Montgomery especially for this encampment. As the hours passed and bands arrived from Price, Ogden, and Springville, carloads of veterans were escorted to their hotels by marching bands. Some delegations brought their own music with them—Cook’s Fife and Drum Corps from Denver, the Lyndonville Band from Vermont, the Modoc Singers from Topeka—and impromptu parades were held in the streets. For the entire week of the encampment, these bands serenaded organizational headquarters and played on street corners. The Salt Lake music committee, headed by Tabernacle organist John J. McClellan, had hired twenty-five bands and singing groups, while additional bands arrived with the visitors.[11]

As Salt Lake’s guests marched with the bands, they paraded through streets dressed especially in their honor. Most public and business buildings were decorated inside and out with flags, bunting, and huge portraits of presidents and Union generals. Downtown streets were crisscrossed by wires from which flapped American flags and the banners of the army and navy signal services.[12]

A minor scandal concerning those street decorations had rocked Salt Lake a week earlier. The proposal had looked quite promising: rows of closely packed flags alternating with electric lights creating a canopy along several downtown streets. But when the Eastern decorators arrived, they were stunned to find streets twice as wide and blocks twice as long as any they had encountered before; they had nowhere near enough banners to decorate as promised. The local committee understood the error and quickly revised their expectations but rebelled when decorations began to go up. Many of the flags were old, ragged, and water-stained. Salt Lake residents unfamiliar with military signal flags were indignant that American heroes should be asked to march under “foreign” banners. They threatened to tear them down, declaring that “God’s blue sky” was a more fitting tribute. The decorators quickly removed the worn and dirty American flags, explained the nature of the signal flags, and asked to decorate a sample intersection. Thousands visited that intersection, and with general approval decorating went forward.[13]

Salt Lake was especially proud of its electrical decorations, including the strings of bulbs across the streets and the illuminated flag attached to the Brigham Young monument.

Newly-arrived visitors queued up at information booths where they were directed to available rooms. About five thousand were lodged in hotels and rooming houses. A few thousand found free lodgings in elementary schools, where Salt Lake provided all-night janitors to regulate the ventilation: windows opened to catch cool evening breezes were gradually lowered throughout the night to protect guests from cold desert mornings. Another five thousand camped in their sidetracked Pullman cars. One enterprising veteran checked himself into the hospital, where he could have room and board and be waited on by a trained nurse, all for twenty dollars for the week.[14]

The greatest number by far, however, were directed to guest rooms in ten thousand private homes. For weeks, the housing committee had canvassed the town, soliciting rooms, urging families to free their best beds for guests. Mrs. W. H. Jones, with the help of a single stenographer, had prepared cards for all offered rooms, noting address, streetcar line, whether bath or breakfast was included, and price—which in no case was allowed to exceed fifty cents per night or one dollar with private bath. Prices were suggested for meals as well, but families were encouraged to act as hosts rather than innkeepers whenever possible.[15]

Wherever the visitors stayed, they were given directions and very often escorted to their rooms by the high school military cadets, who quickly became the heroes of all. These boys, neatly uniformed and organized into around-the-clock shifts, answered questions, gave directions, carried luggage, and helped lost souls find their rooms again when the Salt Lake street-naming system confounded them. They served as runners when bands were summoned to receptions. They helped visitors on the street who needed spectacles left in their rooms or medicine left in Wisconsin. In short, they became the willing hands, eyes, and feet of every needy visitor, and virtually every farewell letter published in Salt Lake’s newspapers expresses gratitude for the unfailing courtesy of Salt Lake’s army of high school boys.[16]

Hospitality had been urged upon Salt Lakers for weeks before the encampment. They were determined to be known not just for cordiality but for honesty and fairness. Profiteering would not be tolerated—the menu of every eatery in town was collected, and threats were issued that should profiteering occur, a uniformed policeman would be stationed by the restaurant door to warn patrons against entering.[17]

While overcharging for a meal was not precisely a crime, Salt Lake knew that genuine criminals were certain to follow the Grand Army crowds. Known local criminals were ordered out of town the week before the encampment. With little formality, suspicious persons apprehended during the week were given twenty minutes to leave town or be jailed. Detectives were borrowed from cities throughout the country to help Salt Lake detectives spot pickpockets at train depots and turn them back. Seventy-five temporary policemen were hired for crowd control—and while editorial cartoons teased that the duties of the special policemen were likely to be limited to helping ladies straighten their hats, they were needed to guard nearly deserted neighborhoods during the most popular events of that week.[18]

And there were certainly numerous events to entertain the old soldiers and their friends. Besides the scheduled business meetings of all groups associated with the Grand Army, there were receptions to the commander in chief, to the old army nurses, to visiting Eagles and Odd Fellows, and to guests from the former homes of transplanted Salt Lakers. There was sightseeing on the streetcar lines—which donated ten thousand free tickets—and personal tours for army nurses, arranged by a committee who solicited the loan of every available automobile, especially if the owner could also furnish a driver. Saltair admitted veterans and their wives free, as did the Salt Palace’s bicycle racetrack. Utah’s Hawaiian Troubadours performed. There were campfires every evening in both the assembly hall and the armory building, with speakers, music, and war reminiscences. The Tabernacle Choir gave free concerts. There were fireworks atop Ensign Peak each night and a parade featuring cowboys and Indians from the Wild West show which performed all that week. Then, too, there was visiting with old comrades and spinning war tales for wide-eyed children who followed the visitors everywhere.[19]

Thirsty visitors could drink at the newly installed water fountains on Main and State Streets or find a saloon for more serious refreshment. (Bars, closed by law at midnight, in fact stayed open later as long as everyone was discreet.) Veterans could pick up their mail at a temporary post office established in a downtown hotel. They could chat with friends on lawn furniture placed on the sidewalks by local businesses. Public “comfort stations,” plumbed to empty directly into the sewers, were set up over manhole covers on many downtown streets. For guests wearied by heat or altitude, the Lion House and other downtown Latter-day Saintbuildings were furnished with couches and electric fans, ice water and lemonade, and hostesses who could double as nurses; banners draped across the buildings urged visitors to come in and rest.[20]

Guests could stroll through Temple Square, where they could view floral designs created especially in their honor. If they were curious about Mormon matters, they could chat with the twenty-five additional guides deployed by the Church to handle the crowds. Should they be so inclined, they could purchase copies of an anti-Mormon pamphlet published by the Tribune and offered for sale outside the gates on South Temple.[21]

Some of the Grand Army men indulged passionately in the fad of collecting and trading badges. Many wore ribbons and medals proclaiming earlier encampments they had attended. Street merchants hawked buttons identifying hundreds of military units. The Utah committees contributed their share to this hobby by providing souvenir badges commemorating the Salt Lake encampment. The official badge came in three parts: a gold top bar with eagle and cannon, a silver drop featuring a blue-enameled sego lily, and a final bronze drop celebrating the centennial of Abraham Lincoln’s birth. This basic design was modified as needed: the badge for the Association of Civil War Musicians, for instance, replaced the Lincoln pendant with one carrying the image of a harp. For a few very distinguished guests, the badges were molded of Utah gold, Utah silver, and Utah copper.[22]

Other souvenirs were distributed. The official souvenir booklet featured photographs of Salt Lake scenes and portraits of prominent Grand Army and Utah personages. A “bootleg” booklet—one bitterly protested by the concession holder of the official souvenir—was available by the end of the week and featured scenes of the encampment. Visiting ladies were presented with souvenir autograph albums, fans, and postcards. The Salt Lake schools presented Commander Nevius with a large silk flag sewn by the children themselves.[23]

The visitors returned these favors with gifts of their own. The Ladies of the GAR donated an oil portrait of Abraham Lincoln for the City and County Building. The Association of Civil War Musicians, who, along with most of the other bands, had been quartered at Lafayette Elementary, presented a six-foot panorama photograph to that school.[24]

The centerpiece of every Grand Army encampment was the grand parade of veterans. Salt Lake hosts were concerned for the safety of marching soldiers—especially after noting that two years earlier, in Milwaukee, five veterans had dropped dead while on parade. The soldiers were older, the altitude higher, the August sun hotter, and the visitors more tired by a longer journey than in previous encampments.[25]

Before the parade on Wednesday, August 11, the soldiers needed to be fortified by a good meal—ham sandwiches, pickles, and a cup of sweetened coffee. Miss Lucy Van Cott, head of the University’s Domestic Science Department, had charge of the lunch. She secured donations of ham from Salt Lake packing houses and pickles from ZCMI. Ogden pledged one thousand loaves of bread. Cache Valley provided the butter, and Park City donated sugar. There was one snag—some things haven’t changed in one hundred years, and Miss Van Cott should have known better than to ask Provo to donate the coffee. The city council refused, but private citizens, eager to be as patriotic as the rest of the state, came up with four hundred pounds.[26]

To aid any marcher who was overcome during the parade, Red Cross nurses were stationed along every block. A wave of their flags would bring a waiting horse-drawn or automobile ambulance, and the fallen marcher would be rushed to the emergency hospital set up on the sixth floor of the Boston Building, which Dr. W. F. Beer had equipped with an operating room and cots for recovering from heat exhaustion. The Sons of Veterans would circulate among the marchers as well with buckets of water and lemonade.[27]

The soldiers assembled early on Wednesday morning. The parade began upon three blasts from the Tribune whistle. Prominent Grand Army officers on horseback preceded carriages carrying distinguished Utah officials and honored guests including a few surviving veterans of the 1846 Mexican War. Following them came the active duty soldiers from the 15th Infantry stationed at Fort Douglas, who the week earlier had practiced their drills downtown to accustom their horses to the newly asphalted Main Street. Following these preliminary groups came all the units in the Grand Army of the Republic, organized by state delegation and interspersed with the dozens of visiting bands. Crowd estimates varied, but, on the conservative side, 100,000 onlookers lined the one-mile parade route down Main Street.[28]

These onlookers cheered as the passing soldiers were pelted by flowers. While Salt Lake homeowners had planted thousands of packets of flower seeds that spring, a late frost followed by heavy flooding had destroyed most of Salt Lake’s crop—but Garland in Box Elder County had shipped in a full train-car load. Park City children had combed the hills for wildflowers; the Blind School at Ogden had grown gardens especially for the encampment. As the parade passed down Main Street, the crowds laughed at the Oklahoma soldiers carrying oversized baby bottles signaling their status as the Union’s newest state. They were moved by the sight of the long-haired Montana veteran who was supported by the stronger arm of his best friend—a man wearing an old Confederate uniform. They cheered for the Iowa men who carried ears of corn, and dozens of Salt Lake girls ran out to kiss the one who carried a red ear. The spectators who cheered themselves hoarse during most of the parade fell silent in respect when the former prisoners of war marched by, carrying banners identifying the Southern prisons they had survived.[29]

The old soldiers marched from the Brigham Young monument at the head of Main Street down to Seventh South, where, because of the width of the streets, they were able to turn around and march up the other side of the road—the first time in their history they were able to watch their own parade. During their march they waved to the crowds, danced with each other during short delays, and possibly stood their tallest as they passed cameras making one of the first motion pictures of any Salt Lake parade. The movie film was processed overnight and displayed for the rest of encampment week, and copies were soon distributed to movie houses around the country.[30]

Among the groups of parading soldiers who received special notice from the crowds of onlookers were a few black veterans, marching with delegations either from the states where they now lived or with whom they had once served. The Grand Army had been a remarkably egalitarian organization from its beginning, with black veterans accepted into the same posts with their white comrades. Ferdinand Shavers, a former servant of Abraham Lincoln, marched with the Colorado delegation; seven black veterans marched with the Louisiana soldiers (“only seven black men, but what a message their presence bore!” noted a journalist), one with Arkansas, and several more with Mississippi.[31]

Before turning back at Seventh South, the old soldiers paused to view what was billed as the greatest single feature of encampment week: the Living Flag, composed of seventeen hundred Salt Lake children, posed on a grandstand the width of Main Street, dressed in ankle-length capes and mobcaps of red, white, or blue cheesecloth, some carrying silver paper stars above their heads. These costumes had been sewn by the local Woman’s Relief Corps and by the women of the Church’s Relief Societies. The children sang patriotic songs and recited the Pledge of Allegiance and, directed by Professor W. A. Wetzell of the Salt Lake School District, danced to mimic the waving of a flag in the breeze. Even allowing for excess of sentiment expressed by the newspapers, the Living Flag was without doubt an emotional, spectacular success.[32]

Plans called for the Living Flag to fall into the line of march when the last group of soldiers turned to retrace their steps up Main Street. The mid-August day, however, was clear and sunny, with little breeze, and temperatures soon climbed to ninety-seven degrees. The children, with no protection from the sun and despite the water and lemonade constantly passed to them, began to droop and finally to drop. The flag continued singing as one child after another passed out and was carried to the ambulances. But when the children began to faint in numbers too large for the ambulances to keep up with, and as their watching parents broke through restraining ropes and threatened to collapse the grandstand as they reached for their children, Professor Wetzell dismissed them, many being then carried to the shady lawn of a nearby house reserved especially for the Living Flag. In all, some sixty children and forty marching veterans were taken to the emergency hospital, while an untold number of others fell out but revived with medical attention on the parade route.[33]

Because so many were disappointed by not seeing the Living Flag, a parade was held the following Friday in the cool of early evening, the only performers being the costumed children of the Living Flag and the bands that accompanied them.[34]

While most visitors came for the parade, the campfires, and the camaraderie, the encampment was, technically, a business meeting for the Grand Army and for many of its affiliated organizations. Delegates from state organizations met in conference at their temporary headquarters established in hotels, churches, and civic buildings throughout the city. Delegates to the GAR meeting heard Commander Nevius report his year’s efforts to influence national legislation regarding soldiers’ pensions, the maintenance of “old soldiers’ homes” and cemeteries, the funding and design of a monument to Benjamin F. Stephenson, (a surgeon who had served with the 14th Illinois Infantry and who had founded the Grand Army in 1866), and other issues of particular interest to the organization. Delegates to the business meetings of the various organizations also elected officers for the coming year.[35]

One business meeting of particular interest to Utahns was that of the National Association of Army Nurses. Time had reduced that association’s ranks to a mere twenty-six members, twenty-two of whom attended the encampment in Salt Lake City. That organization elected as their president for 1909–10 Mrs. Mary Roby Lacey, a resident of Salt Lake City since 1906, who, as a seventeen-year-old bride, had nursed her soldier-husband John Roby in a Pennsylvania military hospital early in 1861 and had gone on to serve as an army nurse until the close of the war. She had worked with Clara Barton on the still-smoking Antietam battlefield and recalled later presidential visits to the hospital: “Lincoln would come to our ward, and bending over the cots where the wounded soldiers lay, would speak words of encouragement.” Mrs. Lacey had been one of the Utahns to present Salt Lake’s invitation to the Toledo encampment in 1908 and had worked tirelessly as a member of a committee dedicated to ensuring that her sister nurses would enjoy their visit to Utah in 1909, including personalized souvenirs, a visit to the Saltair resort, automobile tours of the Salt Lake Valley and nearby canyons, and construction of a special grandstand from which the nurses could watch the parade in comfort.[36]

The campfires, receptions, and business meetings of the encampment continued until Saturday, August 14, and some groups, notably the old musicians, were having such a good time that they stayed another full week. Most soldiers, though, left within a day or two of the parade. Salt Lake City quickly turned its attention to other matters, beginning with the dedication of the Cathedral of the Madeleine the day after the encampment closed. But before closing this chapter of its history, Salt Lake tallied the costs and the gains: 60,000 visitors had been welcomed and entertained within budget and to all reports beyond everyone’s expectations. Those visitors, assured the editors of the Deseret News, “know now that the people of Utah are as patriotic, as loyal, and as warm-hearted . . . as any citizens anywhere. They know that Utah, notwithstanding slander, is an American state in every sense of that word.”[37]

Corporal James Tanner reminded his hosts that “if it had not been for the fight I made at Toledo, Salt Lake would not have had the encampment, and I went to Salt Lake feeling that I had considerable at stake . . . I came home perfectly satisfied and glad that I had done as I did.” The Grand Army’s chaplain in chief reported to his Tennessee newspaper that “they treated us . . . royally. . . . I am quite sure they have been abused more than they deserve.”[38]

Five years later, an encampment visitor wrote to a Salt Lake friend, “We will never forget you people and what you did for us while in your city during the G.A.R. encampment. We haven’t had such good treatment before we came there and never expect such a good time again. The old veterans have a warm spot in their hearts for you and your people.” Commander Nevius declared that it was “not in words alone that the welcome has come to the hosts of the Grand Army. This splendid outpouring of welcome, of hospitality by the people of this city and state has filled our hearts with delight. . . . We feel that on the shores of the great lake we have a home.”[39]

Three generations have passed since Salt Lake’s Main Street witnessed the marching of 7,500 Civil War veterans, half a continent away from the scenes of their battles. Salt Lake City has played host to any number of gatherings since then—but few, perhaps, involved such wholehearted support by the citizens of Utah as did that week in 1909 when the Grand Army was welcomed to Zion.

Notes

[1] “Utah Delegates Go East to Win for Salt Lake City Best Advertisement Yet,” Telegram, August 19, 1908, 3; “Old Soldiers Start Out,” Deseret News, August 25, 1908, 2; “Will work for the G.A.R. Encampment,” Telegram, August 27, 1908, 2; “Mayor J. S. Bransford’s Invitation to Veterans,” Deseret News, September 4, 1908, 1. Preparations for Salt Lake City’s successful 1908 bid (city leaders had discussed the possibility of bidding in earlier years) are reported in “G.A.R. Men to Fight for an Encampment,” Tribune, January 29, 1908; “Reasons Why Grand Army Should Hold Encampment Here,” Tribune, February 19, 1908; “Estimates Cost of G.A.R. Encampment,” Tribune, March 4, 1908; “Get the Veterans Here,” Telegram, August 21, 1908, 10; “Local Grand Army Men Will Be Hosts,” Telegram, August 24, 1908, 4; “Visitors Turn into Boosters,” Telegram, August 25, 1908, 1; “Salt Lake in Line for Next Encampment,” Tribune, September 1, 1908; “Seattle and Salt Lake to Fight for G.A.R. Meeting,” Telegram, March 5, 1908; “Salt Lake May Get Next Encampment,” Deseret News, September 1, 1908, 1; “Salt Lake to Win G.A.R. Encampment,” Tribune, September 2, 1908, 1; “Good News from Toledo Arouses Much Enthusiasm,” Tribune, September 2, 1908, 1; “Opposition to Salt Lake City,” Deseret News, September 3, 1908, 1; “Carnival Plans for Convention,” Salt Lake Republican, September 4, 1908; “Commander Royce Here,” Deseret News, September 16, 1908, 2. For reports of competing bids for the 1909 encampment, see “Hustling for G.A.R. Prizes,” Toledo Daily Blade, August 31, 1908; “Salt Lake City Leads for 1909,” Toledo Daily Blade, September 2, 1908; “Nevius and Utah Seem Winners,” Toledo Daily Blade, September 3, 1908; “Salt Laker on G.A.R.,” Deseret News, September 8, 1908, 2; “Enthused Over Encampment,” Deseret News, September 11, 1908, 3.

[2] Grand Army of the Republic, Utah Membership Records, Utah State Archives. “Visitors Turn into Boosters,” Telegram, August 25, 1908; “G.A.R. Leaders Expect Crowd of 60,000 for Encampment,” Telegram, July 23, 1909, 10.

[3] “Salt Lake to the Front!” Tribune, September 2, 1908, 4; “G.A.R. Encampment Coming,” Telegram, September 2, 1908, 1; “Grand Army Will Come to Salt Lake,” Telegram, September 3, 1908, 1; “Salt Lake Gets ’09 Encampment,” Toledo Daily Blade, September 4, 1908; “Salt Lake City Gets G.A.R. Encampment,” Deseret News, September 4, 1908, 1; “Salt Lake Defeats All Competitors for Honor of Entertaining G.A.R.,” Telegram, September 4, 1909, 1; “Salt Lake City Wins Next Encampment of G.A.R.,” Tribune, September 5, 1908, 1; “How Utah Delegation Won the Encampment,” Deseret News, August 7, 1909, 13.

[4] “Salt Lake City Wins Next Encampment of G.A.R.,” Tribune, September 5, 1908, 1; “Great Contract Confronts City,” Salt Lake Herald, September 10, 1908, 12; “Ample Salt Lake Accommodations,” Deseret News, December 9, 1908, 2; “Women Are Again Urged to Respond,” Tribune, March 19, 1909, 14; “Numerous Bands Will Be Present,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 3; “Commander Nevius Reviews Year’s Work,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 1; “Good News from Toledo Arouses Much Enthusiasm,” Tribune, September 2, 1908, 1; “G.A.R. Officials Are on Way to This City,” Deseret News, December 7, 1908, 1; “Commander Nevius Reviews Year’s Work,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 1.

[5] “Hotels Are Preparing for Great Encampment,” Tribune, July 3, 1909, 16; “All Ready but the Cream,” Deseret News, July 10, 1909, 1; “Shaping Up Plans for Encampment,” Tribune, July 13, 1909, 11; “Cots and Tents Ready for Camp,” Deseret News, July 29, 1909, 5; “All About Ready,” Tribune, August 5, 1909, 4; “Food Supply on Hand for Encampment,” Telegram, August 6, 1909, 6; “Ready for the Veterans,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 4; “Doors Swing Wide to Welcome G.A.R.,” Deseret News, August 7, 1909, 1; “Salt Lake Ready to Welcome Nation’s Saviors,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “Ogden City Is Ready to Care for Visitors,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 1; “Stands and Booths Ready,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 5; “Great G.A.R. Encampment Opens in Earnest Today,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 1; “Fire Precautions Were Exceedingly Elaborate,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 10; “Cash on Hand to Entertain,” Herald-Republican, August 25, 1909, 2.

[6] “Hotels Are Preparing for Great Encampment,” Tribune, July 3, 1909, 16; “All Ready but the Cream,” Deseret News, July 10, 1909, 1; “Shaping Up Plans for Encampment,” Tribune, July 13, 1909, 11; “Cots and Tents Ready for Camp,” Deseret News, July 29, 1909, 5; “All About Ready,” Tribune, August 5, 1909, 4; “Food Supply on Hand for Encampment,” Telegram, August 6, 1909, 6; “Ready for the Veterans,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 4; “Doors Swing Wide to Welcome G.A.R.,” Deseret News, August 7, 1909, 1; “Salt Lake Ready to Welcome Nation’s Saviors,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “Ogden City Is Ready to Care for Visitors,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 1; “Stands and Booths Ready,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 5; “Great G.A.R. Encampment Opens in Earnest Today,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 1; “Fire Precautions Were Exceedingly Elaborate,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 10; “Cash on Hand to Entertain,” Herald-Republican, August 25, 1909, 2.

[7] “Salt Lake Women Served as Nurses in the Civil War,” Deseret News, January 2, 1909, 24; “Installation of Veteran Society,” Deseret News, January 25, 1909, 8; “Noble Woman to Be Buried Sunday,” Deseret News, April 30, 1909, 4; “Gather at Morris Home,” Deseret News, July 27, 1909, 2; “Music Will Cheer Hearts of Veterans,” Telegram, July 31, 1909, 16; “Campfires Programs Announced,” Telegram, August 3, 1909; “Campfires During Encampment Week,” Tribune, August 4, 1909, 8; “Entertainment Provided for Ex-Prisoners of War,” Tribune, August 4, 1909, 3; “Patriotic Exercises to be Held Next Sunday,” Tribune, August 7, 1909, 9; “Patriotic Exercises in M. E. Church,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 12; “Visiting Veterans Attend Services,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 12; “Patriotic Service at First Methodist Arouses Enthusiasm,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 6; “Campfires Are Feature for Tonight,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 12; “Campfire Is Held in the Darkness,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 16; “Old Veterans Hold Campfire in Dark,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 6; “Busy Day for G.A.R. Visitors,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 1; “Army Nurses Have Session Tuesday,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 2; “Outing of G.A.R. Ladies at Saltair,” Tribune, August 24, 1909, 14; “Resolutions by the Army Nurses,” Herald-Republican, August 26, 1909, 6.

[8] “Death of G.A.R. Veteran,” Deseret News, August 5, 1909, 5; “Comrades Perform Last Rites for Frank Hoffman,” Herald, August 9, 1909, 10; “Civil War Veteran Honored in Death,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 2; “Salute Comrade Who Has Passed Before,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 3.

[9] “Veteran Drives from Oklahoma,” Deseret News, July 27, 1909; “Corporal De Hass and His Outfit,” Deseret Evening News, July 28, 1909; “Redman ‘Is For’ De Hass,” Deseret News, July 29, 1909; “By Campfire in Peaceful Evening of Life He Tells of Bivouacking on Battle Fields,” Telegram, August 3, 1909.

[10] “Will Work for the G.A.R. Encampment,” Telegram, August 27, 1908, 2; “Long Time It Was Between the Drinks,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 2; “Dr. Iliff Visits Old Home in Zion,” Tribune, August 6, 1909, 9; “Rev. T.C. Ilioff Here to See Old Comrades,” Telegram, August 6, 1909; “Patriotic Exercises to Be Held Next Sunday,” Tribune, August 7, 1909, 7; “First Patriotic G.A.R. Services,” Deseret News, August 7, 1909, 5; “Visiting Veterans Attend Services,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 12; “Patriotic Service at First Methodist Arouses Enthusiasm,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 6; “An Illinois Veteran,” Deseret News, August 12, 1909, 5; “Dr. Iliff Thaws Out,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 11; “An Illinois Veteran,” Deseret News, August 12, 1909, 5; Biographical and Genealogical Record of La Salle County, Illinois (Chicago: Lewis, 1900) 1:217.

[11] For arrival of veterans, see “Old Soldiers Already Arriving in Town,” Telegram, July 21, 1909, 2; “Many Specials to Bring Veterans Here,” Telegram, July 29, 1909, 3; “Rio Grande Announces Coming of Delegations,” Tribune, August 6, 1909, 2; “Further List of Special Trains,” Deseret News, August 6, 1909, 2; “Time of Arrival of Special G.A.R. Trains,” Tribune, August 7, 1909, 9; “Veterans Are Here in Force,” Salt Lake Evening Telegram, August 7, 1909, 1; “Care of Visitors Important Matter,” Tribune, August 7, 1909, 12; “Grand Army Camps in Utah,” Chicago Daily Tribune, August 8, 1909, 4; “Encampment of the G.A.R.,” Great Falls (Montana) Daily Tribune, August 8, 1909, 1; “Great G.A.R. Encampment Opens in Earnest Today,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 1; “Thousands on the Streets,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 1; “Delegates Arrive Over the Oregon Short Line,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 1; “Fifteen Thousand Reach City Sunday,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 6; “Prominent Members of the Ladies of the G.A.R.,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 1; “Veterans Meet by Hotel Campfires,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 2; “Distinguished Soldiers Reach Salt Lake City,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 3; “Oklahoma Delegates Here in force,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 8; “G.A.R. Veterans at Salt Lake City,” Indiana (Pennsylvania) Evening Gazette, August 9, 1909; “Department of Potomac Delegates have Arrived,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 3; “Thousands of Veterans Invade Salt Lake City,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 1; “Still Arriving in Squads and Battalions,” Deseret News, August 10, 1909, 1; “Visitors Are Still Pouring into City,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 16; “Arrival of Delegates Is About at an End,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 8; “12,000 More Come to Encampment; Trains Crowded to Guards,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 1. For bands in attendance, see “Many Bands to Be Here for G.A.R.,” Telegram, July 16, 1909, 2; “Twelve Bands Have Been Engaged for G.A.R. Encampment,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 17, 1909, 10; “Band Concerts Will Be Given G.A.R. Visitors,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 22, 1909, 3; “Music Will Cheer Hearts of Veterans,” Telegram, July 31, 1909, 16; “Twenty-Five Bands in Line,” Deseret News, July 31, 1909, 5; “Numerous Bands Will Be Present,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 32; “Music in Air, and Everywhere,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 1, 1909, 10; “Cook’s Drum Corps Here for Meet,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 6; “Famous Drum Corps in Special Train,” Telegram, August 3, 1909, 3; “Plenty of Bands,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “Martial Music for Encampment Week,” Deseret News, August 7, 1909, 5; “Band Concert with Two Hundred Pieces,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 6; “Concert Wednesday,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 9; “Music Big Feature at Encampment,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 12; “Wednesday Evening Concert at the Reviewing Stand,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 3; “Drum Corps to March in Cross Formation,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 12; “Vermont’s Band Men of Many Professions,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 2; “Lyndonville Band Is in Zion from Old Vermont,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 3; “Fine Railway Band from Kansas Here,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 7; “Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 3; “Topeka Military Drum Corps All Star Band,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 1; “Strains of Music Palpitating Air,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 3; “Mass Band Concert Will Be Enjoyable,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 3; “Musicians at Lafayette Building,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 3; “Arrangements of Bands for the Great Parade,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 4; “Payson Band in Line,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 8; “There Is Music in the Air All This Week in Salt Lake City,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 3; “Music in the Air,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 11; “G.A.R. Notes,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 2; “Four Fine Bands Will Play at Concerts,” Telegram, August 13, 1909, 1; “Encampment Notes,” Deseret News, August 13, 1909, 3; “Final Band Concert,” Deseret News, August 14, 1909, 8; “Idaho Band Appreciative,” Herald-Republican, August 22, 1909, 10.

[12] “A Noted Decorator Arrives to Prepare for Big Encampment,” Inter-mountain Republican, June 4, 1909, 3; “Display in View for Encampment,” Tribune, June 30, 1909, 14; “Plans for Decoration for Encampment Week,” Deseret News, July 2, 1909, 12; “City to Decorate Elaborately for G.A.R. Encampment,” Telegram, July 17, 1909, 8; “Decoration Work Started in City,” Telegram, July 21, 1909, 2; “Decorations in Large Quantities Received,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 21, 1909, 10; “Decorations Now Well Under Way in City Streets,” Telegram, July 29, 1909, 10; “Decorators at Work,” Deseret News, July 29, 1909, 1; “Every Resident Should Decorate,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 1; “Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 3; “Joint Building to Be Prettily Decorated,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 10; “Decorators Wield Tack Hammers Well,” Deseret News, August 3, 1909, 3; “Federal Officials Decorate Building,” Telegram, August 5, 1909, 10; “Federal Building Now Gaily Decorated,” Tribune, August 6, 1909, 2; “Railroad Notes,” Tribune, August 6, 1909, 9; “Beautiful Decorations,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “Decorator Gets Busy,” Deseret News, August 7, 1909, 5; “View of the Decorations on Main Street, Showing Those on Tribune Building,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 3; “The Man Who Did Not Go to Church Yesterday Decorated,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 3; “Bewildering Mass of Color,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 5; “Decorations and Bunting on Main Street,” Deseret News, August 10, 1909, 5; “Infirmary is Decorated,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 12; “Denver Man Is Pleased with the Decorations,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 3.

[13] “Business Men Are in Rage,” Telegram, July 30, 1909, 1; “Bedraggled Flags Cause Resentment,” Deseret News, July 30, 1909, 2; “Decorating Firm Makes Promise,” Deseret News, July 31, 1909, 12; “Accept Decorations for the Encampment,” Telegram, August 2, 1909, 10; “Revised Decoration Scheme Approved,” Telegram, August 4, 1909, 10; “Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 5, 1909, 2; “G.A.R. Decorators Repudiate Contract,” Deseret News, August 5, 1909, 2.

[14] “G.A.R. Accommodations,” Deseret News, May 15, 1909, 2; “Hotels Draw Comment,” Deseret News, May 29, 1909, 1; “Will Likely Loan Cots,” Deseret News, June 22, 1909, 5; “Local Hotel Men Slowly Working Up,” Telegram, July 2, 1909, 9; “Hotels Are Preparing for Great Encampment,” Tribune, July 3, 1909, 16; “G.A.R. Veterans to Have Cots of War Department,” Telegram, July 5, 1909, 10; “Hotel Possible at Saltair Resort for the Veterans,” Telegram, July 14, 1909, 10; “Salt Lake Hotels Hurting the City,” Deseret News, July 28, 1909, 2; “How Hotel Men Can Avoid Much Censure,” Telegram, July 29, 1909, 3; “Plan Tented City for Liberty Park,” Telegram, July 30, 1909, 12; “Music in Air, and Everywhere,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 1, 1909, 10; “Housing Problem for Encampment Is Practically Solved,” Telegram, August 2, 1909, 1; “Many Inquiries as to Quarters,” Tribune, August 5, 1909, 1; “Further List of Special Trains,” Deseret News, August 6, 1909, 2; “Free Accommodations for Many Veterans,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “Wise Old Veteran,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 1; “Plenty of Rooms and Beds for the Visitors,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 8; “Veterans Pleased with Quarters in School Houses,” Telegram, August 13, 1909, 3.

[15] “Ample Salt Lake Accommodations,” Deseret News, December 9, 1908, 2; “Reasons Why Grand Army Should Hold Encampment Here,” Tribune, February 19, 1909; “Hotels Cannot Handle Throng,” Deseret News, April 14, 1909, 1; “Appeal to People for Hospitality,” Deseret News, April 28, 1909, 10; “Citizens Asked to Offer Rooms,” Inter-mountain Republican, May 18, 1909, 10; “Citizens Responding to G.A.R. Appeal,” Inter-mountain Republican, May 19, 1909, 8; “People of Salt Lake Must Extend Welcome,” Tribune, June 22, 1909, 14; “Accommodations Are Still Badly Needed,” Telegram, July 1, 1909, 3; “Have You a Room for G.A.R. Visitor?” Telegram, July 3, 1909, 10; “Accommodations Are Somewhat Scarce,” Telegram, July 6, 1909, 3; “Accommodations Are Coming in Slowly,” Telegram, July 6, 1909, 12; “Call for Quarters Rapidly Increasing,” Tribune, July 7, 1909, 14; “The Grand Army,” Deseret News, July 10, 1909, 4; “People Should Charge Only $1 for Room,” Telegram, July 13, 1909, 2; “Accommodations Are Coming in Rapidly,” Telegram, July 15, 1909, 10; “Rooms for Visitors at Low Rates,” Telegram, July 16, 1909, 1; “Plans Under Way for Encampment,” Deseret News, July 27, 1909, 1; “Former Residents of Eastern States Asked for Help,” Telegram, July 29, 1909, 10; “All Getting in Line,” Tribune, August 2, 1909, 4; “Housing Problem Big One,” Telegram, August 4, 1909, 10; “Many Inquiries as to Quarters,” Tribune, August 5, 1909, 1; “G.A.R. Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 6, 1909, 2; “Housing Problem Is Solved,” Telegram, August 6, 1909, 1; “Ogden City Is Ready to Care for Visitors,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 7; “Ten Specials Yet to Come,” Deseret News, August 10, 1909, 1; “Wisconsin Delegation Being Well Entertained,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 8.

[16] “Plan of Entertainment Most Extensive on Record,” Deseret News, September 4, 1908, 1; “Choir Will Sing for the Veterans,” Deseret News, July 12, 1909, 1; “Old Soldiers Already Arriving in Town,” Telegram, July 21, 1909, 2; “Music in Air, and Everywhere,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 1, 1909, 10; “Numerous Bands Will Be Present,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 32; “Housing Problem for Encampment is Practically Solved,” Telegram, August 2, 1909, 1; “Preparations to Receive Visitors,” Tribune, August 3, 1909, 12; “Encampment Notes,” Deseret News, August 5, 1909, 5; “Care of Visitors Important Matter,” Tribune, August 7, 1909, 12; “First Patriotic G.A.R. Services,” Deseret News, August 7, 1909, 5; “Grand Army Men Are Salt Lake’s Guests,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 1; “Fifteen Thousand Reach City Sunday,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 6; “Advance Guard Arrived Early,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 5; “Stands and Booths Ready,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 5; “High School Cadets Doing Great Work,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 16; “Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 2; “Cadets Render Efficient Services,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 6; “The Forty-Third Encampment,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 10, 1909, 4; “G.A.R. Indorses Cadet Corps Work,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 7; “Good Work of High School Cadets,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 2; “Get Into Line for the Great G.A.R. Parade,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 4; “Parade Comprises Imposing Spectacle,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 2; “High School Cadets Did a Magnificent Work,” Tribune, August 14, 1909, 3; “Visitors Appreciate Hospitality of City,” Tribune, August 15, 1909, 15; “Veterans March in Great Review,” Stevens Point (Wisconsin) Gazette, August 18, 1909; “Pride of Salt Lake Now Speeding to Seattle for Utah Day,” Herald-Republican, August 22, 1909, 5.

[17] “Salt Laker on G.A.R.,” Deseret News, September 8, 1908, 2; “Committee Will Meet on Tuesday,” Inter-mountain Republican, January 4, 1909, 5; “Reasons Why Grand Army Should Hold Encampment Here,” Tribune, February 19, 1909; “Salt Lakers Must Protect G.A.R.,” Telegram, July 10, 1909, 1; “Salt Lake Must Head Off Raise in Prices During Encampment,” Telegram, July 12, 1909, 1; “Combines Control the Prices in Salt Lake,” Telegram, July 12, 1909, 10; “Storm of Public Sentiment Against High Prices Grows,” Telegram, July 13, 1909, 1; “Fisher Harris Will Help Get Square Deal,” Telegram, July 13, 1909, 2; “People Should Charge Only $1 for Room,” Telegram, July 13, 1909, 2; “Prominent Citizens in Fight for Square Deal,” Telegram, July 13, 1909, 2; “He Ate Hardtack Then So Give Him a Good Meal Now, and Make the Price Right, Too,” Telegram, July 14, 1909, 1; “Officials to Demand Square Deal,” Telegram, July 14, 1909, 1; “Increase in Business Should Satisfy Them,” Telegram, July 14, 1909, 1; “No Grafting of Veterans,” Telegram, July 14, 1909, 4; “Governor to Help Keep Prices Down,” Telegram, July 15, 1909, 1; “Increase in Business Is Enough Pay,” Telegram, July 15, 1909, 1; “Rooms for Visitors at Low Rates,” Telegram, July 16, 1909, 1; “Council Will Punish Every Greedy One,” Telegram, July 20, 1909, 1; “Councilmen Will Compel a Square Deal for Veterans,” Telegram, July 30, 1909, 8; “Hotel Men on G.A.R. Outlook,” Deseret News, July 31, 1909, 1; “License Department Helping Encampment,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 3; “Encampment Will Jam the Hotels,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 32; “Able to Care for the Crowds,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 2, 1909, 2; “To Protect the Visitors,” Deseret News, August 2, 1909, 4; “Police Will Keep Prices at Old Rate,” Telegram, August 4, 1909, 1; “Policemen Will Inspect Menus,” Deseret News, August 4, 1909, 2; “Oppose Advance in Price of Food,” Deseret News, August 5, 1909, 2; “Prices Boosted Yet Once More,” Deseret News, August 5, 1909, 10; “G.A.R. Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 6, 1909, 2; “Restaurant Men to Keep Same Prices,” Telegram, August 6, 1909, 10; “Famine in Cots Reported Today,” Deseret News, August 6, 1909, 1; “Give Them a Square Deal,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 1; “No Changes in Retail Prices,” Herald-Republican, August 19, 1909, 12; “Prices Were Not Raised,” Deseret News, August 19, 1909, 5.

[18] “Extra Policemen Are Arranged for During Encampment,” Telegram, July 20, 1909, 1; “Twenty-Five Extra Police for G.A.R. Week,” Deseret News, July 27, 1909, 2; “Clever Sleuths Here to Guard Visitors Encampment Week,” Telegram, July 31, 1909, 1; “Scat!” Telegram, August 4, 1909, 1; “Good Police Protection,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “Plain Clothes Men Protect G.A.R. Visitors,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 10, 1909, 10; “Ten Specials Yet to Come,” Deseret News, August 10, 1909, 1; “Encampment Visitor Is Victim of Assault,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 12; “Encampment Visitor Bests a Highwayman,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 16; “Touched for $400,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 2; “‘This My Busy Day’ Policeman’s Motto,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 10; “Saloons Did Not Close,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 12; “Youths Suspected of Picking Pockets,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 2; “Report Few Cases of Lost Visitors,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 11, 1909, 10; “Mitchell Accused of Pocket Picking,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 9; “Heber Man Is Arrested for Attempted Robbery,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 13, 1909, 10; “Grand Army Veterans Homeward Bound,” Deseret News, August 14, 1909, 1; “Badges Presented to Salt Lake Officers,” Deseret News, August 14, 1909, 6; “Much-Needed Order Issued by Police Chief,” Tribune, August 15, 1909, 5; “Visitors Appreciate Hospitality of City,” Tribune, August 15, 1909, 15; “Good Work Done by Police Force,” Tribune, August 16, 1909, 12.

[19] “Trips in Carriages for Old Soldiers,” Telegram, July 21, 1909, 3; “Eight Big Camp Fires at G.A.R. Encampment,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 22, 1909, 8; “Ogden Citizens to Entertain Veterans,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 23, 1909, 3; “One More Week of Preparation,” Deseret News, August 2, 1909, 2; “Campfire Programs Announced,” Telegram, August 3, 1909, 10; “Campfires During Encampment Week,” Tribune, August 4, 1909, 8; “Veterans’ Daughters Planning Reception,” Telegram, August 4, 1909, 3; “Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 4, 1909, 8; “Extend Hospitality to Civil War Nurses,” Telegram, August 5, 1909, 3; “Many Events Scheduled for G.A.R.,” Telegram, August 5, 1909, 1; “Pretty Display at Tabernacle,” Deseret News, August 6, 1909, 10; “G.A.R. Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 6, 1909, 2; “Campfires Will Be Attractive Feature of Week’s Program,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 12; “Monday’s Program,” Deseret News, August 7, 1909, 1; “Resorts to Give Visitors Tickets,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “Great G.A.R. Encampment Opens in Earnest Today,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 1; “Veterans Meet by Hotel Campfires,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 2; “Veterans to Be Guests of Heagren,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 9; “Campfires Are Feature for Tonight,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 12; “Veterans Free Tomorrow,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 10; “Thousands on the Streets,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 1; “Veteran Vocalists Sing at Campfire,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 11; “Campfire Is Held in the Darkness,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 16; “Veterans Meet in Capital of Utah,” Idaho Daily Statesman, August 10, 1909, 1; “Old Veterans Hold Campfire in Dark,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 6; “Campfire Program at Assembly Hall,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 12; “Fine Camp Fire in Armory Hall,” Deseret News, August 10, 1909, 3; “Nevius and Staff Given a Reception,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 1; “Reception Tendered to Commander Allen,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 3; “Gathering Held in Armory Hall,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 16; “Two Interesting Campfires Held,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 8; “Joyous Reunion Held by Naval Veterans,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 11; “Campfire at Armory a Brilliant Success,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 2; “Day of Pleasure for G.A.R. Ladies,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 2; “Receptions by W.R.C. Departments,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 11; “Rousing Campfire Is Held at Armory Hall,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 8; “Ex-Prisoners Hold Rousing Campfire,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 2; “Among the Stars in Glory’s Field,” Deseret News, August 12, 1909, 12; “Horrors of Dixie’s War Prisons Told by Former Inmates,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 2; “Campfire Tales Amuse G.A.R. Men,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 9; “Veterans Shut Out of Concert,” Deseret News, August 12, 1909, 3; “Assembly Hall Camp Fire,” Deseret News, August 13, 1909, 3; “Of War Survivors Not Half Enrolled,” Deseret News, August 13, 1909, 5; “New Officers Are Elected by Women,” Tribune, August 14, 1909, 8; “Pleasant Reception Is Held by Eagles,” Tribune, August 14, 1909, 11; “Hawkeye Club Has Pretty Reception,” Tribune, August 14, 1909, 8; “Knights of Pythias Have a Busy Time,” Tribune, August 15, 1909, 15; “Excursion to Saltair,” Deseret News, August 23, 1909, 2.

[20] “Drinking Fountains Will Be Installed When Veterans Meet,” Inter-mountain Republican, June 18, 1909, 2; “Encampment Details Crowd Present Force,” Deseret News, June 22, 1909, 2; “Rest Rooms Planned for Encampment,” Telegram, July 24, 1909, 8; “Sanitary Fountains Here for Encampment,” Telegram, July 30, 1909, 12; “G.A.R. Notes,” Deseret News, July 31, 1909, 12; “Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 3; “Rest Rooms Provided,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “Business Men Show Kindness to Visitors,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 6; “Notes,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 2; “Saloons Did Not Close,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 12; “Visitors Appreciate Hospitality of City,” Tribune, August 15, 1909, 15; “Nothing but Praise for Salt Lake,” Tribune, August 23, 1909, 2.

[21] “G.A.R. Floral Designs,” Deseret News, June 17, 1909, 1; “Additional Guides for Temple Square,” Deseret News, August 5, 1909, 1; “Pretty Display at Tabernacle,” Deseret News, August 6, 1909, 10; “Attempts to Make a Good Impression,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 2; “Temple Block Thronged,” Deseret News, August 9, 1909, 5.

[22] “Committee to Be Named,” Deseret News, January 11, 1909, 1; “The Fame of Utah to Be Told in Booklet,” Deseret News, March 4, 1909, 5; “Grandstands for G.A.R. Review,” Deseret News, May 1, 1909, 1; “Encampment Badges Will Soon Be Ready Says Manufacturer,” Inter-mountain Republican, May 22, 1909, 12; “Prisoners of War to Meet in August,” Deseret News, June 21, 1909, 2; “Excellent Work Done by Women,” Tribune, July 4, 1909, 28; “G.A.R. Badge Is Handsome Affair,” Telegram, July 16, 1909, 12; “G.A.R. Sample Badges Are Received Here,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 17, 1909, 10; “Badges Are Ready for Distribution,” Tribune, August 3, 1909, 3; “Can Get Badges,” Telegram, August 3, 1909, 3; “G.A.R. Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 7, 1909, 9; “Harvest Time for Hawkers of Badges,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 6; “The Forty-Third Encampment,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 10, 1909, 4; “Entertainment Given by the Ohio Society,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 2; “Unique Badge Flag Glorifies Lincoln; 30 Years in Making,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 2; “Badge Lost,” Deseret News, August 13, 1909, 2; “Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 14, 1909, 2; “Prof. J. J. M’Clelland Presented with Badge,” Tribune, August 15, 1909, 15; “Thomas & Lynch Are Given Credentials,” Tribune, August 19, 1909, 8; “Credentials for G.A.R. Official Souvenir,” Telegram, August 19, 1909, 3.

[23] “Committee to Be Named,” Deseret News, January 11, 1909, 1; “Grand Army Program to Be Full of Data,” Deseret News, March 2, 1909, 1; “Booklet Nearly Ready,” Deseret News, April 2, 1909, 5; “Souvenir Tells about Salt Lake,” Deseret News, July 23, 1909, 2; “G.A.R. Souvenir,” Deseret News, July 28, 1909, 4; “Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 4, 1909, 8; “G.A.R. Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 6, 1909, 2; “Pretty Souvenir for Woman Visitors,” Telegram, August 6, 1909, 10; “Harvest Time for hawkers of Badges,” Telegram, August 9, 1909, 6; “Visiting Photographer to Issue Souvenir Book,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 3; “Thomas Indignant,” Deseret News, August 14, 1909, 2; “Credit Thomas & Lynch,” Herald-Republican, August 18, 1909, 2; “Credentials for G.A.R. Official Souvenir,” Telegram, August 19, 1909, 3; “Thomas & Lynch Are Given Credentials,” Tribune, August 19, 1909, 8; “Official Book Is Designated,” Herald-Republican, August 19, 1909, 9; “Outing of G.A.R. Ladies at Saltair,” Tribune, August 24, 1909, 14.

[24] “Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 3; “Lafayette School to Get Musicians’ Photo,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 2; “Encampment Notes,” Deseret News, August 13, 1909, 3; “Interesting Souvenir Will Remain in City,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 13, 1909, 3.

[25] “Many Safeguards Are Planned for G.A.R. Parade,” Telegram, July 9, 1909, 1; “Grand Army Veterans to Be Well Cared For,” Tribune, July 10, 1909, 16; “Ready for the Veterans,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 4; “Hospitals to Care for Sick,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “No Fatalities in Encampment,” Herald-Republican, August 20, 1909, 5.

[26] “Women Preparing to Serve Luncheon Day of G.A.R. Parade,” Inter-mountain Republican, June 20, 1909, 3; “Woman’s Committee Is Doing Good Work,” Tribune, June 27, 1909, 24; “No Outside Help to Feed Veterans,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 4, 1909, 3; “Junction City Will Help Encampment,” Telegram, July 8, 1909, 5; “The Grand Army,” Deseret News, July 10, 1909, 4; “All Ready but the Cream,” Deseret News, July 10, 1909, 1; “Refreshments to Be Furnished Veterans,” Deseret News, July 10, 1909, 1; “Public Is Warned Against Imposter,” Tribune, July 11, 1909, 32; “Cities of State Come Forth with Supplies,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 11, 1909, 3; “That Veterans May Eat,” Telegram, August 2, 1909, 12; “‘Snack’ Provided for Veterans Who March in Parade,” Telegram, August 4, 1909, 2; “Nice Little Lunch for the Veterans,” Tribune, August 4, 1909, 14; “Delicate Refreshments for Veterans,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 3; “Ten Thousand Good Sandwiches for G.A.R.,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 3; “Miss L. Van Cott’s Bill for Services Astonishes Women,” Telegram, August 17, 1909, 10; “Sterrett ‘Raps’ Salt Lake; Utahns Answer Colonel,” Telegram, August 27, 1909, 1.

[27] “Medical Corps Now Organized,” Tribune, July 9, 1909, 14; “Nurses for Encampment,” Deseret News, July 9, 1909, 5; “Announces Completion of Extensive Plans,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 18, 1909, 10; “G.A.R. Parade Has Right of Way,” Telegram, July 21, 1909, 3; “Final Details of Great Procession,” Telegram, July 22, 1909, 12; “Rest Rooms Planned for Encampment,” Telegram, July 24, 1909, 8; “Hospitals to Care for Sick,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “Women Physicians to Attend to Wants of Women Visitors,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 1; “Ten Specials Yet to Come,” Deseret News, August 10, 1909, 1; “‘First Aid’ Girls,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 2; “Doctors and Nurses of Hospital Corps Win Crowd’s Praise,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 3; “Light Day at Hospital,” Deseret News, August 12, 1909, 6; “Knights of Pythias Have a Busy Time,” Tribune, August 15, 1909, 15; “No Fatalities in Encampment,” Herald-Republican, August 20, 1909, 5.

[28] “Final Details of Great Procession,” Telegram, July 22, 1909, 12; “Line of March of Big G.A.R. Parade on Wednesday, August 11,” Deseret News, July 31, 1909, 5; “Final Plans for Big Parade Are Commenced,” Telegram, August 5, 1909, 10; “Parade of Veterans to Be Week’s big Event,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “Route of Tomorrow Morning’s Parade,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 1; “Wednesday’s Program,” Deseret News, August 10, 1909, 3; “Largest Veteran Drum Corps in World Will Lead Grand Parade,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 7; “Green Mountain Boys in Parade,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 6; “Soldiery of State to Parade,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 12; “Get Into Line for the Great G.A.R. Parade,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 4; “Tribune Whistle Starts Parade,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 1; “Arrangements of Bands for the Great Parade,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 4; “The Parade Today,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 6; “Spanish War Veterans,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 8; “Silver Grays March Erect,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 1; “Veterans’ Parade is 3-3/4 Miles Long,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 1; “Everybody Came to See the Doings,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 1; “Uncle John Beesley to Be In Parade,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 8; “Comrades March to Strains of Martial Airs,” The (Canton, Ohio) Evening Repository, August 11, 1909, 1; “Guard Is Getting in Condition for Parade,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 8; “Veterans of Civil War in an Inspiring Parade,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 1; “Humorous Features of Grand Army Pageant,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 2; “Mexican War Veteran Walked in Parade,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 8; “Parade Comprises Imposing Spectacle,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 2; “Great Parade as Seen from Reviewing Stand,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 2; “Franklin Post No. 220 Makes Good Showing,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 2; “Yesterday,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 4; “Many People Come to See Great Parade,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 3; “Famous Old Relic Is Seen in G.A.R. Parade,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 3; “Great Heat Mars Big G.A.R. Parade,” Chicago Daily Tribune, August 12, 1909, 4; “Heroes of Old in Annual Parade,” Idaho Daily Statesman, August 12, 1909, 1; “The March of Boys in Blue,” Great Falls (Montana) Daily Tribune, August 12, 1909, 1; “The Grand Parade,” Deseret News, August 12, 1909, 4; “An Illinois Veteran,” Deseret News, August 12, 1909, 5; “Oldest Veteran in G.A.R. Parade,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 13, 1909, 10; “South Dakota Vets Carry an Odd Emblem,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 13, 1909, 10; “No Confetti Throwing,” Deseret News, August 14, 1909, 6.

[29] “Flowers for Soldiers,” Deseret News, February 13, 1909, 1; “Flowers for G.A.R. Week,” Deseret News, March 31, 1909, 2; “To Distribute Flower Seed,” Deseret News, April 14, 1909, 5; “New Quarters Now in Shape,” Deseret News, April 15, 1909, 2; “Women to Watch Beds of Flowers,” Inter-mountain Republican, April 16, 1909, 10; “G.A.R. Accommodations,” Deseret News, May 15, 1909, 2; “Flowers Will Be Used Lavishly in Decoration Plan,” Telegram, July 21, 1909, 10; “Final Details of Great Procession,” Telegram, July 22, 1909, 12; “Millions of Flowers Will Be Available for Encampment Use,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 22, 1909, 8; “Decorating Firm Makes Promise,” Deseret News, July 31, 1909, 12; “Flower Committee Issues an Appeal,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 10; “One More Week of Preparation,” Deseret News, August 2, 1909, 2; “Request Flowers for Encampment,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 2, 1909, 2; “Flowers for Encampment,” Telegram, August 2, 1909, 2; “To Receive Flowers Early Next Monday,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 10; “Doors Swing Wide to Welcome G.A.R.,” Deseret News, August 7, 1909, 1; “Flowers for Veterans,” Telegram, August 7, 1909; “Flower Problem Is Becoming Serious,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 3; “Flowers a Plenty,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 2; “Nimble Fingers Busy,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 12.

[30] “Moving Picture of G.A.R.,” Deseret News, July 28, 1909, 3; “‘Bry’ Young Enters Picture Business,” Telegram, July 30, 1909, 5; “Will Make Pictures of the G.A.R. Parade,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 11; “Pictures of Parade,” Telegram, August 2, 1909, 3; “Moving Pictures of G.A.R. Parade to Be Shown All Over Country,” Deseret News, August 14, 1909, 7.

[31] “Lincoln’s Bodyguard is Visitor in City,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 6; “Veterans’ Parade Is 3-3/4 Miles Long,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 1; “Two Left of First Negro Soldiers,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 2; “Veterans of Civil War an Inspiring Parade,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 1; “Humorous Features of Grand Army Pageant,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 2; “Parade Comprises Imposing Spectacle,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 2.

[32] “G.A.R. Living Flag,” Deseret News, June 7, 1909, 5; “Living Flag Plans Under Good Headway,” Deseret News, June 9, 1909, 5; “More Arrangements for Big Living Flag,” Tribune, June 9, 1909, 2; “Work Is Progressing on Great Living Flag,” Tribune, June 25, 1909, 5; “Salt Lake Ladies Assume Big Task,” Telegram, June 26, 1909, 20; “Children to Drill for Living Flag,” Telegram, June 28, 1909, 10; “Captains of Flag Are Getting Busy,” Telegram, June 29, 1909, 3; “Children Are Being Instructed in the ‘Living Flag’ Drill,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 10, 1909, 12; “Auditorium for Living Flag Drill,” Telegram, July 17, 1909, 14; “Change Is Made in the Costuming of Children,” Inter-mountain Republican, July 18, 1909, 10; “Committee Has Big Job on Hands,” Telegram, July 21, 1909, 10; “Dress Parade of G.A.R. Living Flag,” Deseret News, July 22, 1909, 5; “Rehearsals for the G.A.R. Living Flag,” Telegram, July 23, 1909, 6; “Living Flag to Be Big Feature of Encampment,” Telegram, July 24, 1909, 8; “Living Flag Drill Promises Success,” Telegram, July 29, 1909, 10; “Rehearsal Shows Living Flag Drill Will Be Inspiring,” Telegram, July 31, 1909, 16; “Big Living Flag to Be a Success,” Tribune, August 1, 1909, 32; “Living Flag Will Be Great Success,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 1, 1909, 2; “Living Flag Meeting to Be Held Thursday,” Tribune, August 5, 1909, 2; “G.A.R. Encampment Notes,” Tribune, August 6, 1909, 2; “Moving Living Flag,” Telegram, August 7, 1909, 11; “The Living Flag as It Will Appear to the Veterans in Parade Today,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 4; “Veterans’ Parade is 3-3/4 Miles Long,” Telegram, 11 August 1909, 1; “The Living Flag of Salt Lake’s Children,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 5; “Living Flag Stirs Hearts of Veterans,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 1; “Veterans of Civil War in an Inspiring Parade,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 1; “Living Flag Waves Patriotic Welcome,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 2; “Living Flag Joins Grand Army Men,” Christian Science Monitor, August 12, 1909, 1; “Living Flag Should Live, It Is Declared,” Tribune, August 16, 1909, 12; “D. of C. Helped to Drill Living Flag,” Telegram, August 16, 1909, 10; “Nothing But Praise for Salt Lake,” Tribune, August 23, 1909, 2.

[33] “Children of Living Flag Faint in Sun,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 1; “Children Faint from the Heat,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 1; “Living Flag Sings On Amid Ambulance Calls,” Deseret News, August 11, 1909, 2; “Living Flag Waves Patriotic Welcome,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 2; “Sixty Children Are Overcome,” Tribune, August 12, 1909, 3; “Children Faint on Living Flag Stand,” Inter-mountain Republican, August 12, 1909, 1; “Too Busy to Care for the Children,” Deseret News, August 12, 1909, 5; “Great Heat Mars Big G.A.R. Parade,” Chicago Daily Tribune, August 12, 1909, 4; “Like Old War Days,” Fort Wayne (Indiana) Journal-Gazette, August 12, 1909, 1; “Old Sol Puts Veterans Out,” Marion (Ohio) Weekly Star, August 14, 1909.

[34] “Living Flag May Be Put on Friday,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 1; “Living Flag Spectacle Will Again Be Presented to Guests of Salt Lake,” Telegram, August 13, 1909, 1; “Living Flag Is to Be Repeated,” Deseret News, August 13, 1909, 1; “‘Living Flag’ Will March Streets Saturday Evening,” Tribune, August 14, 1909, 3; “Immense Throng Sees Living Flag,” Tribune, August 15, 1909, 32.

[35] Journal of the 43d National Encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic at Salt Lake City, Utah, August 12th13th (G.A.R., 1909). “Business Sessions of Encampment in First Methodist,’ Telegram, August 3, 1909, 9; “Union Ex-Prisoners Meet Next Tuesday,” Telegram, August 4, 1909, 3; “Entertainment Provided for Ex-Prisoners of War,” Tribune, August 4, 1909, 3; “Great G.A.R. Encampment Opens in Earnest Today,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 1; “Thousands of Veterans Invade Salt Lake City,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 1; “Atlantic City Hustling for Next Encampment,” Tribune, August 10, 1909, 3; “Army Nurses Demand Increase in Pensions,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 12; “Prisoners of War Are Meeting Today,” Deseret News, August 10, 1909, 1; “Women’s G.A.R. Camp Scene of Activity,” Deseret News, August 10, 1909, 6; “It Looks Like Van Sant for Commander-in-Chief,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 1; “Women Enjoying Salt Lake Resorts,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 2; “Joyous Reunion Held by Naval Veterans, Tribune, August 11, 1909, 11; “Vansant Slated to Head the G.A.R.,” Idaho Daily Statesman, August 11, 1909, 1; “Day of Pleasure for G.A.R. Ladies,” Telegram, August 11, 1909, 2; “Union Ex-Prisoners of War Assemble,” Tribune, August 11, 1909; “Grand Army Head Is Chief Topic at Salt Lake Today,” Christian Science Monitor, August 11, 1909, 1; “Gettysburg Highway Will Be Considered,” Tribune, August 11, 1909, 8; “Army Nurses Have Session Tuesday,” Tribune, August 12, 1909; “Flying Squadron Lauds Navy in War,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 12; “Proud and Only G.A.R. Auxiliary,” Deseret News, August 12, 1909, 3; “Naval War Veterans,” Deseret News, August 12, 1909, 6; “Makes His Last Report,” Deseret News, August 12, 1909, 1; “Van Sant Leads for the Honor,” Evening Repository (Canton, Ohio), August 12, 1909, 10; “Commander Nevius Reviews Year’s Work,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 1; “Officers of Signal Corps Exhibit Few Relics of Rebellion,” Telegram, August 12 , 1909, 2; “Relief Corps Will Elect President,” Telegram, August 12, 1909, 2; “Horrors of Dixie’s War Prisons Told by Former Inmates,” Telegram, August 12, 1909; “Ladies of G.A.R. Hold Services,” Telegram, August 13, 1909, 1; “Ocean Wins Over Valley,” Deseret News, August 13, 1909, 1; “Gallant Leaders for Ensuing Year,” Deseret News, August 13, 1909, 5; “Veterans to Name Chaplain and Next Convention Today,” Christian Science Monitor, August 13, 1909, 1; “Salt Lake Woman Is Highly Honored,” Tribune, August 14, 1909, 3; “New Officers Are Elected by Women,” Tribune, August 14, 1909, 8; “Closing Session W.R.C.,” Deseret News, August 14, 1909, 5; “Ladies of G.A.R. Elect New Officers,” Deseret News, August 14, 1909, 8; “Big Encampment Is Thing of Past,” Tribune, August 15, 1909, 15; “Col. Sterrett to Direct Atlantic City Encampment,” Telegram, August 20, 1909, 10.

[36] “Old Soldiers Start Out,” Deseret News, August 25, 1908, 2; “Salt Lake Women Served as Nurses in the Civil War,” Deseret News, January 2, 1909, 24; “General Nevius Will Attend Utah Meeting,” Deseret News, April 16, 1909, 8; “Hospitable Welcome for War Time Nurses,” Telegram, August 3, 1909, 3; “Encampment Notes,” Salt Lake Tribune, August 4, 1909, 8; “Grandstands to Be Safely Constructed,” Tribune, August 9, 1909, 3; “Army Nurses Demand Increase in Pensions,” Telegram, August 10, 1909, 12; “Army Nurses Have Session Tuesday,” Salt Lake Tribune, August 11, 1909, 2; “Utah Woman Heads Nurses,” Deseret Evening News, August 12, 1909, 2; “Veterans Elect Commander in Chief,” Idaho Daily Statesman, August 13, 1909, 1; “Army Nurses,” Deseret News, August 13, 1909, 2; “Officers Elected by the Daughters,” Tribune, August 14, 1909, 16; “Resolutions by the Army Nurses,” Herald-Republican, August 26, 1909, 6; “Two Civil War Army Nurses Left a Lasting Legacy in Utah,” Tribune, August 31, 2008.

[37] “Veterans, Farewell!” Deseret News, August 14, 1909, 4; “G.A.R. Entertainment Closes,” Deseret News, August 14, 1909, 3; “G.A.R. Finishes Up All Its Business,” Great Falls (Montana) Daily Tribune, August 14, 1909, 1; “Guests of Zion Leave for Home,” Tribune, August 15, 1909, 32; “Flags Come Down and City Assumes Every Day Aspect,” Telegram, August 16, 1909, 1.

[38] “Corporal Tanner Rebukes Sterrett,” Deseret News, September 9, 1909, 8; “G.A.R. Chaplain Praises Salt Lake,” Deseret News, September 15, 1909, 3.

[39] “Grand Army Veteran Highly Appreciative,” Deseret News, August 25, 1914, 14.