Welcome

  • 2014 BYU Church History Symposium

    Read about the 2014 Church History Symposium.

  • 2014 BYU Easter Conference

    Come to the BYU Easter Conference on April 11, at the JSB Auditorium, on BYU campus at 7:00 p.m. Sister Elaine S. Dalton, former Young Women General President will be the keynote speaker. Lloyd Newell and Kelly Ogden will also be featured. Read more . . .

  • New Book Coming Soon

    This is a gospel-centered “best practices” book for families and their relationships that is founded on prophetic teachings and substantiated by good science. This book will help readers gain new and important insights about their families. LEARN MORE.

Bibliography (121-150)

121 ADAMS, George J.A few plain facts, shewing the folly, wickedness, and imposition of the Rev. Timothy R. Matthews; also a short sketch of the rise, faith, and doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. By George J. Adams, minister of the gospel, Bedford, England.[2 lines]Bedford: Printed by C. B. Merry. 1841

iv[5]–16 pp. 17.5 cm.

Timothy R. Matthews, Joseph Fielding’s brother-in-law, served as an ordained minister of the Church of England and then left the Anglican Church to establish an independent congregation in Bedford. Two weeks after the first elders arrived in England in 1837 (see items 30, 93), Willard Richards and John Goodson went to Bedford with a letter of introduction from Fielding. At first Matthews was friendly to them and opened his building for their preaching. Several of his congregation converted to Mormonism, and Matthews himself agreed to be baptized. Soon after, however, he turned against the Latter-day Saints, baptized himself, and began to teach the necessity of baptism as part of his independent Protestantism. During the next three years he baptized several hundred in the Bedford area, but becoming disillusioned with this congregation, he moved to Northampton in the summer of 1840 and by November had attracted a following there of about one hundred.[303]

George J. Adams went to Northampton on June 9, 1841, and commenced a series of lectures. Immediately Matthews began to speak out against the Saints and distribute anti-Mormon tracts. This prompted Adams to reprint Benjamin Winchester’sOrigin of the Spaulding Story(item 114) and to compileA Few Plain Facts,which he saw through the press between July 2, the date of its preface, and July 19, when he left Bedford for London.[304]

Like all of Adams’s pamphlets,A Few Plain Factsis made up mostly from the works of others. Its preface (pp. [iii]–iv), dated at Bedford, July 2, 1841, is by Adams, as are two pages of questions and answers directed at Matthews (pp. 10–11). The first section (pp. [5]–9), which discusses Matthews’s involvement with the Mormons, is extracted mainly from an article by Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, and Willard Richards in theMillennial Starof April 1841. The “short sketch of the rise, progress, and faith, of the Latter Day Saints” (pp. 12–15) reprints, without credit, the first two-thirds of Parley Pratt’s introduction toLate Persecution(item 64). A concluding paragraph, also supplied by Adams, summarizes the current status of the Church, including an inflated estimate of the total Mormon population of seventy-five thousand.

Flake 16. CtY, MH, MoInRC, NN, US1, US1C.

122 GALLAND, Isaac.Doctor Isaac Galland’s reply to various falsehoods, misstatements and misrepresentations, concerning the Latter-day Saints, reproachfully called Mormons.[Caption title] [Signed and dated at the end:]Isaac Galland. Philadelphia, July 13th, 1841.[Philadelphia? 1841?]

7 pp. 20.5 cm.

In Mormondom, Isaac Galland is usually remembered—probably unjustly—as the promoter who sold the Latter-day Saints land to which he did not hold title. Born in Pennsylvania in 1791, Galland grew up on the Ohio frontier, and at age thirteen studied theology at William and Mary College. About 1810 he and some companions traveled to the southwest in search of gold and ended up spending a year in a Santa Fe jail charged with plotting against the Mexican government. By 1816 he and a second wife had settled in Indiana, where he studied and practiced enough medicine to earn the title “Doctor,” which he carried the rest of his life. After 1820 he moved to Illinois, where he reputedly associated with a gang of horse thieves and counterfeiters. In 1829 he and his third wife crossed the Mississippi to what is now Lee County, Iowa, erected a trading post, and built the first school in Iowa. Five years later he began trafficking in land in Hancock County, Illinois, and in the Half-Breed Tract, a 100,000-acre parcel in the southeast corner of Iowa which Congress reserved for half-breed Sac and Fox Indians. As part of this promotion, he publishedGalland’s Iowa Emigrant: Containing a Map, and General Descriptions of Iowa Territory(Chillicothe, 1840).[305]

Galland first encountered the Mormons in November 1838 as they were evacuating Missouri, and he commenced a series of negotiations which resulted in his selling to them a few acres in Nauvoo and about eighteen thousand acres in Iowa. The following July, Joseph Smith baptized him and ordained him an elder.1In January 1841 Joseph Smith received a revelation (D&C 124:79) which directed Galland to accompany Hyrum Smith to the eastern states to sell stock in the Nauvoo House, collect funds for the temple, and exchange property belonging to eastern Mormons for credit against the interest owing on other purchases of Nauvoo land. Galland and Smith reached Pennsylvania at the end of March; just before he left there late in July, Galland published hisDoctor Isaac Galland’s Reply.He did not, however, return directly to Nauvoo, nor did he make the anticipated interest payment with the funds he had collected in the east. This precipitated an exchange of correspondence between him and Joseph Smith, and marked the beginning of his separation from the Church.1Galland lived in Lee County, Iowa, for most of the remainder of his life. His transactions in Lee County were tied up in litigation until 1856, when a settlement with the New York Land Company brought him $11,000.1In 1849 or 1850 he published a tract dealing with this suit,Villainy Exposed! Being a Minority Report of the Board of Trustees of the DesMoines Land Association Alias “The New York Company”[N.p., n.d.], which drew a vitriolic response from an old enemy David W. Kilbourne,Strictures on Dr. I. Galland’s Pamphlet, Entitled “Villainy Exposed”(Fort Madison, 1850). Two years after his suit was settled, Galland died in Fort Madison, Iowa.

Doctor Isaac Galland’s Replywas prompted by an article in the New YorkJournal of Commerceof June 19, 1841, which quotes a letter from “a highly respectable gentleman residing near the Mormon city [Nauvoo],” whom Galland identifies asD.W.K.—David W. Kilbourne.[306]This letter asserts that about two thousand Mormons, directed by a revelation to Joseph Smith, moved onto properties in the Half Breed Tract without adequate titles. In response Galland prints a letter from Robert Lucas, governor of Iowa, welcoming the Mormons to the territory, and he declares that the Saints do indeed have clear title to their lands. He next reprints and replies to a letter in the PhiladelphiaNorth Americanof June 21, 1841, which talks about certain Mormon doctrines and the Saints’ preparations for war with the Missourians. Galland notes that E. G. Lee’sThe Mormons, or, Knavery Exposed(Philadelphia, 1841) has circulated for a few weeks, and he comments, “It shall be sufficient here to say that all the vulgar abuse and blackguard epithets which that pimp of polite literature, and Knight of the green bag, has vainly attempted to apply to others are much more applicable to himself.” After this utterance he moves smoothly to a discussion of some of the Church’s doctrines, particularly that of an anthropomorphic God.

Flake 3500. US1C.

123 KIMBALL, Heber Chase, and Wilford Woodruff.The word of the Lord to the citizens of Bristol, of every sect and denomination: and to every individual into whose hands it may fall showing forth the plan of salvation, as laid down in the New Testament:namely, faith in our Lord Jesus Christrepentancebaptism for the remission of sinsand the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands. Presented by two of the elders of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints.[Caption title] [Signed on p. 8:]Heber C. Kimbal[sic].Wilford Woodruff.[At foot of p. 8:]Reprinted by James Jones, on the Weir, Bristol.[ 1841?]

8 pp. 17 cm.

124 PRATT, Parley Parker.An address by a minister of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, to the people of England.[Caption title] [Signed on p. 5:]P. P. Pratt.[At foot of p. 8:]Reprinted by James Jones, on the Weir, Bristol.[ 1841?]

8 pp. 17 cm.

The notice of Mormon meetings in Bristol on the last page of item 123 is printed from the same typesetting on page 7 of item 124, indicating that the two tracts were struck off about the same time. Item 124 has a list of publications which includes the second edition of Parley Pratt’sLetter to the Queen(item 120), the second edition ofVoice of Warning,“Second Volume of the Star in Monthly Numbers,” and item 123. So it was published no earlier than July 1841 and probably before the British edition ofVoice of Warning(item 127), which appeared that September.

Textually item 123 is identical toThe Word of the Lord to the Citizens of London(item 101) except for a few changes in capitalization and punctuation.

Item 124 reprints the May 28, 1840 Manchester edition (item 73) with a few changes in punctuation, two spelling changes, and a misprint. It also includes the last six paragraphs of Orson Hyde’sA Timely Warning(pp. 5–6), taken from the 1840 edition (item 81), with a handful of punctuation changes and the change ofsheettobookin the last paragraph. This is followed by the catalogue of LDS publications (pp. 6–7), and Parley Pratt’s poem “When Earth in Bondage Long Had Lain” on the last page.

One might guess that these were issued about August 1841, when Thomas Harris wrote from Bristol that “the work of the Lord is moving onward in that city . . . and many of our publications called for.”[307]At the beginning of the year, Thomas Kington had begun proselytizing in Bristol and had baptized eight by the third week in February (see item 100). Wilford Woodruff traveled from London to Bristol on February 26, 1841, and stayed with Kington for six days. During his visit he baptized one, increasing the Mormon congregation there to fourteen.[308]

Item J23:Flake 4617. CSmH.Item 124:Flake 6556. CSmH.

125 SNOW, Erastus, and Benjamin Winchester.An address to the citizens of Salem and vicinity, by E. Snow & B. Winchester, elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints.[Caption title] [At end:]Salem, Mass. Sept. 9, 1841, [Salem Observer Press.[Salem, 1841]

8 pp. 24 cm. Text in two columns.

126 SNOW, Erastus, and Benjamin Winchester.An address to the citizens of Salem and vicinity, by E. Snow & B. Winchester, elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints. [Second edition.Published for F. Nickerson.][Caption title] [At end:]Boston, Mass. Sept. 13, 1841.[Salem, 1841]

8 pp. 22.5 cm. Text in two columns.

When the Mormon conference convened in Philadelphia on July 6, 1841, Erastus Snow had concluded to wind up his missionary effort in Pennsylvania and New Jersey and return to Nauvoo. At this conference, however, Hyrum Smith and William Law urged him and Benjamin Winchester to move to Salem, Massachusetts, to try to establish the Church there. With some hesitation they agreed to go. For each this mission would be a turning point: Snow would greatly enhance his growing reputation, while Winchester would begin his fall from grace.[309]

Snow and Winchester arrived in Salem on Friday, September 3, 1841, and the next day they rented the Masonic hall and bought a newspaper ad for their first public meeting on Sunday the 5th. Then, with no church members, family, or friends in this unfamiliar city, they turned to the printed word to spread their message. During the week of the 6th they composedAn Address to the Citizens of Salem,which they had printed at the shop ofThe Salem Observer.The tract was out of press by September 18 when Winchester wrote to Joseph Smith.[310]TheTimes and Seasonsreprinted it in its issues of October 15 and November 1, 1841.

Freeman Nickerson, sixty-two years old, a convert of eight years, and a veteran of Zion’s Camp, began proselytizing in Boston on May 30, 1841. In July he participated in a series of public debates with a local cleric Tyler Parsons, which Parsons reported in his tractMormon Fanaticism Exposed(Boston, 1841). These debates advertised Nickerson’s presence in Boston but did not produce converts. Two days before they reached Salem, Snow and Winchester had met Nickerson in Boston, and on Sunday, September 5, Snow returned to Boston to preach. At some point he certainly discussedAn Address to the Citizens of Salemwith Nickerson and agreed to strike off some copies for his use.[311]

Both “editions” ofAn Address to the Citizens of Salemwere printed from the same typesetting and are identical except for the added line[Second Edition.Published for F. Nickerson.]in the caption title of the second issue, different final paragraphs advertising local preaching in Salem or Boston, different dates at the end, and the colophon[Salem Observer Pressin the first issue. Snow’s “Sketch Book” indicates that he had 2,500 copies printed, probably the total of the two issues.[312]

An Address to the Citizens of Salemopens with the declaration that Snow and Winchester intend to preach only the doctrines of the Old and New Testament, that they will not stoop to the use of slander or epithets. The bulk of the pamphlet (pp. 3–8) is a summary of Mormon beliefs taken primarily from Orson Pratt’sRemarkable Visions(item 82), and Parley Pratt’sAn Address to the People of the United States(item 111), which is quoted directly at one point and which undoubtedly suggested the title. In its argument that not all of God’s revelations are in the Bible, it uses Parley’s list of prophetic books referred to but not included in the Bible (see item 80), which Winchester reprinted twice in theGospel Reflector(item 95). The concluding seven paragraphs review the Mormon difficulties in Missouri.

Winchester actually remained in Salem less than two weeks. On September 18 he wrote to Joseph Smith from Philadelphia and asked to be released from the Salem mission because of ill health and financial stress. With the burden of the mission now entirely on his shoulders, Snow persisted with his lectures in the Masonic hall, and on November 8 he baptized his first converts. Four months later he organized the Salem branch, which numbered sixty-two by mid-April.[313]Nickerson’s labors began to bear fruit after the first of the year. On March 9, 1842, he and Snow organized the Boston branch with thirty members, and by the middle of May he had succeeded in building the Boston congregation to nearly fifty.[314]

Both Snow and Nickerson headed west in 1846. Nickerson died at the Chariton River, Iowa, in January 1847. Snow and Orson Pratt were the first of the Mormon pioneers to enter the Salt Lake Valley that July.

Item 125:Flake 8157. MSaE.Item 126:Flake 8158. DLC, MB, MH.

127 PRATT, Parley Parker.A voice of warning, and instruction to all people, or an introduction to the faith and doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints. By Parley P. Pratt.[5 lines]First European from the second American edition.< lang="FR">Manchester: W. Shackle ton & Son, Printers, Ducie-Place, Exchange. 1841.

Parley Pratt reprinted the third edition of hisVoice of Warningfrom the 1839 New York edition (item 62), in 2,500 copies.[315]He included a new preface, dated at Manchester, September 1, 1841, which is close to the date of publication since the new edition was advertised in theMillennial Starof September 1841. This advertisement offered the book, bound in leather, for Is. 9d. each or 18s. per dozen.[316]It is invariably found today in brown blind stamped sheep, the title in gilt on the backstrip. In addition to the new preface (pp. [iii]–v), which precedes the 1839 preface (pp. [vi]–xi), Parley made two significant modifications in this edition. He added some of the history of the Book of Mormon to the fourth chapter, including extracts from Orson Pratt’sRemarkable Visions(item 82) and Oliver Cowdery’s eighth letter to W. W. Phelps in theMessenger and Advocateof October 1835 (see item 197). And in the fifth chapter he eliminated a three-page extract from his poem “The Millennium” (item 21). Five subsequent editions ofVoice of Warningin English were published before Parley’s death in 1857, and at least three dozen thereafter. So the concluding line in the new preface proved especially prophetic: “He, being dead, yet speaketh” (Hebrews 11:4).

Flake 6629. ICHi, NjP, NN, OClWHi, UHi, UPB, US1C, UU, WHi.

128 PAGE, John Edward.Slander refuted. By John E. Page, elder of the Church of Latter-day Saints.[Caption title] [Philadelphia? 1841?]

16 pp. 22.5 cm. Plain green wrappers.

It seems clear that by the spring of 1841, John E. Page had given up any idea of following Orson Hyde to the Holy Land that year (see item 144). In September, from Philadelphia, he wrote an incredulous Joseph Smith of his poverty, while insisting that he intended to meet Hyde in Jerusalem if only he could tarry in the United States and raise funds for the trip.[317]

Exactly when or where Page publishedSlander Refutedis not clear. He mentions his success in selling it in a letter of January 30, 1842.[318]The tract refers to theAnti-Mormon Almanac, for 1842(New York, 1841?), which was noticed in theTimes and Seasonsof August 16, 1841, and on the last page it has a list of books including theGospel Reflectorand the times and locations of the LDS meetings in New York and Philadelphia. Page came to New York from Philadelphia on July 6, 1841, returned to Philadelphia about three weeks later, arrived back in New York by November 29, and went to Pittsburgh late in December.[319]It seems probable, therefore, that he publishedSlander Refutedin Philadelphia in September or October 1841. Page composed the tract in response to theAnti-Mormon Almanac.What aroused him most were extracts from the U. S. Senate report of the testimony at Joseph Smith’s 1838 hearing on a charge of treason before Austin A. King (26th Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Doc. 189). WithSlander Refutedhe hoped to demonstrate that the Latter-day Saints were “a suffering, and as a body, an innocent people.”[320]It is a scissors-and-paste production. Following Page’s introduction (p. [1]), it includes pp. 47–50of An Appeal to the American People(item 79); section 102 of the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants—”Of Governments and Laws in General”; Joel H. Johnson’s poem “A Portrait of the Missouri Mobs” [sic] (item 104); another poem in two parts, the second by Levi Hancock; Parley Pratt’sAn Address to thePeople of the United States(item 111); and section 101 of the Doctrine and Covenants—”On Marriage.”[321]

Flake 6069. CtY, MH, UPB, US1C.

129 SNOW, Lorenzo. [2 lines]The only way to he saved.[1 line]An explanation of the first principles of the doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ,[sic]of Latter-day Saints. By Lorenzo Snow, an American missionary. London: Printed by D. Chalmers, 26, John’s Row, St. Luke’s. 1841.

12 pp. 18.5 cm.

On February 11, 1841, Lorenzo Snow took the train from Birmingham to London, and three days later he assumed the leadership of the London Conference which included the forty-six-member London branch (see item 97). For the next twenty months he would labor in London. During his first year there he would add more than a hundred new members and write the most widely published of all the nineteenth-century Mormon tracts,The Only Way to Be Saved.[322]

Snow’s journal includes a copy of a letter to his parents, dated at London, November 11, 1841, in which he remarks:

I have sent you a tract which I have written and got published I have published four thousand copies. It is expected that annother Edition will be wanted. Tho’ they have been out of the press only a week or two yet they have been mostly spoken for.[323]

His journal also contains the entry: “The year 1842 wrote and published five thousand copies of a tract which I entitled ‘The Only Way to Be Saved’ and circulated this [in] the City and Conference.”[324]No copy of what could be a second edition printed in 1841 or 1842 is extant, and it is not known if there was such an edition. It is possible that initially Snow published 4,000 ofThe Only Way to Be Saved,and then soon after had another 1,000 struck off from the same setting.

Snow’s tract follows Heber C. Kimball’s and Wilford Woodruff’sWord of the Lord to the Citizens of London(item 101) in discussing Mormonism’s first principles: faith in Jesus Christ, repentance from sin, and baptism by immersion and the laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost by someone with authority from God. At the head of the title page it repeats the quotation “He that judgeth a matter before he heareth it, is not wise,” which is included on p. 8 ofWord of the Lord to the Citizens of Londonand at the top of Woodruff’s London handbill (item 88). ButThe Only Way to Be Savedis the more carefully reasoned and persuasive tract, its arguments buttressed with many biblical proof-texts and examples. Like theGospel Reflector(item 95), it marks a small shift away from polemic to a more apologetic form of writing. During the nineteenth century, it was reprinted in English at least twenty times (see items 250–51) and published in Armenian, Bengali, Danish, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Italian, and Swedish.

Flake 8210. CtY, MB, UPB, US1C.

130A collection of sacred hymns, for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Europe. Selected by Brig ham Young, Parley P. Pratt, and John Taylor. Second edition. Manchester: Printed and sold by P. P. Pratt, 47, Oxford Street, and by the agents throughout England. 1841.

336 pp. 10 cm.

On April 3, 1841, in Manchester, seventeen days before Brigham Young and six others of the Twelve sailed for America, the apostles resolved that Parley Pratt could reprint the 1840 hymnal “if he deem it expedient,” but not alter it, “except the typographical errors.”[325]One might infer that they did not want him to enlarge the book with more of his own compositions. Seven months later theMillennial Starannounced that the second edition would “be ready in about 10 or 12 days,” at the same price as the first edition, 2s.[326]

As the Twelve directed, this second edition, published in 1,500 copies, is essentially a faithful reprint of the 1840 hymnbook (item 78)—including the two hymns numbered 52.[327]Apart from some corrected misprints, the only significant alteration occurs with the hymn “Let All the Saints Their Hearts Prepare,” which is printed twice in the 1840 hymnbook as no. 176 and no. 191. The second edition retains “Let All the Saints Their Hearts Prepare” as no. 176, and adds “Farewell All Earthly Honours”—taken from either the Elsworth or Nauvoo book (items 61, 103)—as no. 191. Consequently it contains the texts of 272 songs, numbered 1–271 with two numbered 52 (pp. [51–324). It keeps the 1840 preface (p. [3]) and the index of first lines at the end (pp. [3251–336). It is located in a single copy, once owned by Amos Fielding, bound in dark brown sheep with wide gilt ornamental borders on the front and back covers, four gilt panels and the title in gilt on the backstrip.[328]

Flake 1762a. NcD.

131 [Mormon almanac and Latter Day Saints calendar for the year 1842. Nauvoo? 1841?]

No copy of this is located, nor is it certain that it actually appeared. All that is known about it comes from the following notice in theTimes and Seasonsof November 15, 1841: “Almanac. In press and nearly ready for delivery the Mormon Almanac and Latter Day Saints calendar for the year 1842 published at this office.”

132 MERKLEY, Christopher.A small selection of choice hymns for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. By C. Merkley. Printed for the publisher. 1841.32 pp. 10.5 cm. Plain tan paper wrappers.

Christopher Merkley was born in Ontario, Canada, December 18, 1808. He first came in contact with Mormonism in 1837 and was baptized by John E. Page that July. A year later he immigrated to Missouri, reaching DeWitt just as the anti-Mormon violence was breaking out. That winter he moved on to Lima, Illinois, and then to Nauvoo in the summer of 1840. In June 1841 he began a series of missionary journeys to Canada which, with some breaks, stretched to September 1844. Five years later he made the overland crossing to Utah. Merkley worked in Green River in 1853–54, helped build Fort Supply, labored for the Church in Carson Valley in 1855 and again in 1856–57, and fought in the Indian campaigns during the 1860s. Six years before he died, he published his memoirs,Biography of Christopher Merkley. Written by Himself(Salt Lake City, 1887).[329]

Merkley’sSmall Selection of Choice Hymnsconsists of the texts of nineteen hymns, nine by Parley Pratt. All of its songs are found in the 1840 hymnbook (item 78), and include fifteen in the Nauvoo hymnal (item 103) and ten in the Kirtland book (item 23). Where or exactly when it was printed is not known. But because its various typefaces match those of theTimes and Seasons(e.g., the numeral 2), and its paper resembles that of the Nauvoo hymnal, one might guess that, at some point, Merkley had it printed at theTimes and Seasonsshop for use—perhaps as a fund-raiser—during his Canadian mission.

Flake 5342. US1C.

133 MOSES, Julian.A few remarks in reply to an anonymous scribbler, styling himself “one who hates imposture,” but found to be an imposter himself, and ashamed to tell his name.[2 lines]By Julian Moses. Philadelphia: 1841.

15[1] pp. 25 cm.

Julian Moses joined the Church in Connecticut in 1834 and for the next twelve years traveled the eastern and southern states as a missionary. In the summer of 1847 he made the overland trek to Utah, and three years later went on a mission to the Society Islands. When he returned to Utah, he settled at Mill Creek, where he farmed and served as the justice of the peace. He died on April 12, 1892, one day after his eighty-second birthday. His obituary in theDeseret Evening Newsclaims that he was the first male schoolteacher in Utah Territory.[330]

Moses wroteA Few Remarksin response toMormonism Dissected, or, Knavery “On Two Sticks,” Exposed(Bethania, Lancaster County, Pa.: Printed by Reuben Chambers, 1841)—a seemingly anonymous tract which, according to the title page, was “Composed principally from Notes which were taken from the arguments of Dr. [Adrian Van Bracklin] Orr, in the recent Debate on the Authenticity of the ‘Book of Mormon,’ Between him and E[lisha] H. Davis, Mormon Preacher.”[331]Moses joined Davis’s missionary effort in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in May 1841, and attended the debate between Davis and Orr on August 12 and 15 in Georgetown, near New Holland, assisting in reporting it. Two months later he obtained a copy ofMormonism Dissected,and on October 20 and 21 composed his reply, which he sent to Philadelphia for printing. At the end of November he traveled to Delaware, and when he returned to Lancaster County in January, he learned that Davis and Orr had had another debate, at whichA Few Remarkswas distributed.[332]

The bulk ofMormonism Dissectedbreaks into three parts: an argument that the ruins of North and South America are not evidence for the Book of Mormon; an extract of a letter by Rev. John A. Clark on Mormon origins, originally published in the PhiladelphiaEpiscopal Recorderof September 5, 1840, and reprinted in Clark’sGleanings By the Way(Philadelphia and New York, 1842), pp. 216–31; and a tortuous discussion that Gen. 48:15–19, Gen. 49:22–26, Hosea 11:10, Hosea 8:12, and Ezek. 37:16–19 have no bearing on the Book of Mormon. The first and third parts reply specifically, and vitriolically, to articles by Benjamin Winchester in theGospel Reflector(item 95), so it is not surprising that a response from him or an associate was forthcoming.[333]

Moses took his title from Samuel Bennett’s earlier Philadelphia pamphletA Few Remarks By Way of Reply to an Anonymous Scribbler, Calling Himself a Philanthropist(item 74). Much of his tract is occupied with a lengthy argument that the biblical texts listed above do indeed predict the appearance of the Book of Mormon. At the beginning it quotes Josiah Priest’sAmerican Antiquitiesto show a Hebraic influence among the American Indians, and in an appendix (p. [16]) gives other extracts fromAmerican Antiquitiesalongside quotations from the Book of Mormon to demonstrate similarities between ancient American structures and those described in the Book of Mormon. Throughout, Moses does not hesitate to trade epithet for epithet, as expected of a nineteenth-century religious polemicist.

Flake 5649. CtY, MH, UPB, US1C.

134 THOMPSON, Charles Blancher.Evidences in proof of the Book of Mormon, being a divinely inspired record, written by the forefathers of the natives whom we call Indians, (who are a remnant of the tribe of Joseph,) and hid up in the earth, but come forth in fulfilment of prophesy for the gathering of Israel and the re-establishing of the kingdom of God upon the earth. Together with all the objections commonly urged against it, answered and refutedTo which is added a proclamation and warning to the gentiles who inhabit America. By Charles Thompson, minister of the gospel.[4 lines]Batavia, N.Y. Published by D. D. Waite. 1841

256 pp. 13.5 cm.

Charles B. Thompson was born in Schenectady County, New York, January 27, 1814, and joined the Latter-day Saints in 1835. A year later he was called into the Second Quorum of Seventy, and in the summer of 1838 he traveled to Far West with the Kirtland Camp. On the heels of the Mormon expulsion from Missouri, he returned to his native state to begin a four-year mission. After a dispute with the Twelve in 1846, he separated from the Church and for a year aligned himself with James J. Strang (see items 303, 310). In January 1848 he began his own church, Jehovah’s Presbytery of Zion, which he located at Preparation, Monona County, Iowa, in 1853. The church at Preparation survived five years, until internal dissention brought about its collapse and a decade of litigation. By 1879 Thompson had moved to Philadelphia, where during the 1880s he gathered a small following around him. He died in Philadelphia, February 27, 1895.[334]

Thompson enjoyed considerable success during 1840 in the vicinity of Batavia, New York, baptizing nearly a hundred converts. With such a following, it is not surprising that when he read some of the manuscript ofEvidences in Proof of the Book of Mormonto a conference of the Saints in Batavia in January 1841, they enthusiastically endorsed its publication. On May 10 he secured a copyright.[335]The Batavia conference again took up his book on December 26 and appointed a committee to promote its sale. TheTimes and Seasonsfor January 1, 1842, noted the receipt of a copy and, with considerable approval, printed four pages of extracts.[336]Three years laterThe Prophetadvertised the book at 370 a copy.[337]

Thompson’s book shows the direct influence of Benjamin Winchester’sGospel Reflector(item 95). It consists of two more or less independent parts, preceded by a preface (pp. [3]–5), and followed by three appendices. The first part (pp. [7]–147), titledEvidences in Proof of the Book of Mormon, &c. &c,sets out to demonstrate that God will literally gather Israel from all nations to their own land; that when he does he will establish an ensign or sign, which is a record of the descendents of Joseph who was sold into Egypt; that this record will come from America, which is also the land promised to Joseph’s seed; and that now is the time for this gathering and the ensign is the Book of Mormon. The arguments here are buttressed with many biblical proof texts including, expectedly, Ezek. 37, Gen. 48–49, Hosea 8–11, and Isaiah 28–29, and with quotations from Josiah Priest’sAmerican Antiquitiesand Elias Boudinot’sA Star in the West.

The second part (pp. [149]–89), titledObjections Answered and Refuted,responds to some of the more common criticisms of the Book of Mormon. For example, in reply to the claim that the Bible contains all of God’s word, it lists fourteen prophetic books mentioned in the Bible but not included in it, taken from theGospel Reflector,p. 316. Its refutation of the Spaulding-Rigdon theory is essentially that of Benjamin Winchester’sOrigin of the Spaulding Story(item 77). The first appendix,A Proclamation and Warning to the Gentiles Who Inhabit America(pp. [191 ]–238), consists mostly of quotations from the Book of Mormon. The second (pp. 238–40) contains an acrostic whose initial letters spell “Charles Thompson an elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.” The third appendix (pp. [241]–256) quotes from articles by John Lloyd Stephens in theAlbany Weekly Journalof July 3, 1841, and Frederick Catherwood in the New YorkWeekly Heralddescribing some of the structures they saw in Central America.[338]

Evidences in Proof of the Book of Mormonis usually found in what originally was blue or purple muslin with a printed paper label on the backstrip. Other original bindings include plain blue paper wrappers, plain green paper covered boards with a green cloth back, plain green or gray ribbed cloth, and half or three-quarter brown leather with marbled paper boards.

Flake 8934. CtY, CSmH, CU-B, DLC, ICHi, ICN, MH, MoInRC, NjP, NN, NNUT, OClWHi, TxDaDF, ULA, UPB, US1, US1C, UU, WHi.

135 PRATT, Parley Parker?An epistle of Demetrius, Junior, the silversmith, to the workmen of like occupation, and all others whom it may concern,greeting: showing the best way to preserve our pure religion, & to put down the Latter Day Saints.[At bottom of first column:]Printed by J. Taylor, Smallbrook Street, Birmingham.[ 1841?]

Broadside 37 x 25 cm. Text in three columns, ornamental border.

This editionof An Epistle of Demetriusis textually identical to the Manchester edition (item 92), except for the slight change in the title, the correction of one typographical error, one trivial word-change, and the change ofManchestertoBirminghamin the first paragraph. It retains the phrase “for it is only about 10 years old,” referring to the age of the Church, suggesting that it was printed not too long after the Manchester edition. Printed at the bottom of the second column isPrice One Penny.

The Birmingham Conference saw considerable activity during the year following its organization in March 1841. George J. Adams’s efforts there during October were particularly successful, bringing the expected anti-Mormon attacks.[339]It seems reasonable to conjecture, therefore, that the Birmingham edition ofAn Epistle of Demetriuswas struck off about the time of his visit there.

Flake 2761a. UPB, US1C.

136 SHEARER, Daniel.A key to the Bible.[Caption title, followed by a 26-line preface, signed at end:]Daniel Shearer.[Caption on p. 3:]References to prove the gospel in its fulness, the ushering in of the dispensation of the fulness of times and the latter-day glory. By Daniel Shearer.

[N.p., 1841 ?] 12 pp. 11 cm.

137 SHEARER, Daniel?A key to the Bible.[Caption title, followed by a 24-line preface, signed at end:]The Compiler.[Caption on p. 3:]References to prove the gospel, in its fulness, the ushering in of the dispensation of the fulness of times and the latter day glory.[N.p., 1842?]

12 pp. 15 cm.

Item 136 includes the Philadelphia edition of Lorenzo Barnes’sReferences(item 115), reprinting it exactly except for the addition of three citations, the deletion of three—probably a typographical error, and changes in three citations—again likely typographical errors. It adds a preface on the first page and some sixty prooftexts grouped under five new topical headings: “Showing a General Burning at the Second Advent of the Messiah”; “Prophecies that have been fulfilled literally”; “Prophecies yet to be fulfilled, and we believe literally, the same as the others”; “Free salvation to all”; and “Showing that there is a Devil.”

It was printed no later than 1842. Its “Chronology of Time” at the end includes the phrase “Since Christ, 1841”; and it is reprinted with some modifications in Moses Martin’sTreatise on the Fulness of the Everlasting Gospel(New York, 1842), pp. 60–64 (item 162). Shearer was laboring in Salem, Massachusetts, in January 1842, so he undoubtedly published it in the eastern United States.[340]

Item 137 is clearly a later edition of item 136. Except for half a dozen numerical changes—undoubtedly misprints, it exactly reprints eighteen of the nineteen topical headings of item 136, although in a different order. It also includes the heading “Book of Mormon,” but with additions and deletions, and it adds a twentieth heading “The true mode of Baptism” with nine biblical citations. Like Barnes’s Philadelphia edition, item 136 incorrectly adds the time periods in the “Chronology of Time” to arrive at exactly 6,000 years since the creation. Item 137 lists “Since Christ, 1842” in its “Chronology of Time,” and correctly adds the time periods to obtain 6,007 years. The preface on the first page of item 137, particularly the first paragraph, is rewritten. Why Shearer’s name does not appear on this edition is not known. Perhaps someone else revised his book, just as he had revised Barnes’s, and chose not to take credit for it.

Daniel Shearer was born in Stillwater, New York, August 30, 1791. He was arrested with Joseph Smith in November 1838 but released soon after, and that winter he served as treasurer of the committee which assisted the destitute Missouri Saints to move into Illinois. During the early 1840s he traveled the eastern states as a missionary, and in April 1844 he was called to campaign for Joseph Smith in New York. In 1848 he settled in Kanesville and four years later immigrated to Salt Lake City, where he lived until his death in 1874.[341]

Item 136:Flake 7641. US1C.Item 137:Flake 309. CU-B.

138 PRATT, Parley Parker.Dialogue between a Latter-day Saint and an enquirer after truth. (Reprinted from the Star of January 1.) To which is added, a solemn warning to the Methodists. By one who was formerly a preacher among them. Published by P. P. Pratt, 47, Oxford Street, Manchester, where all publications of the Latter-day Saints may be obtained.[Caption title] [Manchester, 1842]

4 pp. 21 cm. Text in two columns.

The first three and a half pages of this tract, containing the dialogue between Enquirer and Saint, were printed from a rearrangement of the same typesetting used to print the dialogue in theMillennial Starof January 1842. Thomas Smith’sInteresting Letter from Cheltenham,which is dated December 30, 1841, occupies the last half of the fourth page and appears only in the tract. Apparently this letter reached Parley Pratt after the January issue of theStarhad been struck off, and since Smith had asked that his letter be printed and it made an appropriate companion piece for the dialogue, Parley issued the two together in pamphlet form.

Dialoguedirectly attacks the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of England, and especially the Methodist Church, without a specific anti-Mormon work in mind, and thus marks a departure from earlier Mormon publications. Undoubtedly it arose out of the clergy’s continuing anti-Mormon barrage, which theStarof December 1841 comments upon. The dialogue defends immersion as the proper mode of baptism and argues at length against baptizing infants; since the traditional churches erroneously administer this ordinance, it contends, they must be in a state of apostasy. Latter-day Saints avoid these errors, the dialogue concludes, because their doctrines were received by divine revelation. Thomas Smith’s letter describes his conversion from Methodism to Mormonism and warns the Methodists not to “oppose the work of the Lord.”

A dialogue format had been used a few months earlier in theTimes and Seasons(July 1 and 15, 1841) and in theStar(September and October 1841). It would be employed again in theStarin May 1842 and in a number of Mormon tracts after that—one by Parley himself (see, e.g., items 229, 291–93).

Thomas Smith was born in Cheltenham, February 21, 1812. He served as a local Methodist preacher for a year and a half before converting to Mormonism in June 1841. After his conversion he labored as a missionary in Bath and Bristol, presided over the Warwickshire Conference for four years, and then served as a traveling elder in Bedford and Northampton. In 1851 he and his family sailed for America. At St. Joseph, Missouri, en route to Utah, he contracted cholera and died on May 28, 1852.[342]Flake 6567. CtY, MH, UPB, US1C, UU.

139 PRATT, Parley Parker.A voice of warning, and instruction to all people; or, an introduction to the faith and doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints. By P. P. Pratt, minister of the gospel.[4 lines]Third edition, revised. New-York: J. W. Harrison, Printer, 465 Pearl, corner of Chatham-St. 1842.

vi [71–180 pp. 14 cm.

This is a perplexing edition. It is an essentially faithful reprint of the 1839Voice of Warning,but it appears to have been published a few months after Parley Pratt’s revised 1841 edition (see items 38, 62, 127). When he sailed for England in the spring of 1840, Parley left a number of copies of the 1839Voice of Warning,some in sheets, with Lucian R. Foster to sell in the United States. One might guess that when he had sold all of these, Foster got out a new edition, not knowing that Parley had just published one himself.

The opening phrase of its preface (pp. [iii]–vi) is changed fromDuring the last nine yearstoDuring the last eleven years,suggesting it was printed before April 1842. The preface to the 1847 EdinburghVoice of Warningindicates that the five editions preceding it comprise 13,000 copies. Since the total of the 1837, 1839, and 1841 editions is 8,000, it seems likely that the 1842 and 1844 editions were each printed in 2,500 copies.

Foster advertised the book on the back wrapper of Orson Pratt’s 1842Remarkable Visions(item 147) at 37½¢. It is usually found in blue or black embossed cloth, the title in gilt on the backstrip.

Flake 6630. DLC, MH, NN, PHi, UHi, UPB, US1C, UU.

140 Installation, Nauvoo Lodge.[At foot above border:]Printed at the office of the Times and Seasons, Nauvoo.[1842?]

Broadside 30 x 19.5 cm. Text in two columns, ornamental border.

For Hyrum Smith, Heber C. Kimball, Newel K. Whitney, and a number of others in and about Nauvoo, an involvement with Masonry antedated their involvement with Mormonism. On October 15, 1841, Abraham Jonas, grand master of the Grand Lodge of Illinois, granted these men a dispensation for the organization of a lodge of Ancient York Masons in Nauvoo. Two and a half months later they began to meet, with George Miller, worshipful master; Hyrum Smith, senior warden, pro tempore; Lucius N. Scovil, junior warden; John C. Bennett, secretary; Newel K. Whitney, treasurer; and Heber C. Kimball, junior deacon. Jonas was in Nauvoo on March 15 and 16, 1842, and formally installed the Nauvoo Lodge in a public ceremony in the grove near the temple. By this time fifty-seven men had applied for membership including thirty-three charter members. Subsequently Jonas was severely criticized for conducting the installation in public and for making Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon Masons “at Sight.” This early criticism—exacerbated by the rapid growth of Masonry among the Mormons which eventually produced three lodges in Nauvoo and two in Iowa—grew into bitter anti-Mormon feelings among certain Illinois Masons. In October 1843 the anti-Mormon faction prevailed, and the dispensations for the Mormon lodges were withdrawn. Despite the loss of official sanction, these lodges continued to function for more than a year, perhaps in anticipation of the organization of a competing Grand Lodge of Illinois Masonry by Abraham Jonas, and a few of the Nauvoo Masons met from time to time until the Saints began evacuating the city in February 1846 (see items 179, 206).[343]

The usual explanations for the Mormons’ attraction to Masonry involve two conjectures: they embraced Masonry in order to avail themselves of the protection offered by an organization which included some of the leading men of the state, and in the Masonic ritual they saw certain elements they considered compatible with their own priesthood.[344]Abraham Jonas seems to have promoted Mormon lodges in an effort to obtain their support for his bid for the state legislature. Joseph Smith’s role is harder to assess: the printed minutes of the Nauvoo Lodge show that he attended only four of the twenty-six meetings between March 17 and May 6, 1842. These minutes suggest that Hyrum Smith, L. N. Scovil, and John C. Bennett were the early prime movers.[345]

Installation, Nauvoo Lodgeprints the words of two Masonic songs, “Installation Ode” and “The Grand Master’s Song.” It was undoubtedly struck off for use at the installation on March 15–16, 1842.

Flake 4255a. US1C.

141 A facsimile from the Book of Abraham, no. 2.[At foot:][From the Times and Seasons, Vol. 3, No. 10 edited and published by Joseph Smith, in the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, March, 15, 1842.][Nauvoo, 1842]

Broadside 31 x 19.5.

Woodcut followed by text in three columns. In July 1835 Joseph Smith, with some financial help from a number of Kirtland Mormons, purchased from Michael H. Chandler four Egyptian mummies and two papyrus rolls which had been part of a larger group of Egyptian relics collected by Antonio Lebolo, an Italian adventurer and Chandler’s uncle. For several years after, Joseph Smith, W. W. Phelps, Oliver Cowdery, and others worked at translating the papyri, producing a number of manuscripts now in the LDS Church archives including “Grammar and Alphabet of the Egyptian Language” and “Book of Abraham Mss.” Finally, in March and May 1842, Joseph Smith published the “Book of Abraham” in theTimes and Seasons,and theMillennial Starrepublished it that July and August.[346]

The text of the “Book of Abraham” appears in theTimes and Seasonsfor March 1 and March 15, 1842, prefaced by the statement, “A Translation Of some ancient Records that have fallen into our hands, from the Catecombs of Egypt, purporting to be the writings of Abraham, while he was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own hand, upon papyrus.” Each issue includes “A fac-simile from the Book of Abraham,” and a third facsimile is printed on the first page of the issue for May 16, 1842. Reuben Hedlock made the wood engravings for these, and his name appears at the right-hand edge of the second facsimile: “Eng. by R. Hedlock.”[347]

Facsimile No. 2 represents a hypocephalus, the original of which is no longer extant. The LDS Church’s Egyptian manuscripts include a drawing of the original which suggests that pieces of it were missing and were filled in by Joseph Smith and Hedlock with characters from the other papyri.[348]This facsimile, 19 cm. in diameter, is printed together with explanatory text in three columns on a folded sheet inserted in the March 15, 1842, issue of theTimes and Seasons.Item 133 was printed from the same setting with the added lineI From the Times and Seasons, Vol. 3, No. 10 edited and published by Joseph Smith, in the City of’Nauvoo, Illinois, March, 15, 1842.]at the bottom. The facsimile was reprinted, from a different cut, on a folded sheet inserted in vol. 19 of theMillennial Star.

Franklin D. Richards included the “Book of Abraham,” with the three facsimiles, in the Pearl of Great Price (Liverpool, 1851). In 1880 the LDS Church canonized the Pearl of Great Price as one of its four “standard works.”

Emma Smith sold the mummies and the papyri to a Mr. A. Combs in May 1856, and eventually fragments of the papyri went to Combs’s housekeeper’s daughter whose husband sold them to the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1947.[349]Twenty years later the Museum gave eleven fragments—including the originals of the first and third facsimiles—to the LDS Church. A twelfth fragment has existed among the LDS Church’s Egyptian manuscripts for many years. About every fifty years the controversy over Joseph Smith’s interpretation of the facsimiles erupts anew. In 1860 Jules Remy, who had visited Salt Lake City five years before, showed the Pearl of Great Price facsimiles to Theodule Deveria, a scholar in the Louvre, who pronounced them funereal pieces. Remy then published Deveria’s translations in hisJourney to Great Salt Lake City(London, 1861).[350]This approach was used again in 1912 by Franklin S. Spalding, the Episcopal bishop of Utah. Spalding sent the Pearl of Great Price plates to the world’s leading Egyptologists, who, while disagreeing among themselves, were unanimous that Joseph Smith was wrong; and he printed their statements in hisJoseph Smith, Jr., as a Translator(Salt Lake City, 1912).[351]Needless to say the gift of the eleven fragments by the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1967 precipitated another flurry of scholarly and non-scholarly effusions.[352]

Flake 3289a. US1C.

142 An epistle of the Twelve, to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, in its various branches and conferences in Europe, greeting:[Signed at end:]Brigham Young, Pres’t. Heber C. Kimball, William Smith, Orson Pratt, John E. Page, Lyman Wight, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, George A. Smith, W. Richards, Clerk. To Elder Parley P. Pratt, or the Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in England. City of Nauvoo, Hancock county Illinois, March 20, 1842.[Nauvoo, 1842]

Broadside 47.5 x 30.5 cm. Text in four columns.

This broadside marks the emerging role of the Quorum of the Twelve in the temporal affairs of the Church. It is a separate printing of their epistle in theTimes and Seasonsof April 1, 1842, struck off from a rearrangement of the same setting, with a few trivial corrections. The immediate impetus for it was a revelation to Joseph Smith of December 22, 1841, included in the epistle, which directs John Snyder—spelledSniderin the broadside—to “take a mission to the Eastern Continent” with “a package of Epistles that shall be written by my servants, the Twelve, making known unto them [the Saints] their duties concerning the building of my houses.” But the larger issue was the financial crises facing the Mormons in the spring of 1842.

In 1840 British converts began to gather to Nauvoo. Before the close of 1842 almost three thousand, most of whom were poor, immigrated to the city and to an economy that was unable to support them.[353]Joseph Smith was elected sole “Trustee- in Trust” for the Church in January 1841, and that month the Latter-day Saints took upon themselves the massive task of building the Nauvoo Temple and the Nauvoo House—the “houses” mentioned in the revelation. On August 10, in a meeting with Brigham Young and four others of the Twelve, Joseph Smith charged the Twelve “to take the burthen of the business of the Church in Nauvoo”; six days later in general conference he announced that “the time had come when the Twelve should be called upon to stand in their place next to the First Presidency, and attend to the settling of emigrants and the business of the Church at the stakes.” At the end of the month the Twelve resolved to place all church properties in Joseph Smith’s name as trustee-in trust, thereby distinguishing his personal holdings from those of the Church. In February 1842 the new federal bankruptcy act took effect. Four weeks afterAn Epistle of the Twelvewas issued, Joseph Smith and a number of Mormons filed affidavits of insolvency.[354]

The heart of the epistle involves two proposals. The first, contained in the revelation, urges the British Saints to contribute to the temple and Nauvoo House. The second outlines a plan to ease the cost of the Mormon emigration from England. Under this scheme the British Saints would send cloth and manufactured goods to Nauvoo, with payment eventually to be made in Nauvoo property; and the proceeds from the sale of the goods would be used to bring the British immigrants to Nauvoo. Although this plan was never implemented, it undoubtedly remained in the minds of some and helped spawn the British and American Commercial Joint Stock Company three years later, an enterprise that all but brought the British Mission to its knees (see item 273).

John Snyder was one of the Canadian elders who accompanied Heber C. Kimball and Orson Hyde on the first English mission (see items 30, 35, 93). Born in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, February 11, 1800, he converted to Mormonism in Toronto in 1836. In 1850 he immigrated to Utah and settled in Salt Lake City, where he died, December 19, 1875.[355]

Snyder had been designated one of the committee charged with building the Nauvoo House in January 1841 (D&C 124:60–62). Directed by the revelation of December 22, 1841, but with some reluctance, he left Nauvoo for England on March 26, 1842. In June he reached Liverpool, and in company with Parley P. Pratt, he immediately began visiting the various branches. That month theMillennial Starcarried the text of the epistle. Four months later Snyder returned to the United States with a company of Mormon immigrants.[356]

Flake 1503. US1C.

143 PRATT, Parley Parker?An epistle of Demetrius, Junior, the silversmith, to the workmen of like occupation, and all others whom it may concern,greeting: showing the best way to preserve our craft, and to put down the Latter Day Saints.[At bottom of third column:](Printed for Elder E. P. Maginn.)[Peterborough, New Hampshire? 1842?]

Broadside 36.5 x 24 cm. Text in three columns, ornamental border.

Two features of this edition ofAn Epistle of Demetriusallow a guess at the place and date of printing:Manchesterhas been replaced byAmericain the first paragraph, and the reference to the age of the Church has been changed fromabout 10toabout 12years—suggesting, of course, that it is an 1842 American imprint.

Eli P. Maginn gained some notoriety in the early 1840s because of his skill as a preacher. An Englishman, born about 1819, he seems to have joined the Church in Canada in 1837 and thereafter worked in Canada and the eastern United States as a missionary. He labored in the vicinity of Peterborough, New Hampshire, from 1841 to 1843, and succeeded in raising up seven branches of the Church. By May 18, 1842, he was a member of one of the quorums of seventy, and on July 29, 1843, was sustained as the presiding elder in Boston, Lowell, and Peterborough. Six weeks later he participated in a conference in Boston with Brigham Young and some of the Twelve, and then he dropped from sight. No mention of him occurs in the records of the LDS Church or RLDS Church after November 1843.[357]

On March 22, 1842, from Salem, Massachusetts, Maginn wrote of his activities to Joseph Smith and remarked:

I feel to rejoice in the prosperity of the work of the God of the Saints, which is truly prosperous in New England, the engine of eternal truth has been called into successful opposition against the crafts, and systems of“The like occupation,”and notwithstanding the contest has been exceeding fierce, the enemy being active in the usual way with falsehood, and misrepresentation, the victory is the Lord’s.[358]

The references tocraftsandlike occupationsuggest Maginn hadAn Epistle of Demetriusin mind when he wrote this letter, so it seems likely he published the broadside about the same time.

This edition was reprinted from the Manchester edition (item 92). The two are textually the same—including an obvious typographical error—except for three trifling changes in addition to those mentioned above.

Flake 2761b. UPB, US1C.

144 HYDE, Orson.A voice from Jerusalem, or a sketch of the travels and ministry of Elder Orson Hyde, missionary of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, to Germany, Constantinople, and Jerusalem, containing a description of Mount Zion, the Pool of Si loam, and other ancient places, and some account of the manners and customs of the east, as illustrative of scripture texts, with a sketch of several interviews and conversations with Jews’[sic]missionaries, etc., with a variety of information on the present state of that and other countries with regard to coming events and the restoration of Israel. Compiled from his late letters and documents, the last of which bears date at Bavaria, on the Danube, Jan. 18, 1842. Liverpool: Published by P. P. Pratt, Star Office, 36, Chapel Street. Printed by James and Woodburn, 14, Hanover Street.[1842]

v[6]–36 pp. 18 cm. Lavender or yellow printed wrappers.

The genesis of Orson Hyde’s mission dates to 1832, when Joseph Smith predicted that Hyde would visit the Holy Land and “be a watchman unto the house of Israel.” Eight years later Hyde reported having a vision in which he was directed to visit London, Amsterdam, Constantinople, and Jerusalem in anticipation of the return of the Jews to Palestine. This drew an official call at the April 6, 1840, conference for him to visit these four cities and communicate his findings to the Saints. Two days later John E. Page was called to be his companion, and on April 15 Hyde left Nauvoo for the east coast (see items 79, 128). In February 1841 he sailed for England without Page, and alone he traveled through Europe and the Middle East, returning to Nauvoo in December 1842.[359]

From Trieste, Hyde sent Parley Pratt a long letter addressed to the Twelve, dated January 1, 1842, together with a note asking him to publish the letter in pamphlet form. In this way he hoped to meet his obligation to inform the Saints as well as raise some money to support himself and his family during his mission. At the end of January Orson sent Parley a second letter, dated at Trieste, January 17, and addressed to the brethren and sisters in Nauvoo, with a second note, dated at Regensburg, January 30, urging him to publish the two letters. In response, Parley announced in theMillennial Starfor March 1842 his intention to issue Hyde’s letters in pamphlet form, and the next month theStarnoted that the book was out of press and for sale at fourpence each. Parley later reported that the edition was 3,000.[360]

A Voice from Jerusalemincludes the two letters from Trieste; the two notes; a third letter dated at Alexandria, November 22, 1841; a fourth dated at Jaffa, October 20, 1841; an introduction (pp. [iii]–v) describing the origin and purpose of Hyde’s mission, taken from the second editionof An Appeal to the American People(item 79); and, at the end, what seems to be a non-Mormon poem, “The Gathering of Israel. By Mrs. Tinsley. (From the Monthly Chronicle for April.).” Letter I contains the bulk of Hyde’s description of the Holy Land as well as an amusing report of his encounter with the Christian missionaries there. Letter III includes his prayer for the return of the Jews to Jerusalem offered on the Mount of Olives, Sunday, October 24, 1841.

The phrase in the title,the last of which hears date at Bavaria, on the Danube, Jan. 18, 1842,is a bit baffling since Hyde’s second note to Parley Pratt is dated January 30, 1842, and none of the letters is dated January 18. However, in theStarof March 1842 Parley reports having “lately received two lengthy and highly interesting communications from Elder Orson Hyde, dated at Trieste, Jan. 1st. and 18th, containing a sketch of his voyages and travels in the East.” So it is possible that the date “January 17” on the second letter is a misprint.

An excerpt of Hyde’s letter of January 1, 1842, is included in theStarof March 1842 and reprinted in theTimes and Seasonsof June 1. The rest of this letter is printed in theTimes and Seasonsof July 15, 1842. His letter of November 22, 1841, and an extract from the letter of October 20, 1841, are in theMillennial Starof January 1842 and theTimes and Seasons ofApril 1, 1842. In addition, ten other Hyde letters written during his mission, or summaries, appear in these two magazines:Times and Seasons1:116–17, 156–57; 2:204–5, 482–83, 551–55, 570–73; 3:776–77;Millennial Star1:306–9; 2:93; 3:96.

A Voice from Jerusalemwas issued in lavender or yellow wrappers, with the title page reprinted within an ornamental border on the front and an advertisement for books for sale at theMillennial Staroffice on the back.

Flake 4175. CSmH, CtY, CU-B, DLC, MH, UHi, UPB, US1C, UU.

145 HYDE, Orson.A voice from Jerusalem, or a sketch of the travels and ministry of Elder Orson Hyde, missionary of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, to Germany, Constantinople and Jerusalem, containing a description of Mount Zion,the Pool ofSiloam, and other ancient places, and some account of the manners and customs of the east, as illustrative of scripture texts, with a sketch of several interviews and conversations with Jews, missionaries, etc., with a variety of information on the present state of that and other countries with regard to coming events and the restoration of Israel. Compiled from his late letters and documents the last of which bears date at Bavaria, January 18, 1842. Boston: Printed by Albert Morgan, No. 6 State-Street, (4th Story.) 1842.

v[6]–36 pp. 18 cm. Yellow printed wrappers.

Item 145 is a faithful reprint of the Liverpool edition (the preceding item), published by George J. Adams, who must have felt some identification with Hyde’s mission because of traveling with him to England in the winter of 1841 (see item 114). In March 1842 Parley Pratt wrote to Joseph Smith that he was printing Hyde’s letters and would send him a copy to be republished in Nauvoo.[361]Item 145 undoubtedly served as this American edition. Its title page is reprinted on the front wrapper, within an ornamental border, with the phraseBoston: Printed by Albert Morgan, No. 6 State-Street, (4th Story.)replaced byPublished by P. P. Pratt, Liverpool, Eng. Re-published by G. J. Adams, Boston, Mass.The verso of the back wrapper contains Parley’s hymn “The Morning Breaks, the Shadows Flee” within a different ornamental border.

Flake 4176. CtY, CU-B, DLC, MH, NN, ULA, UPB, US1C.

146 PRATT, Parley Parker.Mormonism unveiled: Zion ‘s Watchman unmasked and its editor, Mr. La Roy Sunderland, exposed: truth vindicated. The Devil mad, and priestcraft in danger!!! By P. P. Pratt, minister of the gospel.[2 lines]Fourth edition. New-York: Joseph W. Harrison, Printer, 465 Pearl, corner of Chatham-Street. 1842.

47[1] pp. 15.5 cm. Tan printed wrappers.

Technically this is the third edition ofMormonism Unveiled: Zion’s Watchman Unmasked(see items 45–47, 48). A note on p. 45, dated at New York, April 1842, indicates that it was issued in response to further anti-Mormon attacks by La Roy Sunderland, undoubtedly a reference to Sunderland’s second tractMormonism Exposed: In Which is Shown the Monstrous Imposture, the Blasphemy, and the Wicked Tendency, of That Enormous Delusion, Advocated by a Professedly Religious Sect, Calling Themselves “Latter Day Saints”(New York: Printed and Published at the Office of the N.Y. Watchman, 1842). Although the opening pages are similar, this tract is different from Sunderland’s 1838 eight-part article inZion’s Watchman,or the pamphlet reprintMormonism Exposed and Refuted(New York, 1838), to whichMormonism Unveiled: Zion’s Watchman Unmaskedactually responds. Apparently the leaders of the Church in New York felt that with Parley Pratt out of the country, no better counterattack to Sunderland’s second tract could be marshalled than a reprint of Parley’s original response. In Boston, a new convert John Hardy would also reply to Sunderland’s second tract (see item 153).

The 1842 edition is a faithful reprint of the second or third issue of the 1838 New York edition, except for minor changes in capitalization and punctuation, and one significant omission. Following the assertion “there will not be an unbelieving Gentile upon this continent 50 years hence,” the 1838 edition (pp. 15–16) directs a prediction to Sunderland:

And furthermore, as Mr. LaRoy Sunderland has lied concerning the truth of Heaven, the fulness of the Gospel; and has blasphemed against the word of God, except he speedily repent, and acknowledge his lying and wickedness, and obey the message of eternal truth, which God has sent for the salvation of his people. God will smite him dumb, that he can no longer speak great swelling words against the Lord; and a trembling shall seize his nerves, that he shall not be able to write; and Zion’s Watchman shall cease to be published abroad, and its lies shall no longer deceive the public; and he will wander a vagabond on the earth, until sudden destruction shall overtake him; and if Mr. La Roy Sunderland enquires, when shall these things be? 1 reply, it is nigh thee—even at thy doors; and I say this in the name of Jesus Christ. Amen.

This is deleted in the 1842 edition. But perhaps its publisher—undoubtedly Lucian R. Foster—was a bit too cautious: within the year Sunderland seceded from the Methodist Episcopal Church over slavery and helped organize the Wesleyan Methodist Connection, thus terminating theWatchman,and a few years later he renounced Christianity altogether.[362]

This edition was issued in tan wrappers with the following printed on the front within an ornamental border:Pratt’s Reply to La Roy Sunderland. 4th Edition. New-York: J. W. Harrison, Printer, No. 465 Pearl-Street.It was advertised on the back wrapper of the 1842 edition of Orson Pratt’sRemarkable Visions(next item) at l2½¢. Two years laterThe Prophetdropped the price to 100 each or $6 per hundred.[363]

Flake 6614. CtY, MoInRC, US1C

147 PRATT, Orson.An interesting account of several remarkable visions, and of the late discovery of ancient American records. By O. Pratt, minister of the gospel. [Third American edition.] New-York: Joseph W. Harrison, Printer, No. 465 Pearl- Street. 1842.

36 pp. 17 cm. Tan printed wrappers.

It is not known exactly when the 1842 edition ofRemarkable Visionswas published. The back wrapper includes an advertisement for “P. P. Pratt’s reply to La Roy Sunderland. Price,YlVicents,” suggesting it was printed after item 146. One might guess that Lucian R. Foster published these two pieces about the same time.

Its text is an exact reprint of the second American edition (item 110), including two misprints. But the body of the pamphlet does not include the poems “The Morning Star” and “Israel’s Redemption” which appear on the last two pages of the first and second American editions. Originally it was issued in tan printed wrappers with the following wrapper title within an ornamental border:An interesting accountof several remarkable visions, and of the late discovery of ancient American records, which unfold the history of this continent from the earliest ages after the flood, to the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era. With a sketch of the rise, faith, and doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. By O. Pratt, minister of the gospel.[2lines]Price, ten cents single, or six dollars per hundred.The recto of the back wrapper contains the poems “Israel’s Redemption,” and “The Happy Day Has Rolled On”—taken from the back wrapper of the first or second American edition. The verso of the back wrapper advertises “Mormon Books, for sale by L. R. Foster, New-York.” At the end of 1845 theNew-York Messengerwas still advertisingRemarkable Visions,at 100 a copy.[364]

Flake 6504. CSmH, CtY, CU-B, MoInRC, NN, UHi, UPB, US1C.

148 The Wasp.Nauvoo: April 16, 1842–April 26, 1843.

1 v. (52 nos. in [208] pp.) 44 cm.

Ebenezer Robinson and Don Carlos Smith hoped to publish a weekly newspaper reporting local and national news as early as April 1840, when they printed a prospectus in theTimes and SeasonsforThe News,which would “be devoted to Literature, Arts and Sciences” and “take perfectly neutral ground, in regard to politics.” Within eight months, however, they abandoned this plan for want of sufficient subscribers. The following June they ran a second prospectus forThe Nauvoo Ensign and Zarahemla Standardto be issued weekly both in Nauvoo and in Zarahemla, Lee County, Iowa. “In its prosecution,” they promised, “the editor will not descend to thelow scurrilityand personal abuse, resorted to by many of the Journals of the day”—a clear reference to Thomas C. Sharp’sWarsaw Signal.ButThe Nauvoo Ensigntoo was doomed to a stillbirth, and Robinson announced in theTimes and Seasonsof November 1, 1841, that the death of his partner Don Carlos Smith and his own financial pressures had caused him to give up the project.[365]

Then on April 16, 1842, ten weeks after Joseph Smith and the Twelve bought out Ebenezer Robinson,The Waspappeared without warning. It was a four-column weekly, at an annual subscription of $1.50 “invariably in advance.” Its first thirtynine numbers (April 16, 1842–January 28, 1843) issued on Saturdays, with two lapses: it skipped the week of August 6, 1842, and the two weeks of November 19 and 26. The last thirteen numbers (February 1–April 26, 1843) appeared on successive Wednesdays, without a lapse.

In each of the first five issues, its editor, William Smith, Joseph Smith’s younger brother, broke with the promises of the earlier prospectuses, as well as his own prospectus, as he commented on local politics and excoriated his journalistic adversary Thomas C. Sharp—whom he referred to as Thom-ASS and who, in turn, referred toThe Waspas thePole Cat.[366]William’s vulgarity obviously drew some criticism, for the fourth number ran an “Apology” in which he defensively explained, “when we allude to Sharp, we consider that we are replying to the whole Anti-Mormon rabble.” After the fifth number, Sharp was hardly mentioned again. For most of its lifeThe Waspfollowed a format which would be continued by its successor, theNauvoo Neighbor,printing articles from other papers, national and local news, the deliberations of the Nauvoo city council, poems, fiction, legal notices, and local advertisements.

The Wasplists William Smith as the editor for the first thirty-one numbers (April 16–December 3, 1842). Thereafter it gives John Taylor as the editor and Taylor and Wilford Woodruff as the printers and publishers (December 10, 1842–April 26, 1843). But one might guess that Taylor guidedThe Waspafter the first few issues. Indeed William Smith referred to himself as “thenominaleditor” in the October 8 issue (no. 25) when he announced that he would leave the paper in order to assume his seat in the state legislature. In November 1842, Taylor and Woodruff assumed the full responsibility for theTimes and Seasons, The Wasp,and the Nauvoo print shop, and in January 1844 Taylor bought the shop outright (see item 60).

It seems clear thatThe Waspwas helped into existence by the unremitting anti-Mormon stance of theWarsaw Signal,which turned offensive toward the Mormons in June 1841 as it began to promote an anti-Mormon political party. It is also tempting to conjecture that William Smith’s political ambitions were another factor in the paper’s birth. The second issue comments on an anti-Mormon mass meeting called for May 30, 1842, at Carthage, to select candidates for the upcoming election in August. And slates of pro-Mormon candidates are given in the eighth, ninth, and thirteenth issues, none of which includes William Smith’s name. But the fourteenth issue (July 16) announces Smith’s candidacy for the state senate, and the next (July 23) prints a Democratic ticket which includes him as a candidate for one of the two Hancock County seats in the Illinois house of representatives. He and all the other local candidates endorsed by the Mormons easily won their races, but curiouslyThe Waspdoes not print the Hancock County returns. These are published in theSignalfor August 13, 1842.

Besides the August election, three stories dominate the newspaper. The first is the fall from grace of John C. Bennett (see items 156–57), which begins with the notice in the sixth issue of his resignation as mayor of Nauvoo. The second, beginning in the seventeenth number, is the attempt by the state of Missouri to extradite Joseph Smith as an accessory in the attempted murder of Lilburn W. Boggs (see item 168). The third is the Illinois legislature’s effort to repeal the Nauvoo charter (see item 154). William Smith’s speech before the House in support of the charter is printed in the thirty-seventh issue.

The Waspfor April 5, 1843 (no. 49) carries a prospectus for theNauvoo Neighbor(item 175) which would succeed it after its fifty-second number. Enlarged to twice the size and bearing a more conciliatory name, it too would be edited by John Taylor and published at theTimes and Seasonsoffice by Taylor and Woodruff.

Flake 9625. CtY, UPB[11 nos.], US1C.

149 Rank roll of the Nauvoo Legion.[Nauvoo? 1842?]

Broadside 38 x 3 I cm. Text in two columns.

The Nauvoo Legion came into being by virtue of the Nauvoocily charter (item 154), which authorized the city council to organize the citizenry into a “body of independent military mem” and the ordinance passed by the city council on Lebruary 3. 1841, which implemented this provision of the charter. John C. Bennett (see items 154, 156–57) seems to have been a principal in its organization, and for fifteen months he was second in command, a major general, and the Legion’s chief administrative officer—as well as mayor of Nauvoo.[367]

Although technically a part of the Illinois state militia, the Legion was for practical purposes an independent military unit. The city charter specified that it was subject to the call of the mayor to enforce city laws. (At this time the charter of Quincy, Illinois, also authorized the mayor to call out the militia in case of riot or lo enforce a city ordinance.) Unique to the Legion was a “court martial.” consisting of all the commissioned officers, with extensive law making powers (see item 200). The city ordinance of February 3, 1841, further empowered the “court martial” to nominate officers for original commissions and promotions, another departure from the usual military practice. Unique also were some of the terms defining the organization: the “Legion” was divided into two “cohorts,” each commanded by a brigadier general; the cohorts were divided into regiments, the regiments into companies, and so on. The commanding officer of the Legion carried the rank of lieutenant general, a rank not permanently held by any other U.S. military officer up to that time except George Washington.[368]

Rank Roll of the Nauvoo Legionis clearly a Nauvoo imprint. It lists 209 officers—a virtual “who’s who” in Nauvoo in 1842—beginning with Joseph Smith, the only lieutenant general, and ending with twenty-seven third lieutenants. Each entry consists of an officer’s name, his responsibility, the date of his commission, and his designation as a staff or line officer. For example, under “Captains”: “Edward I lunter. Herald, & Armor Bearer, Sept 9th 1841—staff.” The earliest commissions are Joseph Smith’s and John C. Bennett’s, February 5. 1841; the latest are dated May 6, 1842. Since Bennett was excommunicated from the Church on May 11, 1842, resigned as mayor of Nauvoo on the 17th, and was openly disaffected by the end of June, it would seem this broadside was printed no earlier than May 6 and no later than the first of July.[369]It was probably struck off for the Legion’s parade and review on May 7, which was witnessed by Stephen A. Douglas and other dignitaries.[370]

Flake 5723. CtY, ICHi, UPB, US1C.

150 PR ATT, Parley Parker.The world turned upside down, or heaven on earth. The material universe is eternal. -Immortal man has flesh and hones.Earth is his everlasting inheritance.To this hear all the prophets and apostles witness. The physical worlds were not formed for annihilation, hut for the pleasure of Cod they are and were created. BY P. P. Pratt. Published at the Millennial Star Office, 36,Chapel-Street, Liverpool, and sold by the booksellers. Printed by James and Woodburn, 14, Hanover-Street.[1842)

iv[5]–25 pp. 18 cm. Yellow printed wrappers.

This pamphlet reprints Parley Pratt’s essay “The Regeneration and Eternal Duration of Matter” in hisMillennium and Other Poems(item 63). Parley published it in an edition of 3,000 and first advertised it in theMillennial Starof May 1842 at a price of 2d.[371]This advertisement claims that the reissue was “corrected and revised,” but it is the same as the first printing except for a rearranging and slight rewriting of the opening paragraphs and a half-dozen trifling changes throughout the rest of the essay. The tract was issued in yellow wrappers, the title page reprinted within an ornamental border on the front.

Flake 6713. CtY, MH, MoInRC, NN, UHi, UPB, US1C, UU.